The Impact Of Employee Participation In Decision Making And Organizational Productivity (A Case Of Emenite, Enugu)


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Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


Dedication


This work is dedicated to the most precious father to thee O Lord I give thanks and praise. My lovely brother and his wife and also elder sister and my brother, man of God for giving me hope throughout my academic career. My beloved sister Akuoma and friends for their encouragement.To you all, I owe my life and respect.


Acknowledgement


This research work was made possible by the Almighty God, who gave me healthy time and people to help me complete this work. I am grateful for all this gifts.

My profound gratitude goes to my supervisor Mrs. Amadi J.C who throughout the course of this project gave me the necessary guidance.

I am also grateful to my elder brother Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Nwosu for their advice and parental care, my elder sister 6Mrs. Victoria Onyegbulam, my brother man of God for whose financial and moral support saw me through. My sister Akuoma, Daa Charity, Dee Emma for their spiritual support and prayers throughout.

My special gratitude goes to my beloved Kelechi Princewill Iheanacho for his love, encouragement and care and to all my lovely friends.


Abstract


The essence of this work ascertains the impact of employee participation on management decision in productivity of the organization. The study method and library techniques and also questionnaire, literature and library materials were used in collecting data.

At the end of the work, it is discovered that although impact of decision making in organizational productivity is a costly exercise, it is indispensable motivational tool that changes performance and productivity when done accordingly.

This paper therefore, recommends that organizations should not neglect the importance of decision making in organizational productivity, ensuring that emphasis is on result rather than programme.

The stand of this work is that decision making is among rare personnel functions that benefit both employer and employee and therefore, should be given adequate attention.


Table Of Content


  • Title Page i
  • Certification Page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of contents vi

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction 1
  • 1.1 Background of the Study 2
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem 6
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study 7
  • 1.4 Research Questions 8
  • 1.5 Statement of Hypothesis 8
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study 9
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study 10
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study 10
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms 10

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature Review 12
  • 2.1 Introduction 12
  • (Other functions of the topic)
  • 2.2 Factors that influence participation 13
  • 2.3 Prerequisite for participation ` 15
  • 2.4 Forms of employee participation 16
  • 2.5 Different needs for participation 24
  • 2.6 Arguments for participation 25
  • 2.7 Argument against participation 25
  • References 28

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Research Design and Methodology 29
  • 3.1 Introduction 29
  • 3.2 Research Design 29
  • 3.3 Sources / Methods of Data collection 30
  • 3.4 Population and Sample Size 30
  • 3.5 Sample Technique 31
  • 3.6 Validity and Reliability of Measuring instrument 31
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis 32

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data 33
  • 4.1 Introduction 33
  • 4.2 Presentation of Data 33
  • 4.3 Analysis of Data 33
  • 4.4 Test of Hypothesis 42
  • 4.5 Interpretation of Result(s) 45

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation 46
  • 5.1 Introduction 46
  • 5.2 Summary of Findings 46
  • 5.3 Conclusion 48
  • 5.4 Recommendation 49
  • References 52
  • Appendix 1
  • Appendix 2 (Questionnaire)

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Decision according to the Oxford advanced learners Dictionary is the action of deciding a conclusion reached and adjustment aimed at.

According to Nkemjika and Erondu 2010 decision refers to “that selected alternative course of action”. Decision from the above definition as the product of decision making exercise adopted for purpose of solving a specific problem either in government organization or private business establishments. It is the selection from among demand needs and inquires from filled officers.

Therefore, decision is the most germane activity of management of organization ranging from small scale organization to corporation. Decision making styles throughout organizations are changing because he task, the environment and the people have changed. We are no longer marching troop into battle. We do not want blind objective.

When most managers are honest they will acknowledge that their employee often have greater knowledge about the work than they do clearly. Effectiveness can only be achieved with their total involvement. Management at times sees decision as the heart of their job. In that, they must always choose what is to be done, who will do it, where and an most at times now it will be done. It is based on the above that the research wished to access the impact of employers participation in decision making and also on organization productivity in Nigeria public sector organization using Emenite Plc as a case study.

The foundation stone of the company was laid on 3rd October 1961 by late Dr. Hon. M.I Okpara in “the premier of their eastern Nigeria and the company in cooperated on 6th October 1961 with registration No. LC 2712 and with the name Turner Abbestors cement selts Ltd”.

The company was owned by Turners and also all Ltd @ Manchester, U.K based company *0% and the government of eastern Nigeria 20%.

The reason for sitting the company at its location at Emenite- Enugu is due to proximity.

  1. To the cement factory at Nkelogu
  2. To the airport
  3. To railway line
  4. To a river (Ekelu river)

Production started in 1963 with the company manufacturing abesttors, fiber, cement, pipes, roofing and ceiling products. During the Nigeria civil war (1967 – 1970) with the absence of the British management.

Nigeria managed the company under the supervision of Mr. I.A. Oyeani.

Due to the 1973 indigenization decree, the share holding of the company changed to Turners and Newall Ltd 60% and government of eastern Nigeria- 40%. The name of Ore company then changed to Turners Building product (Emenite) Ltd and the company headquarters moved from “Tinubu square lagos to No. 70 old Abakaliki road, mene Enugu”

By 24th March 1988. turners and Newall Ltd transferred 51% of its share holding Eteroutereme society Anonyme of Belgium (Now Etex Group S.A Belgium). The ultimate holding company/technical partners, while Imo Anambra, Abia and Enugu States share the remaining 49% and the company changed its name to the present name Emenite Limited.

Their Achievement

The management of Emenite Limited is aware that having achieved the Nisiso 14001. 2004 standard award is not an end to itself but rather a beginning of a future that will entail a lot of hard work and dedication not only to maintain and improve on the environmental management system to which the company has been certified for the past decade.

Emenite core purpose is the provision of quality building products for shelter at competitive terms and her core values are customer’s satisfaction.

The Organigram Of The Company

There is a diagram here that illustrate the Organigram of the company in MS-Word document of the material. You will get the complete material before the end of this page

According to the organigrammes the number of workers in the company is 380. How many staff in each departments is

  • Management director = 5
  • Human resources = 34
  • Marketing = 43
  • Manufacturing = 175
  • Engineering = 87
  • Finance = 10
  • Procurement = 5
  • Internal auditing manager = 3
  • Environmental health/safety = 3
  • Quality control = 15
  • Total = 380

1.1 Statement Of The Problems

In Nigeria today, there is a lot of controversy as to whether an employee should participate in decision making or not. Many writers argue that employees should contribute in making decision especially where it affects them obtained job. It is expected that such participation will serve as training and testing ground for future members of upper management. The author maintained that qualified reasonably that honest and company oriented individual are not available at these lower organizational level but the big question is are they qualified individuals really available? These underlay the need for an investigation study.


1.2 Objective Of Study

The purpose of this research study is to access impact of employee’s participation in decision making in a public sector organization in Nigeria with reference to Emenite Plc. The main objectives are:

  1. To access the impact of employee participation in management decision making at Emenite Plc.
  2. To investigate the impact of employee participation in management decision on productivity of the organization.
  3. To make recommendation based on the research finding

1.3 Research Question

In all effort to accomplishing this research work effectively and perfectly the research present the following:

  1. To what extent do employee participate in decision making?
  2. Does management staff make decision without pre and post discussion and consultation with employee?
  3. Does management change decision rejected by employees.
  4. How often do employees meet to discuss with manager.

1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis

The following hypothesis shall be tested.

  1. Hi: Management of Emenite consults employees before making decisions.
    Ho: Management of Emenite does not consult employees before making decisions.
  2. Hi: Management of Emenite makes effective decision.
    Ho: Management of Emenite does not make effective decision.
  3. Hi: Effective decision enhances productivity in Emenite.
    Ho: Effective decision do not enhance productivity in Emenite.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

In all aspects, this work will be relevant to the managers and employees of Emenite Plc. It will also be beneficial to other public sector organization in Nigeria.

Also, it will be of great importance to government academically, potential and future researcher on the issue of employee participation in decision making.

This empirical is also germane to the researcher since it is a partial requirement for the award of Higher National Diploma in Public Administration and Management.


1.7 Scope Of The Study

This research focuses on the impact of employee participation in decision making and organizational productivity using Emenite Plc. Enugu as a case study.


1.8 Limitation Of The Study

The result of financial problems time constraint apathy on the part of respondents and bureaucratic procedures involved affected the study and makes the work uneasy to consummate or accomplish.


I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.


Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic


Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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