Impact Of ICT On Advertising Practice In Nigeria (A Case Study Of A Media House; Splash FM 105.5 Ibadan)
Developments in the history of human communication, often called, ‘the information society’, and have transformed the way many people work in the media and entertainment industries. This study examined how modern communication technology facilitates the practice of broadcasting. Attention was focused in particular on the application and adoption of ICT, it cost effectiveness as well as its impact on the social relationship between the broadcast advertising of different hierarchy.
The survey method was adopted in order to sample the opinion of the subjects for the study. It consisted of a structured questionnaire which was used as an instrument to collect both qualitative and quantitative data of Splash FM 105.5 Ibadan, the sole object of the study. A purposive sampling technique was adopted to get respondents that are directly involved in advertising, from the organization of study. However, they were randomly selected to ensure that every respondent from the different levels of the specified department has equal chance of being selected for the study. Data were presented in tables (frequency and computation of simple percentages) and were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics, finding revealed a 100% application and utilization of ICT facilities investigated. Findings have proven that broadcast advertising are likely to expedite business with the use of appropriate ICT facilities. Poor power supply, limitation in terms of internet advert, preference of radio jingle to internet advert by the populace as well as high cost of ICT technology and internet advert have constituted to the major challenges affecting the use of internet advertisement in Nigeria.
1.1 Background of the Study
Advertisement strategies and improvement have been advancing. As defined by Kotler, advertisement as a form of marketing is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and freely exchanging products and services of value with others. Marketing and advertising is a business section that focuses on the practical application of marketing techniques and the management of a company’s marketing resources and activities. Marketing and sales manager are often responsible for influencing the level, timing, and composition of customer demand in a way that will achieve the company’s objectives (Kotler 2000, 8).Marketing management involves choosing the target market, which has to be maintained through creating, delivering and communicating customer value. In this regard marketing management is quite broad and defines all the activities a company uses to acquire customers and manage relationship with them. Additionally, the Kotler definition involves both the development of new products and services and their delivery to customers. (Kotler & Keller2005, 45).The developing and use of the internet on a global scale has created opportunities for end users, sellers and producers to communicate online and hence no physical movement required.
However, Internet marketing as a form of contemporary means of advertisement combines creative and technical aspects of the Internet, including design, development, advertising, and sales. Internet marketing does not simply entail building or promoting a website, nor does it mean placing a banner advertisement on another website. Effective Internet marketing requires a comprehensive strategy that synergizes a given company’s business model and sales objectives with its website function and appearance, focusing on its target market through proper choice of advertising type, media, and design (Combe 2006, 118).
However, ICT has had several effects on journalism and media profession, with some of them seen as advantages while others as disadvantages. Developments in the history of human communication, often called, ‘the information society’, and have transformed the way many men and women work in the media and entertainment industries”. These points, to the fact that ICT has brought about significant changes in the journalism and media vocation.ICT has led to the generation of more and well researched news. With the coming of mobile phones, you can call your news sources at any time and get news and moreover well-balanced and researched news.
When it comes to the Internet, news and program backgrounders are always available (Mugira,2007). It was observed that, ICT has led to the generation of more and well researched news. With the coming of mobile phones, you can call your news sources at any time and get news and moreover well-balanced and researched news. When it comes to the Internet, news and program backgrounders are always available.
Further research by Mugira (2007) reveals that the Internet has surely transformed the newsroom to greater heights. It is important to note that this comes as a result of globalization and it is also a cause of globalization in one way. Ulla Carlsson (2005:204), argues that, “The development of innovative information technologies and the ongoing processes of deregulation and concentration of ownership, have spurred the pace of globalization especially communications satellites and digitalization-not least the Internet-have had an enormous impact”.
Realistically, ICT has made reporters, editors and other news contributors closer. It has created a ‘network ‘that leaves reporters and editors in close contacts at any time. The editor can at any time call the reporter who is situated in any place, as long as there is telephone network there, and get a story from him/her. Likewise, reporters file stories at any given time via the Internet. A Zambian web development specialist KundaChinyantaMwila, while speaking in an interview RAP 21, about the future of ICT and Africa. Stated that, “Mobile and satellite telephones and general improvement of landlines, have made it possible for newspapers to get stories from a reporter stationed anywhere.” No matter where a reporter is stationed, he/she is always connected and close to the newsroom. This happens with our radio station -Radio West, whereby we get some stories from correspondents using phones while others e-mail stories to us. This in turn is cheap because not much money is wasted on transportation fares of the reporter from the field and back to his duty station. Mwila in his interview with RAP 21, drives this point home when he states, “Once fully adopted and adapted, the ICT will transform the newsrooms into cabled and networked centres with all journalists discharging stories on to a network, editors picking them before sending them to the page designers or casters in the case of electronic media.”
Think of a situation where a story that happens in far countries like Iraq and is read on remote/ rural radio stations in Nigeria. How could it reach a remote-stationed media house with in a short time? With ICT, this has been solved. You just go to websites that offer news services and get the story. Such stories are later used by media houses as foreign news stories. I know situations where editors tune to transnational media companies such as CNN, BBC radio and TV and get news for their listeners. Such news is always called foreign news. This in the end makes a news bulletins interesting with rich information not only based on the local scene, but the world over. This draws attention to the fact that ICT has standardized the quality of sound being broadcast, a thing that helps media house to earn more audience and in turn improve the level of advertisement.
On the other side ICT has caused unemployment in the journalism profession, as Wilson (2005:58) says those who cannot operate ‘machines’ have been left behind. One is compelled to go for further training or lose a job. Take an example where DJs have to use computers while broadcasting live if he / she does not know how to operate it automatically he/ she loses such a job. This has led to misery rather than good living.
Lastly competition for news and programs from other media houses has been intensified by ICT. The weak media houses have fallen out of the system. With ICT, audience is faced with alternatives and those media houses that can offer better services are the ones with a lot of audience. This has led to collapse of some media houses especially following the unfair competition which involves transnational media houses situated in developed nations and especially in the developing countries where the usage of internet has been limited to news reporting and coverage rather than exploring the usage of internet in advertising of business products. This study intends to examine impact of ICT usage in improving advertisement strategies in selected media houses.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Despite the high level of Internet and ICT development in the country, the nation’s electronic media organisations still lag behind their counterparts in other parts of the world in the area of internet and ICT utilisation.
A recent independent survey carried out by Fact Bound Research in February 2012, a member of the MMCC Group (Media and Marketing Communications Company), revealed a dismal low level of Internet and ICT utilisation by broadcast organisations in Nigeria, in spite of the growth the sector has witnessed over the years in the country.
The research revealed that as low as 31 per cent of broadcast houses in Nigeria have websites and over 70 per cent of their staff did not have access to company email services, while only 49 per cent of the staff have access to or can use computer. Also, an online web research of the remaining 31 per cent of stations that have a website shows that the websites are not interactive and functional. This show that even with the level of internet usage by most media houses, many of them have not been able to integrate this usage for advertisement marketing, which could make them reach their audience at a wider range. With the continuous development in ICT especially in media and advertisement, it is not an understatement to assert that internet advertisement will replace the conventional means of marketing especially in this world of global village. It is against this backdrop that this study is aimed at examining the impact of ICT usage in improving advertising strategy in selected media houses in Ibadan metropolis.
1.3 Purpose of the Study.
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of ICT usage in improving advertising strategy in selected media houses.
This study is aimed at achieving the following objectives:
- To examine the level of ICT utilization in selected media houses in Ibadan metropolis
- To identify the various form of internet advertisement used by the selected radio houses
- To identify challenges faced as a result of ICT advertisement utilisation by the media houses.
1.4 Research Questions
- What extent is ICT utilized in selected media house in Ibadan metropolis?
- What forms of internet Advertisement is used by the selected media House?
- What are the challenges faced as a result of ICT advertisement Utilisation by the media houses?
1.5 Significance of Study
The research study will be of great significance to the boosting of internet advertisement at most media houses in Ibadan metropolis. This is because the study report will highlight and explain the impact of ICT on marketing services, which will be of importance towards guiding the media houses on how to integrate advertising strategies with information technology and contribute towards realization of high sales turnover.
The study is of significance to media companies that operate in Nigeria since they also experience similar marketing problems especially with the use of internet. This will help the media companies to clearly understand the prevailing challenges in the current marketing environment and guide them on how to design their services to distinguish them from those of other firms in the target market.
Similarly, this study is of significance to project managers who coordinate the implementation of various information and communication technology (ICT) projects. By highlighting the effects of IT on marketing, project managers will be made aware of the nature of IT challenges and this will influence application of effective IT programmes that influence delivery of quality advertisement services. The study will facilitate the project managers to adopt proactive measures that enhance effective implementation of information technology project in organizations.
The study is of significance to students and future scholars since it acts as a source of knowledge about the problems facing the use of IT on marketing of communication services. This will contribute towards equipping many students with more knowledge and skills on the benefits associated with effective use of IT basically in media profession. Future researchers and scholars will find the study material useful in their studies since they will have a ready source of literature review .The study report will act as reference and stimulate interest among academicians and this will encourage further research about the problem and solutions, thereby facilitating effective application of information technology on marketing of communication, advertisement and journalistic practices services.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study examine the impact of ICT usage in improving advertising strategies in selected media houses in Ibadan metropolis, however this study will only be limited to Splash FM media house in Ibadan that utilize ICT in disseminating their programs.
1.7 Definitions of Terms
It is the promotion of a company’s products and services carried out primarily to drive up sales of the products and services.
Which means information and communication technology refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunication
Is a station (radio or television) where information are being transmitted to a large audience simultaneously
Is the act of collecting and editing news for presentation through the media
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter contains the summary of research findings, conclusion, recommendation and suggestion for future findings or research. This chapter also explains the implication of research finding based on the outline of the data collected
5.1 Summary of Findings
The findings reveal that the male dominates the media houses, even though the media work is exclusively reserved for the women. The gender inequality has hampered their involvement in broadcasting. Further analysis also showed that women work more as duty continuity announcer, newscasters etc than being involved in decision making.
The result also reveals that people within the age range of 31-50 years dominated working force in mass media. This age group included the married and unmarried. Due to the level of their education with about 71.6%, more than 85% of the staff of Splash 105.5 FM are ICT literate. As the total percentage for ICT utilization is 50%, while medium is 38.5%.
Further analysis also reveals that most of the ICT facilities used on splash FM are digital and not analogue. The use digital facilities/equipment enhances communication broadcast.
The major form of social media network used by Splash FM in advertising as revealed by the study are facebook and twitter, being the most widely used social media network by people. As revealed by the study, the major challenges faced by the mass media in using the internet to advertise includes: poor power supply, high cost of advertisement, and preference of conventional means of advertisement.
Based on the problem identified from the study, the following recommendations are put forward Mass media houses should develop strategy that can attract the public to advertise on world wide web.
Most of the mass media should be integrated to mass to digital advertising rather than the conventional method.
Policy should also be developed by media houses to put most of the programs on the internet, so that more audience can be attracted. Once people listen to a program on the radio it is a form of advertisement.
The telecommunication sector in Nigeria should aid the mass media organization in achieving the internet advertising by providing the necessary support by making available different subscription packages at affordable rate, just as it is done in advance countries of the world. It is important to assert that internet advertisement will reduce pollution of aesthetic environment as people will stop posting bills, flyers and banners both on the walls and streets.
Conclusively, it must be important to assert that with the increase in population and advancement in internet technology, internet advertisement will be acceptable by all business ventures as it remains the only formidable way of getting ones products or services advertise through any electronic communication device.
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