Impact Of Guidance And Counseling Services On Students Psycho Academic Adjustment And Academic Performance In Secondary School

Project and Seminar Material for Guidance and Counselling

Impact Of Guidance And Counseling Services On Students Psycho Academic Adjustment And Academic Performance In Secondary School


Abstract


The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of guidance and counseling services on students psycho academic adjustment and academic performance in secondary school in Rivers State. Three research objectives and research questions were raised using descriptive survey for the study. The population of the study was all the teacher counsellors and students in PH city. A sample size of 339 were used using simple random sampling techniques and census for teacher counselors. . A 4-point rating scale of Very High Extent (VHE), High Extent (HE), Low Extent (LH) and Very Low Extent (VI.F) was used and the respondents were requested to select one of the four (4) options. Test-re-test method was used for the reliability test which yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.76 using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) formula. The instrument was validated by the researcher supervisor in Guidance and Counselling in Educational foundations two other experts in Measurement and Evaluation. The mean and standard deviation was used in analyzing the research questions while the z-test was used in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of this stud}’ revealed that Guidance and Counselling Services has an influence on students’ compliance to rules and regulation, school social environment, motivation to learn, and adaptation to physical school environment. Based on the findings, the study recommended among others that Ministry of Education should develop a training programme for guidance and counseling teachers in secondary schools through in-service training and Guidance and Counselling programme should be strengthened in order to improve the pyscho academic adjustments and performance of secondary schools in Rivers State.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the study

Education is one of the leading instruments for promoting economic development as it encompasses some processes individuals go through to help them develop and utilize their potentials (Adeyemi and Adu, 2010).

Guidance plays very important role in removing the educational, personal, social, mental, emotional and other similar problems of the students. Guidance as a term refers to a broad area of educational activities and services aimed at assisting individuals in making and carrying out adequate plans leading to achievement of desired life, Gibson, 2008. Counselling is a process designed to help clients understand and clarify personal views of their life space, and to learn to reach their self-determined goals through meaningful, well-informed choices and a resolution of problems of an emotional or interpersonal nature. It believes that every human individual has the potential for self-growth, self-development and selfactualization. Many people have blamed the banning of the cane for the escalating eases of the school unrests. Counseling is also a method of behavior change.

Counselling makes a student feel closer to the teacher thereby establishing friendly relationship. The student has the freedom to express him or herself and realize the consequences of his or her misbehaviour, in the process posi1ive discipline is ensured. Counselling is the skilled and principled use of relationships that self-knowledge, emotional acceptance lead to personal growth. It is more concerned with addressing and resolving specific problems such as making decisions, coping with crises, working through feelings and inner conflicts or improving relationships with others.

Counselling service is a face to face interaction between the counsellor and the students, through which students are assisted towards overcoming obstacles to their academic, vocational, personal-social progress and other life needs. Placement service is concerned with assisting students to adjust to the next stage of development whether in school or on the job. Orientation service is designed to familiarize fresh students with their environment. It is a process of initiating an individual to a work or learning situation and of instructing him about rules, regulations and responsibilities, as an introduction to a new situation. Referral service affords the school counsellor an opportunity to refer the cases which he cannot handle to specialists like clinical psychologist, medical practitioner and others. Follow-up, evaluation service are designed to ascertain the extent to which the guidance programme previously carried out by the school is meeting the objectives for which it was established and also to monitor the progress of students in their work places. Research service helps the school counsellor to discover relevant information that can improve students’ learning and understanding. The services should be an on-going process which professional counsellors should embrace and encourage. These services constitute the core of any guidance program and should be organised to facilitate the growth and development of all students from kindergarten through post high school experiences (Erford, 2010; Erford, 2011; Neukrug, 2011). Guidance and counselling in school is to address the needs and concerns of students or learners at different levels of academic or educational development. Braddock (2001), states that the purpose of guidance and counselling in schools is to improve academic achievement, foster positive study attitudes and habit, increase acquisitions and application of conflict resolution skills and decrease school dropouts. The primary mission of a school’s guidance and counselling program is to provide a broad spectrum of personnel services to the students.

Guidance and counselling services therefore play an important role in preventing educational, social, mental emotional and similar problems. The reduction or elimination of such problems among students assures them of a better life and subsequent achievement of their full potential. When such a state is achieved, the student is said to have attained school adjustment. The way students respond to and perceive the influence of guidance and counselling services on their adjustment to school will, to a great extent determine whether or not guidance and counselling services are needed or will be effectively utilized in schools (Eyo, Joshua, & Esuong, 2010). Guidance and counseling services are vital elements in discipline management of people in all societies; even the most primitive societies grew out of the necessity of guiding individual behaviour patterns in the interest of the group. Society itself could not function without the exercise of discipline. Using guidance and counseling to promote discipline must continually he practiced if people are to work harmoniously for the achievement of the common purpose.

Hendrikz (2006) stresses that teachers and school administrator have the responsibility of ensuring that students matures steadily along his/her own personal line. Students are priceless assets and most essential element in education. It was absolutely necessary to direct students to exhibit acceptable attitude and behavior within and outside the school. The rapid expansion of student enrolment in most African countries since the attainment of political independence, coupled with inadequate resources to cope with the ever increasing demand for educational provision, had made school management a much more complex and difficult enterprise than a few decades ago. Meyer (2007) states that discipline problems in schools and institutions are perhaps the single greatest cause of concern for educators globally. Based on this, the researcher is interested in finding out the impact of guidance and counseling services on students’ psycho academic adjustment and academic performance in secondary school in River state.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Guidance and counselling programs in Nigeria were established to assist students develop competencies needed to overcome academic, career and personal challenges, (Federal Government of Nigeria; NPE, 2004). Guidance and counselling services face a number of challenges. Auni, Songok, Odhiambo & Lyanda (2014) note that majority of the heads of department do not have adequate training that would help them to handle the varied issues affecting students in schools since the short term workshops and seminars that the majority of them had attended were not sufficient in empowering them to effectively guide and counsel students. The guidance and counselling teachers also had other responsibilities in schools with heavy subject loads and therefore not able to run the programme well. The same study also reported that some students had a poor attitude towards the programme and were not willing to confide in teachers doubling up in the guidance and counselling activities and being a member of the disciplinary committee.

Indiscipline cases in pubic secondary schools in Rivers State had become a matter of concern in recent years to all stakeholders. Sources from education office (2011) indicate that for the last three years over ten schools have had major indiscipline cases that has caused harm to the students, teachers, and parents resources of unknown value destroyed and academic performance had been adversely affected. Student discipline task force (2009) recognized the use of guidance and counseling service to manage indiscipline. In considering that, the problem of study is to examine the impact of guidance and counseling services on students’ psycho academic adjustment and academic performance in secondary school in River state.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study was to examine the impact of guidance and counseling services on students’ psycho academic adjustment and academic performance in secondary school in River state.

The specific objectives are:

  1. To determine the extent guidance and counseling services influenced students’ compliance to rules and regulations as a base for their psycho academic adjustment in public secondary schools of Rivers State.
  2. To determine the extent guidance and counseling services influence students’ adjustment to their social school environment as a base for their psycho academic adjustment in public secondary schools of Rivers State.
  3. To determine the extent guidance and counseling services influenced students’ motivation to learn as a base for their psycho academic adjustment in public secondary schools of Rivers State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions will guide the study.

  1. To what extent have guidance and counseling services influenced students’ compliance to rules and regulations as a base for their psycho academic adjustment in public secondary schools of Rivers State?
  2. To what extent have guidance and counseling services influence students’ adjustment to their social school environment as a base for their psycho academic adjustment in public secondary schools of Rivers State?
  3. To what extent have guidance and counseling services influenced students’ motivation to learn as a base for their psycho academic adjustment in public secondary schools of Rivers State?

1.5 Hypotheses of the Study

In this research, the following hypotheses were postulated.

  • Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean rating of teacher counselors and students’ on the compliance to rules and regulations as a base for psycho academic adjustment in public senior secondary schools of Rivers State.
  • Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean rating of teacher counselors and students’ on the social school environment as a base for psycho academic adjustment in public senior secondary schools of Rivers State.
  • Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean rating of teacher counselors and students’ on motivation to learn as a base for psycho academic adjustment in public secondary schools in Rivers State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The researcher intends to promote awareness among students on the importance of guidance and counselling services in their learning process. Although, much literature has been written and rigorous efforts made to solve Academic and discipline problem, relationship, behaviour and developmental problems remain a challenge not fully resolved. It is hoped that the study could be of help to the students, the counsellor and authorities steering the affairs of education.

This is because the study covers major aspects of guidance and counselling in educational advancement. The study covers the students’ perception of guidance and counselling, and how much they benefit from its services in their learning. Besides, the study could help both the counsellor and students to do a proper subject combination, thus allowing them to gain admission to tertiary education.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is to ascertain the impact of guidance and counseling services on students’ psycho academic adjustment and academic performance in secondary school in River state. The study is limited to some selected Secondary Schools in the area. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among secondary school students in the study area.


1.8 Limitation of the study

A research of this nature requires adequate time to ensure thorough work, but the time allowed for this study was limited. Some respondents may not have provided accurate and sincere answers that represent the true situation required for some of the questions in the questionnaire. The researcher experienced a lot of problems during the process of this study which are as follows:

  1. Delay in administration of questionnaire due to public holidays.
  2. Typing and administration of extra copies of questionnaire because some respondents did not return their copies appealing to the principals of some of the schools used for the study due to interruption of lectures.

1.9 Definition of Key Terms

Attitudes:

Attitude is how individuals behave or respond to a situation or a thing. Due to individual differences, people exhibit different behaviours towards events and circumstances. Attitudes can exert strong influence on behaviour, many powerful forces such social norms and values and specific circumstances can pressure people can act in particular ways.

Teaching and Learning:

It is the interaction between teachers and learners whereby knowledge is transferred from the teacher to the learners with the aim of changing student’s behavior towards the set goals.

Academic:

Related to education and scholarship. Scholarly rather than technical or practical

Counselling System:

A mental map or blueprint that the counsellor consults while working with a client, which helps identify appropriate functions and stages about the client’s problem and needs; also, any counselling theory, approach, or model that serves as a framework for counselling.

Counselling:

Assisting someone to solve a problem and make a decision.

Decision Making:

A goal of counselling referring to the client’s ability to clarify things he/she wants in life; also, the improved capacity of the client to make appropriate choices in life.

Effect:

A phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon.

Guidance and counselling:

Assistance is given to students by a specially trained guidance Counsellor to resolve their educational, vocational and emotional problems.

Guidance:

This is a service given to individuals in a school setting as a guide to help them develop, adjust, and meet their basic needs.

School Counsellor:

Is one who is trained to help students identify their educational, vocational and social-personal problems and help them to find the solutions.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the impact of guidance and counseling services on students psycho academic adjustment and academic performance in secondary school using secondary schools in port-Harcourt, River state as case study. The study is was specifically focused on determining the extent guidance and counseling services influenced students’ compliance to rules and regulations as a base for their psycho academic adjustment in public secondary schools of Rivers State; determining the extent guidance and counseling services influence students’ adjustment to their social school environment as a base for their psycho academic adjustment in public secondary schools of Rivers State and determine the extent guidance and counseling services influenced students’ motivation to learn as a base for their psycho academic adjustment in public secondary schools of Rivers State.

From the analysis of the research questions and hypothesis tested above, the study found as follows: Guidance and Counselling has an influence on students’ discipline in public secondary schools of Rivers State; Opportunities to develop relationship skills, ethical standards, and a sense of responsibility and Opportunities to acquire skills and attitudes necessary to develop educational goals which are suited to their needs of intents and abilities. There are other forms of punishments other than corporal punishment that are perceived to influence students’ discipline in public secondary schools of Rivers Stale. Teachers in this school view guidance and counseling as effective tool for managing discipline in the school. Respondents also observed Lack of government policy in the implementation of guidance and counseling services. A general feeling among the respondents was that guidance and counselling influences students’ discipline. However, it is a very slow process hence its influence is hardly felt. Demotivating factors identified among teacher counselors were lack of a responsibility allowance, inadequate time to offer the guidance and counselling service, lack of support by other school stakeholders, being disciplinarians and counsellors at the same time and inadequate professional skills.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings, it was concluded that guidance and counselling is very vital in dealing with students’ disciplinary problems in public secondary schools. However, it was observed that effective guidance and counseling in public secondary schools are being hindered by some factors such as lack of government policy in its implementation, lack of support by teachers and parents, negative attitude about counseling with students.

That most teacher counsellors lack professional training on guidance and counselling and out of those who are not trained in guidance and counselling, only a few have attended seminars on guidance and counselling this hinders effective counselling in public mixed day secondary school in Rivers State. The students benefited from guidance and counselling services especially in areas of learning, relationships and problem solving and discipline observance. Students indicated that they preferred to go for counselling to the peer counselor.


5.3 Recommendations

From the above conclusions, the study makes the following recommendations:

  1. The heads of guidance and counselling departments in secondary schools should develop and put in place guidance and counselling programme to be used in the schools for guiding and counselling.
  2. The Ministry of Education should develop a training programme for guidance and counselling teachers in schools through in-service course.
  3. There is need for the teacher counsellors to implement all the services required for a guidance and counselling programme.
  4. There is need to improve the level of training of teacher counsellors in guidance and counselling.
  5. Teacher counsellors should take advantage of the positive attitude of the students to enhance career counselling in their schools.

Project Material Download

6,000 Naira

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦6,500 to Any of the Account Below

Access Bank PlcAcc No: 0811003731
Samphina Academy
Current Account
Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($25)
FOR GHANIAN STUDENTS
Make Payment of 200 GHS to 0553978005 | Douglas Cloud Osabutey | MTN MoMo

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Impact Of Guidance And Counseling Services On Students Psycho Academic Adjustment And Academic Performance In Secondary School

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.