An Evaluation Of The Impact Of Family Background On The Primary School Pupils’ Cognitive Development

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

An Evaluation Of The Impact Of Family Background On The Primary School Pupils’ Cognitive Development


Abstract


This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of family background on the primary school pupils’ cognitive development using some selected primary schools in Owerri, Imo State as case study. The study was set to ascertain the extent to which family background influences pupils cognitive development, ascertain the extent to which parental involvement influences pupils cognitive development and determine availability of study materials at home influences pupils cognitive development. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers in some selected primary schools in Owerri, Imo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 65 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent to which family background influences pupils cognitive development is high. The result of the findings reveals availability of study materials at home influences pupils cognitive development. Therefore, it is recommended that parents and teachers should take care of the children for their memory, social–skill, language-acquisition, logical reasoning, and problem solving aspects during the cognitive development stages of the preschool children. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

From the outset, parents have been the primary children in every community. That is why the family is viewed as a critical socializing agent. Adekeyi (2002) notes that children are primarily molded to be useful citizens via their efforts and abilities. Thus, wherever parents have the tools and skills necessary to raise their children efficiently and joyously, the whole society benefits. This instills national pride and promotes development and harmonious coexistence. Children feel good about themselves and provide joy to their parents and the whole community.
With this in mind, the effect of family background on children’ cognitive development becomes a necessary gear in the wheel of progress. According to Henry (2015), parental background has a favorable or negative effect on children’ cognitive development. A prosperous family will take an active interest in their children’s education. Similarly, Ezewu (2017) said that a parent’s family background has an effect on their children, particularly in terms of academic achievement.

Parents’ major role is to nurture and protect their children, as well as to instill in them the values and beliefs of society. Additionally, they educate children about rules, customs, and proper behavior. Additionally, parents are responsible for providing housing, food, education, security, and personal development for their children (Udoka, 2013). This is the orientation family. The educational attainment of parents has an effect on their children’s academic achievement. For instance, in a family where both parents are educated, their children are always well-cared for academically. They may peruse their children’s exercise books after school or hire a private school to tutor them. Their academic achievement will improve as a result; alternatively, an illiterate family does not have the obligation to oversee their children’s exercise books, resulting in their children’s poor academic achievement in school (Merick, 2015).

Additionally, it is self-evident that a child’s educational achievement is influenced by both inherited and environmental influences. Hereditary variables have an effect on a child’s academic achievement in school. This happens when a child inherits defective genes from either the mother or father; such a child will struggle to learn well even if the environment is suitable to learning (Ndidi, 2016). On the other side, a child who receives a highly high gene from their parents may struggle in an unstimulating environment. According to Zenab (2014), a child’s cognitive development requires a favourable environment. A stimulating environment has the capacity to transform a prospective mediocrity into an intellectual giant, whilst an inhibiting environment has the potential to transform a brilliant child into a mediocre. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of family background on the cognitive development of primary school pupils.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The impact of family background, namely the socioeconomic level of parents on their children’s cognitive development, has long been a source of worry for many members of society. Children from wealthy parents function intellectually better than children from impoverished parents in a school setting. On the other hand, Jude (2011) suggested that, in comparison to children from poor and average homes, the majority of children from wealthy families are intellectually adrift in school. Regardless of the students’ pupils in Owerri Municipal, the teacher instructs them in a group background.

As a result, this study is predicated on society’s erroneous thinking and misconceptions. The researcher is therefore well-positioned to produce discoveries about the degree to which family background impacts children’s academic performance and the factors that contribute to this effect. As a result, the researcher will identify answers to issues and offer strategies and techniques for eradicating or improving the condition for the benefit of pupils, parents, schools, educators, and society at large.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically evaluate the impact of family background on the primary school pupils’ cognitive development. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain the extent to which family background influences pupils cognitive development.
  2. Ascertain the extent to which parental involvement influences pupils cognitive development.
  3. Determine availability of study materials at home influences pupils cognitive development.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. To what extent do family background influence pupils cognitive development?
  2. To what extent do parental involvement influences pupils cognitive development?
  3. Does the availability of study materials at home influences pupils cognitive development?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The statements below will be validated in the course of this study;

  1. H01: The extent to which family background influences pupils cognitive development is low.
  2. H02: The extent to which parental involvement influences pupils cognitive development is low.
  3. H03: The availability of study materials at home does not influence pupils cognitive development.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will to certain high extent remind parents once more of their divine and practical responsibilities towards their children. If this is achieved, the school system and society will be more stable, disciplined and functional.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the impact of family background on the primary school pupils’ cognitive development.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally evaluate the impact of family background on the primary school pupils’ cognitive development. However, the study will further ascertain the extent to which family background influences pupils cognitive development, ascertain the extent to which parental involvement influences pupils cognitive development, and determine availability of study materials at home influences pupils cognitive development.
This study will therefore be delimited to 4 selected primary schools in Owerri, Imo State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Family Background:

This is mainly the set of social, economic, cultural, and welfare characteristics of a family.

Parental Involvement:

This is when parents participate in school events or activities, and teachers provide learning resources or information about their student’s grades.

Cognitive Development:

This connotes a child’s development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of the developed adult brain and cognitive psychology.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of family background on the primary school pupils’ cognitive development using some selected primary schools in Owerri, Imo State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to evaluate the impact of family background on the primary school pupils’ cognitive development using some selected primary schools in Owerri, Imo State as case study. The study was specifically focused to ascertain the extent to which family background influences pupils cognitive development, ascertain the extent to which parental involvement influences pupils cognitive development and determine availability of study materials at home influences pupils cognitive development.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teachers insome selected primary schools in Owerri, Imo State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The extent to which family background influences pupils cognitive development is high.
  2. The extent to which parental involvement influences pupils cognitive development is high.
  3. Availability of study materials at home influences pupils cognitive development.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. Parents and teachers should take care of the children for their memory, social–skill, language-acquisition, logical reasoning, and problem solving aspects during the cognitive development stages of the preschool children.
  2. Well nutritional support should be provided by the parents for the cognitive developmental stages of the pre-school children.
  3. Opportunities that should not be excluded parents’ families in influencing the development of children who are so supportive of their children to get the best education possible in the process of strengthening their education.

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Frequently Asked Questions


Does family’s educational background affect children’s reading and cognitive abilities?

The results reveal that higher family’s educational background have impact on reading activities with a child at the preschool age as well as on children’s cognitive abilities and early reading skills.

Does the family background affect children’s academic achievement?

Based on the empirical analysis of China Family Panel Studies Baseline Data (CFPS2010), the study found that: First, the family background has a large impact on children’s academic achievement, which is consistent with the conclusions of existing studies.

How does family background affect child learning behavior?

Although children’s learning behavior is affected to a certain extent by family background, these variables only explain a small part of children’s learning behavior differences. A reasonable speculation is that children’s learning behavior is more influenced by factors outside the family (schools, communities, peers, etc.).

How do parents affect children’s interest in learning and learning habits?

Second, parents cultivate children’s interest in learning and learning habits through educational participation and behavioral support for their children, thereby affecting children’s academic achievement. The empirical analysis of these two paths contributes to the existing literature on family background and education for educators. 

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