The Impact Of Effective Manpower Planning On Teaching And Learning Process
his project work focused on the impact of effective manpower planning on teaching and learning process among public Secondary school teacher in Enugu State. Considering the personal problem in our schools like low morale, high rate of turnover which lead to how productivity and inefficiency thereby leading to fall in standard of education. During the study, Research Question were formulated. Question item was the primary tool for data collection. The question naira was administered and collected back. The Chi-square method was used to analyze the data collected and the findings revealed that: the nature of recruitment influences human resources performance. Majority of the workers studied are not given enough training and development and this affects the productivity and efficiency of the teachers. Certain organizational implication emerged from the above findings and recommendation which could help management of the human resources in education institution were given.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Question
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisation of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Manpower Planning
- 2.3 Work Environment
- 2.4 Development of Manpower Planning In Education
- 2.5 Recruitment and Utilization of Manpower in Educational Institution
- 2.6 Retraining and Development of Human Resources in Educational Institutions
- 2.6.1 Types of Staff Development (Training)
- 2.6.2 Training Processes
- 2.6.3 Conditions for Transfer
- 2.6.4 Reasons why Transfers are Made
- 2.6.5 Promotion
- 2.6.6 Qualification
- 2.7 The Quality of Education in Nigeria
- 2.8 Theoretical Framework
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population
- 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.5 Validity of the Instrument
- 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
- 3.7 Method of Data Collection
- 3.8 Data Analysis
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Result
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
In today’s climate of uncertainty, declining productivity and standard of education, hopelessness and perhaps unstable political system, Nigeria needs a functional, effective and efficient human resources management. This so because, although the relative contribution of labour, capital and technology to productivity are unclear, the utter dependence of socio- economic growth and development of skilled and motivated work force is certain. The human resources organize the processes and perform the work to produce goods and services. It becomes imperative therefore that all effort should be geared towards an effective human resources development utilization to engender high productivity which is the pivot for rapid socio-economic growth and development of any nation. In his contribution, Udo-Aka Udo (1999;63) perceived human resource as ‘the management, scientific, engineering, technical, craft and other skills which are developed and employed in creating, designing and developing organizations and in managing and operating productive and service enterprises and economic institutions’. Also for the purpose of clarity he added ‘Human Resources development is inclusive of education and training and emphasizes on unfolding process as well as carries an implication for growth and maturation through the lowest formal education level and the development of leadership skills and knowledge in commerce and public service.
Human resource management deals with the establishment of procedures employment and payment of workers or staff. It is the arrangement of conditions which make possible greater self direction by staff in the performance of their duties. It is, therefore, an important function in the general context of all administrative responsibility of managing staff. However, in Nigeria, the Ministries of Education, Civil (Public) Service Commission are very much involved in a number of policies affecting teachers. Areas of such involvement, for example, include recruitment, staff development, transfers and promotions, staff evaluation, dismissal and general discipline, salaries and pensions. Thus, the life of the school teacher is affected by the activities of officials in the Ministries of Education or their agencies. Consequently, the interaction of the two becomes essential if teaching is to become effective. It should also be remembered that the major premise of staff or human resource management in schools is that the end results of the educative process will be determined by the effectiveness of the school teachers.
For human resource to be functional and adequate, the institutions that provide formal and informal education/learning environment be carefully established and effectively serviced and managed (Mbat 1999). In the words of Ogunbayo (2002:110) “Education is the most critical instrument for change in any society. Therefore, the quality of education provided in any society and the nature of change effected by that education are both dependent on the quality of the teacher and the effectiveness of their teaching in the schools”. Some of the major factors according to Torngee (2001:15) that make or mar effective performance of the teacher and mount pressure on human resource management in secondary schools in Nigeria includes: facilities, equipment and infrastructure, the state of the school building, teaching materials, equipment, laboratories, workshops and school furniture are in various stages of disrepairs and teacher cannot function effectively in that type of environment .
Another factor that influences the management of human resource is the morale of teachers. This has to do with the state of mind of the teacher (or staff) with respect to his work. This involves the degree of participation in policy making and administration opportunity for advancement and the intelligence and constructiveness of supervision, pension benefits, salary adequacy tenure conditions. Recruitment, selection and orientation of staff. Of all tasks faced by the principal (or Head teacher) none is more important than the acquisition, maintenance and retention of a qualified and productive teaching staffs. Moreover, Staff/Teachers Promotion has an effect on the motivation of teacher/staff. This if wrongly used will have negative impact on morale and motivation.
Staff transfer, that is the movement of staff from one position, office, department or school to another which may not involve increased responsibilities or compensation also influence the management of human resources in the school system. Every educational system at every level depends heavily on teachers for the execution of its programmes. Maintaining and improving educational standards is only possible through teachers. The teacher, therefore, is the most indispensable entity in the school. He is the greatest aid to learning. Thus as far as possible, he should be thoroughly trained and supported in his work. It is against this background that this study seeks to investigate the impact of effective manpower planning on teaching and learning process.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Human resources are essentially the most active organizational resource, while other resources like money, material, machinery, capital are passive, and only to be activated by the human resources. The productive capacity of human resource is no longer in doubt among organizational practitioners. In retrospect, there is need for proper planning of human resources in organization. This according to Robins(1982:125) “Is the process by which organization ensures that it has the right number and kind of people, at the right places, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will aid. Since efficiency of any staff is linked to his acquisition of proper skills, knowledge and experience, it is imperative to consider and compare the quality of training and retraining of teachers in public secondary schools, the availability of basic infrastructures and teachers adequately remunerated.
Manpower planning is an essential cornerstone in the efficient management of personnel in an organization. Manpower planning is not all about number, it involves distribution, quality and productivity. In essence, man power planning is concerned with getting the right number of staff, in the right places, at the right time, doing the right job, with the right motivation, at the right cost. Within many educational systems worldwide, increased attention is being focused on human resources management (HRM). Specifically, human resource is one of the three principles of health system inputs, with the other two major inputs being physical capital and consumables.
Manpower planning becomes a necessity and a possibility for two reasons; first the education and training of personnel is a time consuming and costly affair. Trained personnel are highly educated and therefore highly specialized. Acquiring other skill is difficult, time consuming and signifies a waste of effort and money. Secondly, the availability of manpower has been cited as the most important influence of service delivery in any organization (Clark, 2012). Institutional effectiveness was not remain unhindered when poor quality work environment thus cause employee dissatisfaction with job with the usual resultant high turnover which can force a reduction in job performance. The work environment can involve the social interactions at the workplace, including interactions with peers, subordinates, and managers. Generally, and within limits, employees are entitled to a work environment that is free from all forms of harassment.
In Nigeria, scarce data on the availability, distribution and trends in manpower for health has been a barrier to effective manpower planning. This situation couple with lack of conducive work environment usually results to poor service delivery in the educational sector. Therefore, it is very important for school management board and government to understand the factors influencing the effectiveness of manpower planning in educational institutions and how to curb it in order to increase staff effectiveness efficiently.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of effective manpower planning on teaching and learning process in selected secondary schools in Enugu State. The specific objectives hence are:
- To examine the impact of recruitment, training and development on the performance and productivity of public secondary school teachers.
- To identify ways in which poor infrastructural facilities and teaching materials influence human resources effectiveness and efficiency.
- To highlight the impact of transfer and promotion, on human resources in public secondary schools.
- To identify other factors that impact on the teaching and learning process in Secondary Schools in Enugu State
- To suggest ways on how to improve manpower planning in secondary schools
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions are formulated to guide this research:
- What is the impact of recruitment, training and development on the performance and productivity of public secondary school teachers?
- In what ways do poor infrastructural facilities and teaching materials influence human resources effectiveness and efficiency?
- What is the impact of transfer and promotion, on human resources in public secondary schools?
- What are other factors that impact on the teaching and learning process in Secondary Schools in Enugu State?
- What are the ways to improve manpower planning in secondary schools?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- HO1: There is no relationship between training and development, and the performance and productivity of human resources.
- HO2: The state of infrastructural facilities and teaching materials does not Influence human resource effectiveness and efficiency.
- HO3: There is no relationship between transfer and promotion and human resource productivity.
- HO4: The nature of recruitment does not influence human resource performance.
- HO5: There is no relationship between manpower planning and motivation.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The point that there are teachers in the public secondary schools who are not highly committed with their work force in their work place due to ineffective and inefficient management of human resource is a vital issue to look upon. Thus, the study will therefore help to offer assistance to educational planners by providing a guide and knowledge on how to manage available human resources, and also how to design efficient system of manpower planning to optimize human resource development as well as teaching and learning process in secondary schools. The study will also be a lesson to private schools other than public schools. The knowledge acquired by such schools will help them to consider their human resource as human beings having unlike any other resource, personality, citizenship, and also advocates investment in training and development of them.
1.7 Scope of Study
This research will be restricted to public secondary schools in Enugu South, Enugu State, Nigeria. Emphasis is on examining the impact of effective manpower planning on teaching and learning process.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
As the researcher carried out this study, there are some vital things which may tend to limit the researcher on the study some of which are:
Time is a factor which limits an individual to do what you want. The researcher has a lot to carry on with little time.
During the course of this study, the researcher tends to spend money more than he bargained for at the end of the day.
At times, the information being disclosed to the researcher is little or not sufficient-enough and the researcher is to strive and source for information from all directions.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Manpower Planning which is also called as Human Resource Planning is a process that identifies current and future human resources needs for an organization to achieve its goals. Human resource planning should serve as a link between human resource management and the overall strategic plan of an organization.
Is the form of formal education children receive before proceeding to tertiary or high institution.
Refers to the personnel, staff or workers in an organization.
Management means the methods by which the leader utilizes material and human resources to achieve predetermined organizational goals.
The measure of how well resources are brought together in organization and utilized for accomplishing a set goal.
1.10 Organisation of the Study
This research work will be organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows;
- Chapter one will be concerned with the introduction, which will consist of the (overview, of the study), background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two will highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three will deal on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four will concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Lastly, Chapter five will contain the summary, conclusion, and recommendations of the study.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Based on the data analysis in chapter four using the likert-type rating scale, the responses got from the questionnaire administered were weighted. Also using Chi-square test, the five hypotheses for the study were reflected. Thus, this chapter will take a closer look at the findings of the study and make recommendation and finally summarize the entire work. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of effective manpower planning on teaching and learning process. The following findings were made from the study.
1) Training and development have impact on performance and productivity of human resources.
Based on the responses got from the questionnaire administered, the result shows the average mean score were 1.7, 1.5, 1.5 and 2.5 from each statement. It means that training and development have impact on performance and productivity of human resources. Thus this reflected in the hypotheses tested. The analysis reveals that there trust a significant relationship among training and development, and performance and productivity of human resources. From table 1 the Chi-square calculation in 294.4 and it exceed the critical value which in 16.9 at the 9 degree of freedom and 0.05 level of significant. This makes the analysis significant.
2) The state of infrastructural facilities and teaching material influence human resource effectiveness and efficiency:
The result obtained from the data analyzed in chapter four shows that the state of infrastructural facilities and teaching material influence human resource effectiveness and efficiency. From table II< the following mean scores were gotten from the questionnaire item administered 2.5 and 2.5 respectively. This shows that greater number of the respondent agreed to the issue that the state of infrastructural facilities and teaching material could influence human resource effectiveness and efficiency material influence human resource effectiveness and efficiency.
Moreover, this reflected in the hypotheses tested in table II which shows that there is significant relationship between the state of infrastructural facilitates and teaching material and human resources effectiveness and efficiency. This is because the Chi-square calculated has the value of 12.9 which exceeds the critical value of 7.8 at the degree of freedom of 3 and 0.05 level of significant. Hence, this makes it to be significant.
3) There is relationship among transfer and promotion and human resource productivity
From the data analysis in chapter four of this study, table 4.2.3 reveals that there is a relationship among transfer and promotion and human resource productivity. This was observed from the findings because the mean score got were 1.5, 1.5, 2.6 and 2.5 showing human resource productivity due to transfer and promotion. Moreover, the hypotheses tested revealed that the chi- square tested revealed that the Chi-square calculated in greater than the critical value and this validates its significant. Showing that greater number of the respondent agreed to the issue with regards to this findings.
4) The nature of recruitment does not influence human resources performance.
The statistical analyzed data revealed that the nature of recruitment influence human resource performance. From table Iv of chapter four, the result got from the responses have the mean score of 1.3 and 1.4 showing that greater number of the respondent agreed that the nature of recruitment influence human resources performance. Beside, this reflected in the hypotheses tested, the chi-square calculated which have the value of 14.6 exceed the critical value which in 7.8 at the degree of freedom of 3 and 005 level of significant. This in no small measure proves the view that the nature of recruitment influences human resource performance.
5) There is no relationship between human resource management and motivation:
From the data analysis in chapter four of this study, Table 4 reveals that there exist a relationship between humid resource management and motivation. This was observed from the finding because the mean scores got were 3.9, 2.5 2.9 and 2.5 reproductively. Showing that greate number of the respondent agreed with the statement. This, this reflected in the hypotheses tested that Chi square calculated has the value of 129.3 which exceed the critical value which in 21.0 at this degree of freedom of 12 and 0.05 level of significant.
This research study aim at examining the impact of effective manpower planning on teaching and learning process. Based on the analysis of the hypotheses tested and discussion of the finding has come up with the following conclusion:
- Training and development have impact on performance and productivity of human resource in the sense that it connotes the organizations efforts in its programme to provide the need based training and education to its workers to enable them become complete in handling their present or future assigned tasks. Also Humble (1969:25) noted that staff development is reappraisal of the staff resources to achieve the dissolved objectives of an organization.
- Another factor that influence human resource management in education institution in the state of infrastructural facilities and teaching material which affects the effectiveness and efficiency of human resources and thin will lead to brain drain of the students and having half backed students.
- There is a relation among transfer and promotion and human resource productivity. This is concurred in Longenecker 1977;176 when she noted that one method of expanding direct job experience in to broader that experience through system of rotation “prospects for promotion motivates staff to work harder to achieve school goals. Promotion makes an individual see a concrete sign of his wroth and recognition for his past performance. He is ignited to work harder to justify the confidence reposed on him.
- The nature of recruitment influence human resource performance this is because when staff are recruited in accordance with that qualification and experience, the organization well get the best of staff.
- There is a relationship between manpower planning and motivation in the sense that staff performance would increase substantially if they are adequately cooperated according to the quantity, and quality of work done. Thus, the success of any school system, therefore depends to a large extent, on the quantity of those who perform its tasks leading to the set objectives well on conditions, which affect that mental and physical health. Human resources are the life blood of an institution.
In view of the result of this study, the following recommendations for both management of human resources in educational institution:
- That Training and development programmes/policy should be introduce and monitor to ensure the implementation like in-service course for teachers, staff seminar like induction courses, on-the- job-training, off-the-job-training. Refreshers courses etc.
- This is in line with what Roscoe and Freak (1976-292) noted that organization has to give the minimum training to its employees to make them at least become acquainted with the objectives, polices, rules standards and procedures peculiar to the organization and the particular job.
- That Educational management should build and equip all schools with the best science and technical equipment, provide all the basic educational materials and other necessary facilities to enhance the human resources effectiveness and efficiency.
- That Human resource management should have sound policies in respect of staff transfer and promotion to ensure that justices and fairness prevail in dealing with the staff.
- That teachers who are the bedrock of any education system need to be treated fairly well in terms of prompt settlements of their entitlements and enjoyment of other benefits enjoyed by other public servants. So that the desire of the government, parents and solicit for an improved educational system will be a hopeful dream and not a night mare; and investment in education will be very beneficial to society in the final analysis. To stem the tide, government should also through appropriate agencies enhance, the status of not only teachers but also teaching profession, there should be a deliberate policy of emancipation regarding all cadres of teacher to make teaching as lucrative as any other job within the public sector. This would not only attract qualified personnel to teaching but also retain them on the job.
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