The Impact Of The Environmental Factors On The Senior Secondary Students Achievement In Physics

Physics Education Project Material

The Impact Of The Environmental Factors On The Senior Secondary Students Achievement In Physics


Abstract


This study was carried out on the impact of the environmental factors on the senior secondary students achievement in physics using Ado-Odo Ota Local Government as a case study. To achieve this, 5 significant research objectives were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of Physics students and Physics teachers in some selected senior secondary schools in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Local government Of Ogun state.In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 107respondents while 105 were received and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage. The result of the findings reveals that inadequate provision of teaching/learning facilities in the school environment influences Physics students academic achievement in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government. The findings also revealed that lack of access to study resources in the school environment affects Physics students academic achievement in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that academic achievement in Physics subject can be attain by provision of relevant text books, new modern science library with computers, installation of regular reading habit by students, the maximum number of students per class should be 40-50, zoological and botanical garden in secondary schools should be made available, government should involve in financing projects that will motivate students learning of Physics.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

A learning environment is one of the most critical areas of education, and it is the area, which is attacked most frequently for the detractors of current educational system.

The information age will not only change with the way we communicate with others, it will also radically change the way we expected our interactions with others to take place, students are no longer satisfied or sometimes capable of sitting in a structured environment receiving instruction in a manner chosen by another.

This is not to say that any of these environments are without values on the contrary, it is the stance in this project that all environment have varying degrees of value to different individuals, the future of educational technology is that more and more individuals will be able to choose which learning environment they prefer.

A prescriptive environment is one which information is chosen by an authoritative entity for the learners to incorporate. A democratic environment is one in which the learners have control of what is learned as well is an example of artificial intelligence or virtual reality systems where the primary control is given to the learners but the system used adapts to the learning style used.

Tuase (2005) stated that the cybernetic environment is viewed as the adaptive dimension and encompasses both the earlier environments. These definitions are often used in reference to the design of computers based instruction or multimedia programs. However, they mirror three major arguments relating to learning theory epistemologies objectivism, constructivism, and pragmatism. Currently, the trend seems to be towards a constructivist learning.
Glassman (2000) asserted that comfortable and caring environment among other treatment helps to enhance students academic achievement. The school facilities and infrastructures are essential for the realization of the educational objectives, facilities such as white board, projector, notice board, clock, bell, chairs, tables, desk, first aid box, textbooks etc ,are necessary for effective administration of schools,

School environment refers to the instructional administrative circulation and therefore school environment remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students academic achievement (Oluchukwu 2000). The extent to which students learning could be enhanced depends on their interaction within the school premises, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories (Ajao, 2000), it is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcome of education that will facilitate good social political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic achievement of the students.

Environment is one of the major factor that determine an individual’s capacity to learn and also provides basis for success in future achievement, therefore, this calls for conceited efforts on the parts of the parents, educators and government to provide adequate school facilities such as well equipped laboratories, functional libraries, and sporting facilities to enhance the intellectual and academic achievement of the school effects on teachers students and the learning process, poor ventilation ,noise, high penetration of carbon dioxide into the classroom, inconsistent temperature makes teaching and learning difficult, poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation system leads to poor health among students as well as teachers which in evitable leads to poor health among students as well as teachers which inevitably lead to poor academic achievement (Ostender and Lyon2001), believe that these factors can adversely affect students behaviour and also lead to rate of frustration among teachers and poor leaning attitude among student.

The academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of great concern to the government, teachers, parent and the students themselves, the standard of education does not depend only on the teacher as reflected in the performance of their duties but also in the effective co—ordination of the school environment (Ajao,2000) Beyond the direct effect which these inadequate facilities have on students ability to learn, it’s combination with other facilities such as instructional aid and infrastructure creates uncomfortable frustrating work space for teacher as well as unconducive atmosphere for the students which manifests in poor concentration and hyperactivity, thereby creating a stressful set of working condition for teachers (Ajayi, 2003).Therefore stress and job dissatisfaction are common precursors which lowers teachers enthusing, hence the above mentioned characteristics of school facilities have effects upon the academic achievement of the students ,the school cannot operate in isolation of its immediate social, physical environment, this is because what happen in the immediate environment help to determine the curriculum and the quality of teachers available to the school any point in time. The nature of environmental student passes through can either hinder or facilitate his ability at acquiring knowledge (Ajayi 2003)
Frazier (2002), Opined that the Psycho-Socio Physical Factors that affect learning are; the learning environment, the learning, and the teacher.

The physical factor in learning deals with the environment where actual teaching and learning takes place physical factors are completely outside the learners control ,most of the child’s teaching and learning normally take place either in the classroom or laboratory, therefore, there is need for a productive learning environment which according to; Arends(2005), is one where students have positive attitude towards themselves and their classroom that is their fellow student or peers and where they display a high degree of academic performance ,both motivation and involvement, in academic tasks.

Teacher’s decision and action also help to shape the classroom environment .the class room environment must be designed to support intellectual risk taking and foster intrinsic motivation so that students will be creative and self-reliance in their learning .Teachers have to create the right attitude in students towards learning and to gain their leadership functions as enabling activities that is establishing the condition and interacting with students in ways that enhance their learning (Miller2010).

To this end, there is need to study the effect of environmental factors on teaching and learning and academic achievement in Physics in secondary schools in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government,


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Most schools are faced with problems such as inadequate libraries, classroom, staff room, laboratory, teaching equipment like instructional aids, and technical workshop. These problems have posed great challenges to the teaching and learning process and also hinder the academic achievement of Nigerian students. It is generally believed that if the learning environment is conducive, and availability of teaching materials, Physics students in secondary schools will be more educated and there will be less risk of low academic achievement, hence does the inadequacy, associated. With inadequate libraries, classroom, teaching equipment among other hinder Teaching and learning and by extension the academic achievement of Physics students in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The Main Objective Of The Study Is To Ascertain The Impact Of The Environmental Factors On The Senior Secondary Students Achievement In Physics.

The study will specifically aim at the following;

  1. Determine the extent to which school environment in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government is conducive for adequate teaching and learning of Physics subject.
  2. Determine whether the inadequate provision of teaching/learning facilities in the school environment influences Physics students academic achievement in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government.
  3. Ascertain whether lack of access to study resources in the school environment affects Physics students academic achievement in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government.
  4. Ascertain whether the lack of laboratory facilities in the school environment influences Physics students academic achievement in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government.
  5. Ascertain whether there is any significant difference between academic achievement of Physics students taught in an adequate school environment and those taught in poor school environment.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the extent to which school environment in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government is conducive for adequate teaching and learning of Physics subject?
  2. Does inadequate provision of teaching/learning facilities in the school environment influence Physics students’ academic achievement in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government?
  3. Does lack of access to study resources in the school environment affect Physics students’ academic achievement in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government?
  4. Does lack of laboratory facilities in the school environment influence Physics students’ academic achievement in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government?
  5. Does any significant difference exist between the academic achievement of Physics students taught in an adequate school environment and those taught in poor school environment?

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to teachers, students, guidance & counselor, the school, parents,and government.

Teachers

With the help of the study the teachers should develop and establish instructional programmes, make use of instructional aids, establish effective method of teacher and adopt good leadership style.

Students

This study will enable the students to observe and recognize some school environment factor and the effect on their academic achievement. It will also help them to make appropriate amendment where necessary.

Parents

The result of this study will help parents to contribute to the up keep and development of the school environment financially and materially through the organization of parent — teacher Association (P T A) a meeting conducted in school.

Guidance Counselors

Guidance counselors will benefit from this study it will enable this group of people to lead the student in their right and appropriate future career base on their academic achievement.

The School

The result of this study will help the school to appreciate the usefulness and benefit of conducive school environment for Physics student it will also create room for proper amendment awareness and comparison among different schools.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the effect of environmental factors on Physics academic achievement in all the public Senior Secondary Schools in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Local Government Area of Ogun state.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

School Environment

School environment, also known as school climate, refers to the look and feel of a school. How students feel at school can influence how successful they are. A school’s environment is often affected by its values, rules, safety, and discipline policies

Instruction Material

Instructional materials are the tools used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment.


1.9 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of the environmental factors on the senior secondary students achievement in physics using Ado-Odo Ota Local Government as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effect of school environmental factors on senior secondary students achievement in physics using Ado-Odo Ota Local Government as a case study.The study is was specifically carried out to; determine the extent to which school environment in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government is conducive for adequate teaching and learning of Physics subject; determine whether the inadequate provision of teaching/learning facilities in the school environment influences Physics students academic achievement in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government; ascertain whether lack of access to study resources in the school environment affects Physics students academic achievement in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government; ascertain whether the lack of laboratory facilities in the school environment influences Physics students academic achievement in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government; and ascertain whether there is any significant difference between academic achievement of Physics students taught in an adequate school environment and those taught in poor school environment

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were Physics students and Physics teachers in some selected senior secondary schools in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Local government Of Ogun state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent to which school environment in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government is conducive for adequate teaching and learning of Physics subject is low.
  2. Inadequate provision of teaching/learning facilities in the school environment influences Physics students academic achievement in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government.
  3. Lack of access to study resources in the school environment affects Physics students academic achievement in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government.
  4. Lack of laboratory facilities in the school environment influences Physics students academic achievement in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government.
  5. There is a significant difference between academic achievement of Physics students taught in an adequate school environment and those taught in poor school environment.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Academic achievement in Physics subject can be attain by provision of relevant text books, new modern science library with computers, installation of regular reading habit by students, the maximum number of students per class should be 40-50, zoological and botanical garden in secondary schools should be made available, government should involve in financing projects that will motivate students learning of Physics.
  2. Teachers should be constantly tested to determine their level of qualification; this would help to improve the academic achievement of student.
  3. For teachers to give their best, they have to be provided with better working conditions help bring out the best in them, therefore noted that, the achievement of students in school depends on the attitude of teaching display by the teachers: finally in the same vein, Onocha (1985) reported in one of his findings that teachers’ attitude towards science is a significant predictor of learner’s achievement as well as their attitude.

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