The Impact Of Guidance And Counseling Services On Students Academic Performance And Career Choice In Selected Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Guidance and Counselling

The Impact Of Guidance And Counseling Services On Students Academic Performance And Career Choice In Selected Secondary Schools


The research was undertaken to justify the effectiveness or otherwise of counseling services in sokoto metropolis, the research method used in this research is descriptive survey research method. The population of this research consists of students of secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis these schools consist of boarding, day and private schools. The samples of four (4) schools were selected within Sokoto metropolis and the sample of fifty (50) students were collected from each school to represent the population, the procedure used in this research was random sampling techniques.

The instrument used for this research was questionnaire and the method used for analyzing data is simple percentage. Major finding of this research is that, most of the female students aspire for medical profession, we equally find out that the level of education of parents has considerably increased, this has influenced the students to aspire for higher education. We also find out that parents have no direct influence on the career choice of students. It was recommended that students shall be properly guided in making the right career choice by the authorities concerned and more female students shall be encouraged to aspire for medical profession especially in the northern Nigeria. We also recommend that school authorities shall organize various guidance and counseling activates in school resources persons shall be made to give lectures in various profession especially to final year students.

Table of Content

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

According to Melvin (2019), secondary school education is the engine room of knowledge acquisition, a stage at which students come in contact with various subjects, which determine the field of study they will like to pursue in higher schools secondary school education is kind of level after the primary education and before higher education. Its position in educational system also speaks of its importance. Schwarzeller (2014) see school as that which provides an outside view of what needs to happen in order for change to occur and also an equal opportunity for developing capabilities and talents.

Education reforms Nigeria always have the secondary schools as main focus. In fact, it is viewed as powerful stage for knowledge, skill and experience acquisition as well as a wide range of career prospects for young boys and girls (Ezekwesil, 2015).

It is systems that is targeted towards strengthening secondary school education and provide students with more practical knowledge that can make them self-reliant after graduation. Kutara (2017) opines that, individual differences exist among people; this has an effect on who the individuals are and what they are capable of doing. What an individual does is sometimes variance with his ability, aptitude capability and interest. Individual differences in the rate of growth, intellect, school achievement sex usually set the pace where students look at themselves in career orientation. But such factors as home, the school, the mosque, church and the community for very vital factors in the students’ environment, thus, influencing their career choice or aspirations. Other factors like parental expectation, big salary, societal prestige, personal security, good rapport with friends, changes for advancement as well as the nature of the work itself have directly or indirectly lured most student who are about to leave school into making unrealistic career choice.

Career as used in the field of counseling has a broad and technical meaning. Technically, it refers to sequence of role or a position including works, leisure and educational pursuit that may encompass a number of occupations, vocations or jobs one engages in during his working life (Seligman, 2018). According to the international Encyclopedia Britannica (2012) career is job for which it is possible to advance during their working life, so that they may get greater responsibility and earn more money.

Career can also be said to be the total life long experience of work that has come to serve as his means of earning a livelihood (Kolo, 2013). The career choice previously was not as difficult as it is today. There were fewer job opportunities and more importantly, parents, teachers and religious bodies were aware of the existing opportunities as well as requirements for entry into them. Today, the situation the dame for the fact that secondary school students hardly have full knowledge of the requirement for each job and can no longer keep track with the numerous career opportunities, it is against this background that the guidance and counseling was introduced in order to assist the secondary students in choosing a career.

Guidance and counseling is helping profession which is concerned with molding, reconstructing and rehabilitating a trouble person. It is a self- revealing relationship and both preventive and curative of maladaptive behavior. It is globally accepted that, guidance and counseling activities are for human beings, those with or without problems, normal and abnormal.

The establishment of modern guidance and counseling in secondary schools in Nigeria however, rest on the realization of the need for more sophisticated and integrated package to help individual satisfy their problems and concerns of presents day living.

Okon (2016) defined guidance as total programme of a number highly specialized activities implemented by specialist to help individual make wise and intelligent choice and decisions, counseling on the other hand, has been defined by Makinde (2019) as a service designed to help an individual analyze himself by capabilities, achievements, interest mode of adjustment towards what new decision he has made or has make.

Therefore, since guidance and counseling is a profession, for effective counseling to take place it must involves the application of basic principles for effective helping. These however, include the principle of understanding, sequential process; appreciate self-disclosure and observance of ethics. Their applications not only make counseling effective but also add to the specialist of the counseling relationship.
For guidance to be meaningful, it, must be seen as a series of programmed activities which help the normal school child to know himself/herself as an individual, become more aware of his/her person, experience his/her world and those people he/she relate with it is a dynamic process which undergoes continuous change over time as it is not a single event but a series of events, steps or action which are geared towards the general development of the individual. Hence, guidance and counseling play a vital role in the career choice of the students.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Most schools in Nigeria run programmes that are deficient in diversification to cater for all career choice of students. In these schools, most of the students are lefty unguided either because their schools have no guidance and counseling services or the nature is not up to standard, students are prone to making unwise career choice or no choice at all because there is no counselor to guide them, until after schooling.

Choice of subjects and course as a result of lack of sufficient information. A part from this problem, there is a conflict between the student’s freedoms of occupation and not only that of the nation’s manpower needs, but also the conflicts between the students’ choices, the parents’ choice and friend’s advice.

The fact that secondary school students cannot make realistic career plans is a serious problem and this research work will equally look at the problem associated with guidance and counseling, career choice and aspirations of these levels of students considering the fact that guidance and counseling has implication on their choice and aspiration, which career choice has serious consequences on their future and by extension the society at large.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objectives of this study is to investigate into the impact of guidance and counseling, career choice and its effects on student academic performance in the area of study.

The specific objectives include:

  1. To justify the effectiveness or other wise of counseling services in schools under review.
  2. To find out the roles of guidance and counseling to the students’ academic performance of then schools under review.
  3. To identify the career choice of the students in secondary schools of the study area.
  4. To investigate the effects of career choice on the future of the secondary school students in the area under review.
  5. To explore the factors influencing the career choice of secondary school students in Sokoto metropolis.

1.4 Research Question

This research is an attempt to answer the following questions:

  1. What are the roles of guidance and counseling services in students academic performance of the area under review?
  2. What roles do guidance and counseling services play in career choice of secondary school students of the schools under review?
  3. Is there need to improve guidance and counseling services in the area under review.
  4. What are career choices of the students in the school under study?
  5. Do parents and occupational status influences the career of their children?
  6. What are those factors that influence secondary school students’ career choice in the area of study?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho1: Guidance and counseling has no positive impact on the career choice of secondary school students
  • Ho2: Guidance and counseling has no positive impact on the academic performance of secondary school students

1.6 Significance of the Study

Naturally decision-making is very important, it is the hardest thing to make in life. Youths are usually the people concerned with choosing careers, which may hopefully be helped by guidance and counseling officers.

The study will help to solve the conflicts that exist between parents and students in the area of career choice.

The research is essential to parents, students, community and government because it will reveal the areas of weakness in the guidance profession and reasons why students should have good performance and careers if they are well counseled.

This research will equally inform management of schools under study of the importance of guidance and counseling services in schools.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to examine the impact of guidance and counseling, career choice and its effects on student academic performance in Sokoto metropolis. The study will however delve into the effectiveness or other wise of counseling services in schools under review, the roles of guidance and counseling to the students’ academic performance of then schools under review, the career choice of the students in secondary schools of the study area, investigate the effects of career choice on the future of the secondary school students in the area under review, and explore the factors influencing the career choice of secondary school students in Sokoto metropolis.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.

However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.

1.9 Definition of Terms


An intervention is an orchestrated attempt by one or many people – usually family and friends – to get someone to seek professional help with an addiction or some kind of traumatic event or crisis, or other serious problem


A career is an individual’s journey through learning, work and other aspects of life. There are a number of ways to define a career and the term is used in a variety of ways.


help and advice about how to do something or about how to deal with problems connected with your work, education, or personal relationship.

Guidance Counsellors:

A school counselor is a counselor and an educator who works in primary (elementary and middle) schools and/or secondary schools to provide academic, career, college access/affordability/admission, and social-emotional competencies to all students through a school counseling program.


Meaning to grow up which is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood (age of majority).

1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.0 Introduction

This chapter presents the conclusions and recommendations of the findings for the research.

5.1 Summary

This research is derided into five chapter,

  1. Chapter one contain background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance of the study, scope and delimitation.
  2. Chapter two is review of relate literature where we look at the various works done by other scholars which are directly or indirectly related to this work.
  3. Chapter three is research methodology which presents populations of the study, sample and sampling techniques, method of data collection, reliability of the instrument, validity of the instrument and administration of the instrument.
  4. Chapter four contains presentation and analysis of data, summary of the major findings and discussion of findings.
  5. Chapter five entails summary, conclusion and recommendation.

5.2 Conclusion

It has been established in this study that science and medical professions were more sought careers by the students. In this aspect, even the female students are not left out at all. There is no much differences between careers sought for, by female and male students. This development as earlier pointed out is a welcomed one especially in the area where this study had been conducted. It was also observed that most of the student choose their careers base on personal interest and ability.

Furthermore, students aspire for careers different for that of their parents which means that with the necessary from parents, school authority, society, and government students will do well in their chosen career.

The researchers have seen a good prospect for student in senior secondary schools in the area of job acquisition.

5.3 Recommendations

As a country Nigeria is blessed with children that possesses diverse ability .it is the responsibility of the country to harness these talents. One of the ways of harnessing these talents is through qualitative education because no nation can rise above the quality and strength of it is educational system, great economy demands great education systems. It is in the realization of these needs that the following suggestion and recommendations are made.

  1. Students shall be properly guided in making the right careers choice by the authorities concerned. Qualified teachers should be employed to teach the students in other for them to make their dreams a reality .
  2. More female students should be encouraged to aspire for careers in medical profession especially in the northern Nigeria. this is very important because the female gender will be more disposed and comfortable to confide her problems in a female doctor or nurse
  3. Selection of students to read\study science subject shall be based on merit and not gender.
  4. The government, school authority and the other stakeholders should provide funds to adequately equipped the existing laboratories.
  5. The confidence reposed on schools by parents can be reinforced by the improvement of guidance and counseling activities through:
    1. Effective and functional guidance and counseling unit in the school
    2. Improved Incentives to career masters in terms of guidance, personal welfare, imposed physical working condition, constant supply of information materials, related to career in order to broaden the search for career opportunities and to allow the guidance masters to guide the student honestly.
    3. Sponsoring for in-service training and workshop should made to guidance and counseling masters to broaden their knowledge of new career opportunities in the society.
    4. School management should organized various guidance and counseling activities in the schools, resource persons shall be made to give lectures in various profession especially to final year students.
    5. Parents should cooperate with the school and guidance teachers who are acquainted with the children’s’ performance and capabilities to assist them to select appropriate career without gender bias.
    6. School shall supervise these students and ensure that relevant subjects are taught in schools without gender inequality.
    7. The perception of existing domination of science and the related careers by males should be discarded from the mind of the female students, this is very important to female student indigene of sokoto metropolis and the state at large as it will make them more ready for the competition.

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