Impact Of Excursion Method In Teaching And Learning Of Geography In Senior Secondary School

Geography Education Project and Seminar Material

Impact Of Excursion Method In Teaching And Learning Of Geography In Senior Secondary School


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of excursion method in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary school using some selected senior secondary school in Ovia North LGA Of Edo State as a case study. The study was set to find out the extent teachers adopts excursion method in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary schools, ascertain the impact of of excursion on students academic performance in geography in senior secondary schools, and identify the problems hindering the use of excursion in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary schools. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students of selected secondary schools in Osisioma local government area of Abia State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores.While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that students of selected secondary schools in Ovia North LGA Of Edo State. The result of the findings reveals that the extent teachers adopts excursion method in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary schools is low. Furthermore, Excursion has a positive impact on students academic performance in geography in senior secondary schools, Therefore, it is recommended that by curriculum review by the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) should be made to accommodate the dynamism of field-trip applications at all levels of History teaching in tertiary institutions. This will motivate student-centred instructional approach, students’ autonomy to knowledge acquisition, and student self-discovery learning. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Quality of geography education is of great concern for stakeholders in education including educators, teachers’ parents, students and the Nigerian community at large. The underachievement of students in geography in Numan educational zone over the years has necessitated a series of workshop for geography secondary school teachers organized by the inspectorate Division of the Ministry of Education. Geography is one of the activity based school subject. The effectiveness of teaching in school can be measured by examining the method of teaching applied by teacher and the achievement of students in the school examination. In the measurement of students’ academic achievement in geography as a school subject, various tasks are under taken within and outside the classroom, the effectiveness of these activities lie in the instructional methods used by the teacher.

For the students of geography to achieve the best in the subject, teachers are expected to organize field visitation (Excursion ). Educational visits may be organized to suitable places where fundamental concepts, ecological process or events treated in the classroom become clearer to the students with great comprehension. This is because, Excursions generally appeal to the sense of sight, touch and hearing. Organized visits to the river side or any geographical phenomenon make the students to see in practical what was theoretically explained and learnt by them in the classroom. Excursion is an outing by the students to educational places of interest outside the classroom under the guidance of a teacher or an instructor for the purpose of getting firsthand information on people, places and things for purpose of achieving permanency of learning experience.

Excursion strategy is a method of teaching which helps to bring about an effective leaning of geography. Excursion is far from just dishing out points to students as in traditional lecture method, where the teacher simply becomes the expositor and drill master while the learner remains the listener and a store house of facts that can be retrieved when a student hear his name called by the teacher (Oganwu, 2004). This is not to say that the traditional lecture method is completely unproductive but there exists a difference between them. Excursion is activity-based which offers opportunity for learners to get first-hand information on people, places and things in order to concertize their learning experience. It was observed that teachers dwell extensively on the traditional method of teaching without alternating it with other relevant instructional strategies such as Excursions. This has affected the performance of students in both internal and external examinations as revealed by WAEC chief examiners reports (2004-2010).

According to Instructional Strategies Online (2013), a study trip taken outside the classroom to obtain direct experience from the natural setting and to improve student’s interest in learning for collecting data, materials or objects classroom as well as to observe objects or phenomena not possible to bring within the classroom. During Excursions, the entire class visits a point of instructional interest such as Museum, factory, Hill Mountain, inselbergs valleys, river side etc. According to Duvall and Krepel (1981), Excursion is an outdoor or Excursion or learning exercise undertaken by the teacher and the students in certain aspect of subject, particularly in geography so as to give the students the opportunity to acquire knowledge. It is a trip arranged by the school and undertaken for educational purpose in which the students go to places where the concepts for instruction may be observed and studied directly in their functional setting.

NERDC (2007) states that the Basic Technology curriculum reports that real-life experiences through community resource, Excursion, information and communication technology (ICT), learning and instructional materials and so forth, should be used to facilitate teaching and learning. Meanwhile, schools lacking the basic requirement could engage in industrial visitation through community resource persons to share their skills, knowledge and expertise. The adoption of this teaching strategy in Numan educational zone will be of great significance as it will help address the present issue of students’ underachievement and the over reliance of teachers on the conventional method of teaching. Excursion is one of the major constructivist methods of teaching and learning. The teaching strategy is student-centered and students-directed. Teachers simply facilitate the learning task. The method allows the learner to learn through participation and observation in the learning process. Through interaction with others, learners come to understand what is being learned in the permanent way. The attempt is to shift from teacher centered to learner- centered mode of teaching.

Excursion is a trip to places of geographical interest (Ajeagbu, 1972). Such trips may be short or long and they may be within the school environment and locality, and/or they could be considerable distance covering a number of days out of the classroom. Excursion is educationally valuable to geography teacher and students to the extent that it meaningfully relates phenomena observed outside the classroom to the subject matter taught in the classroom. For instance, students who were taught about various geographical phenomena would see it for themselves and appreciate it better and relate issues each time they are taught of geographical concepts. The importance of such a Excursion is made known to the learner for his learning and his future. The particular needs and learning experiences required for Excursion should adequately be provided by the teacher.

The adoption of Excursion strategy in teaching is however cost expensive. The cost of preparation and taking the students to the site of visits requires funding. With the problem of poor funding of schools that has bedeviled the Nigerian educational system, it could be said that probably, teachers might have shy away from adopting this strategy due to poor funding. Irene and Baguma (2011) stated that the use of constructivist approach to teaching and learning of geography (such as Excursion strategy) can only be effective if the right learning environment is created and provided with adequate learning facilities.

Nsambugwu (2012) added that infrastructure such as library, laboratory resources, internet facilities and appropriate building and places of educational visits are the facilities that maximize the constructivist learning approach. The inadequacy of these facilities in schools is a serious setback to the proper adoption of learner’s centered instructional strategies. The use of Excursion as a method of teaching helps to bring about an effective leaning of geography across gender. Excursion is an interactive strategy of teaching which gives both male and female students equal opportunity to widen their practical and cultural experiences by varying their learning environments. Thus, Amosa (2013) remarked that no evidence of superiority is expected to be noticed in academic achievement based on gender, that is, if both male and female students are exposed to learning experience equally. This study however provides a conflicting report to this assertion.

According to Amosa (2013), the academic achievement of secondary school students in geography in recent times was not encouraging (below average and so need urgent attention. The WAEC Chief Examiner’s reports have highlighted poor candidates’ performance in SSSCE geography as a school subject continuously. This is so because, probably Geography teachers still rely on the lecture method of instruction while neglecting the use of Excursion Strategy. As such, students see geography as a collection of mere ideas presented as facts. They find geographical concepts confusing and unfamiliar. Students therefore, learn geographical concepts in abstract form and are subjected to too much imagination of geographical features instead of learning through practical observation in the excursion.

Although the learning of geography is not limited only to the classroom activities, not much is researched in areas regarding empirically documented works about the effect of Excursions on the students’ academic achievement in geography. Hence, this study tends to examine the impact of excursion method in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary school.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, it was observed that most teachers still rely on the lecture method while neglecting the use of Excursions in their instructional deliveries. Students offering Geography therefore graduate from secondary schools with theoretically based knowledge without being exposed to practical knowledge of geography. This may affect retention and achievement of students in internal and external examinations. For instance, the WAEC Chief Examiner’s reports ǻŘŖŖŚ-2010) have highlighted poor candidates’ performance in SSSCE geography as a school subject continuously. Secondary school students may not be exempted from this. However, there are a few, if any, empirical study that have been carried out on the impact of Excursion strategy on students’ academic achievement in Geography. Most previous studies are theoretical in nature, dwelling extensively on the importance of Excursions in the teaching and learning of geography. Therefore, this study would determine the impact of excursion method in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary school.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary objective of the study is to examine the impact of excursion method in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary school. The specific objectives is as follows:

  1. Find out the extent teachers adopts excursion method in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary schools.
  2. Ascertain the impact of of excursion on students academic performance in geography in senior secondary schools.
  3. Identify the problems hindering the use of excursion in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

The research seeks to find answer to the following question.

  1. What is the extent teachers adopts excursion method in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary schools.
  2. What are the impact of of excursion on students academic performance in geography in senior secondary schools?
  3. What are the problems hindering the use of excursion in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Excursion method has no positive impact in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary school.
  • Ha: Excursion method has a positive impact in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary school.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study would be important for the general teaching of geography and improving the academic performance of geography across Nigerian colleges.

This study will help school administrators and principals in in the effective administration of their schools and introduction of effective excursions to improve student’s performances.

This study will be equally important to educational stakeholders, government, researchers in ensuring that our educational system would not decline.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the impact of excursion method in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary school. Hence the study will be delimited to some selected senior secondary school in Ovia North LGA Of Edo State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Impact:

A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

Excursion:

Or Field Trip is a journey by a group of people to a place away from their normal environment.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of excursion method in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary school using some selected senior secondary school in Ovia North LGA Of Edo State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of excursion method in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary school using some selected senior secondary school in Ovia North LGA Of Edo State as a case study. The study was specifically set to find out the extent teachers adopts excursion method in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary schools, ascertain the impact of of excursion on students academic performance in geography in senior secondary schools, and identify the problems hindering the use of excursion in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary schools..

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are students of selected secondary schools in Ovia North LGA Of Edo State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The extent teachers adopts excursion method in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary schools is low.
  2. Excursion has a positive impact on students academic performance in geography in senior secondary schools.
  3. The problems hindering the use of excursion in teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary schools includes: limitation of funds, time constraints, transportation problems, difficulty in obtaining parental permission.

5.4 Recommendation

With regard to the findings of this study, the researcher recommended that;

  1. Curriculum review by the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) should be made to accommodate the dynamism of field-trip applications at all levels of History teaching in tertiary institutions. This will motivate student-centred instructional approach, students’ autonomy to knowledge acquisition, and student self-discovery learning.
  2. History teachers should be given training by government and non government organisations on the basic skills of applying excursion methods. This will help to enhance students‟ retention level irrespective of their learning abilities.
  3. Management of secondary schools should seek partnership with non- governmental organizations, security agents and other stakeholders to provide additional transport facilities as well as security in order to enhance students excursion in Nigeria.
  4. Geography teachers should provide adequate support to students on the use of excursion. This could enhance students’ retention ability irrespective of their educational background in Nigeria.

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