Impact Of Hereditary And Environment On Education Of School Pupils Among Primary Schools Teachers And Pupils In Borgu, Niger State Nigeria

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Impact Of Hereditary And Environment On Education Of School Pupils Among Primary Schools Teachers And Pupils In Borgu, Niger State Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of hereditary and environment on education of school pupils among primary schools teachers and pupils in Borgu, Niger State, Nigeria. The study was carried out to determine whether there is a significant relationship between hereditary and primary school pupils’ academic performance, examine the influence of parental genes on academic performance of primary school pupils, ascertain whether hereditary has a significant influence on the intelligence level of primary school pupils and identify the environmental factors which influences pupils academic performance. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of primary school teachers in Borgu Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool SPSS v23.The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between hereditary and primary school pupils’ academic performance. The study also revealed that the environmental factors which influences pupils academic performance includes: conduciveness of home environment, family size, parental attitude and availability of learning materials. Therefore, it is recommended that the ministry of education and vocational training (MOEVT) should support programs in educating parents, teachers, and society at large about the influence of home environment on students’ academic performance in secondary schools. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is the most valuable legacy a nation can leave to its population, particularly its children. This is due to the importance of education in the development of any nation or community. Education is the process of passing on what is valuable to members of society (Okafor, 2001). Education encompasses all of the individual’s experiences that lead to the acquisition of information and the enlightenment of the mind. According to Nwabachili & Egbue (1993), education is what passes from one generation to the next. In this context, education refers to the process of socializing a kid to become a productive member of society using informal, formal, and non-formal means. Informal education is the process of learning about the surroundings and beyond by living together. Formal education, according to Nwabachili & Egbue (1993), is an intentionally organized method of socialization in a formal context such as school. They emphasized that non-formal education encompasses all systematic programs and processes of education and training that take place outside of the official education context. All of these types of education are impossible to achieve without the support of the family.

The child’s first social environment is his or her family. According to Clifford (2012), the child’s primary environment is his or her family. The author underlined that a child’s intellectual achievement is more likely to be increased or decreased by his or her familial environment. According to Akubue & Okolo (2008), a family is a tiny kinship structured group with the primary role of natural socialization of the new born. Similarly, Okunniyi (2004) defines family as a major social group consisting of parents, children, and possibly additional members of the household.

All of the situations and circumstances in the family that influence the child physically, mentally, and emotionally are referred to as the child’s family background (Muola 2010). Children from varied family backgrounds are influenced differently by such family settings, which is why some children come from a good family background while others come from a bad family background. Eke (1999), citing fleege, observed that in some families, the backdrop method varies from time to time for the same individuals.

As a result, formal education remains the vehicle for human development, which must begin in the home. Families are classified into several types. According to Anderson & Taylor (2000), the major categories of families include: traditional families–where the father is the primary breadwinner and the mother stays at home to raise children; divorced families–families that have been reconstituted following the dissolution of marriage; single parent families–typically headed by women; and step families–with new siblings and new parents resulting from re-marriage.

According to Rouse & Barrow (2006), pupils from less disadvantaged homes had higher average test scores and were more likely to have never been held back a grade than pupils from more disadvantaged families. They did, however, point out that it was unclear to reflect the causal effect of family backgrounds on the child’s educational achievement, which created a gap that this study sought to fill by determining the influence of family backgrounds on the pupils’ academic performance. Furthermore, McIntosh (2008) stated in his study that in Canada, children from low-income households with divorced or separated parents performed better than average if they came from homes with good attitudes and significant support for their children. Another study on Children and Youth in Canada conducted by Ryan (2000) found that family background characteristics, parental support, and teacher support all had a substantial effect on a child’s educational attainment.

The school environment is an important component to consider when determining a child’s ability to learn. The nature of the teaching process and its outcomes, which may or may not be fruitful in reaching the targeted educational goals and objectives, is influenced by the school environment. The efficacy of the many environmental conditions to which the system’s components are susceptible determines the efficiency of a school system in attaining its organizational objectives. According to Oluchukwu (2000) and Ajayi (2001), the school environment, which includes the classroom, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, the quality of teachers, school management, teaching methods, classmates, and so on, is a variable that influences pupils’ academic achievement. As a result, the school environment remains an important area that should be handled and thoroughly researched in order to improve pupils’ academic performance. The quality of education is reliant not only on instructors and their fulfillment of their duties, but also on the successful coordination of the school environment (Ajao, 2001).

Stewart (2000) defined school environment as an atmospheric environment created by the occupants of the school, seen differently according on their rank within the institution, but impacting all and communicating to observe. According to Thomas (2010), the school environment is defined as the overall conditions prevailing throughout the school as observed by pupils, instructors, and principals. It is the organizational aspects of the school as a community, according to him. Interpersonal relationships, decision making, communication structure, sensitivity to teacher difficulties, attitudes, values, and morals of the entire school are among these qualities. Non-availability of school facilities such as chairs, tables, a good library, teaching aids, textbooks, and so on, school location, school size and class size, dilapidated building, and poor indoor ventilation are some of the environmental factors that work against pupils’ academic performance in economics. According to Evans & Matiu (2001), this factor may be affecting children’s physical health because the dilapidated building has been found to exhibit clear signs of sensory irritation, skin rashes, and mental fatigue, all of which have been found capable of reducing pupils’ ability to perform very well (Ogbeifum & Olisa, 2001).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Poor academic performance at the primary level, particularly in the terminal stage, has been a major issue in the education sector. Every year, following the yearly release of results, the public’s dissatisfaction grows since pupils’ performance do not match the government and parental investment (Ogbeifum & Olisa, 2001). All stakeholders are worried about why the system produces graduates with bad outcomes. According to Ogunsaju (2004), the academic standard in all Nigerian educational institutions has fallen far below social standards. The diverse influences of family history, environment, and inadequate teaching on pupils are among the reasons for this downward trend in student accomplishment. This research is looking into the relationship between student achievement and family background, poor school environment (including problems with student-teacher ratios, school location, school population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures in classrooms).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine the impact of heredity and environment on education of school pupils among primary schools teachers and pupils in Borgu, Niger State Nigeria. Specifically but not limited to, other objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine whether there is a significant relationship between hereditary and primary school pupils’ academic performance.
  2. To examine the influence of parental genes on academic performance of primary school pupils.
  3. To ascertain whether hereditary has a significant influence on the intelligence level of primary school pupils.
  4. To identify the environmental factors which influences pupils academic performance.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions which are in line with the objectives of this study will be answered:

  1. Is there a significant relationship between hereditary and primary school pupils’ academic performance?
  2. Does parental genes have a significant influence on academic performance of primary school pupils?
  3. Does hereditary have a significant influence on the intelligence level of primary school pupils?
  4. What are the environmental factors which influences pupils academic performance?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will validate this study:

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between hereditary and primary school pupils’ academic performance.

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between environmental factors and primary school pupils’ academic performance.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study are significant because they can help provide empirical information in identifying and explaining the numerous family hereditary characteristics and their influence on students’ academic achievement.

This study’s findings will be valuable to the following people: instructors, students, parents, school guidance counselors, Parents Teachers Association (PTA), educational administrators, and the general public.

This study’s findings will be extremely beneficial to teachers. Teachers will recognize the importance of individualizing their teaching by tailoring their teaching techniques and instructional materials to accommodate the students’ diverse family hereditary.

This strategy may produce more positive results than the standard system, which presume that all children come from similar families. The study’s findings will also assist teachers in exercising tolerance with slow learners as they change instructional strategies to accommodate varied family backgrounds.

Finally, this study will be beneficial to scholars and researchers as it will serve as an existing material for further studies and future references.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the impact of heredity and environment on education of school pupils among primary schools teachers and pupils in Borgu Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. The respondents for this study will be obtained among primary school teachers in Borgu Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria.


1.8 Limitation of Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Impact:

A marked effect or influence

Environment:

Refers to the set of relationships that occur among members of a community that are determined by structural, personal, and functional factors of the educational institution, which provide distinctiveness to schools
Academic performance: is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of hereditary and environment on education of school pupils among primary schools teachers and pupils in Borgu, Niger State, Nigeria. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the impact of hereditary and environment on education of school pupils among primary schools teachers and pupils in Borgu, Niger State, Nigeria. The study is was specifically carried out to determine whether there is a significant relationship between hereditary and primary school pupils’ academic performance, examine the influence of parental genes on academic performance of primary school pupils, ascertain whether hereditary has a significant influence on the intelligence level of primary school pupils and identify the environmental factors which influences pupils academic performance.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were primary school teachers in Borgu Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There is a significant relationship between hereditary and primary school pupils’ academic performance.
  2. Parental genes has a significant influence on academic performance of primary school pupils.
  3. Hereditary has a significant influence on the intelligence level of primary school pupils.
  4. The environmental factors which influences pupils academic performance includes: conduciveness of home environment, family size, parental attitude and availability of learning materials.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Experts in Genetics should be enlisted to help build more vibrant, dynamic and practicable curriculum that will make education more enjoyable to students.
  2. There is a necessity to focus on individual aspects of young people in order to understand why they differ in their academic achievement and how they can be helped to unfold their full potential.
  3. Parents should improve home environment like home structure, home furniture, supply of electric power, teaching and learning materials to motivate students.
  4. The ministry of education and vocational training (moevt) should support programs in educating parents, teachers, and society at large about the influence of home environment on students’ academic performance in secondary schools.

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