The Impact Of Educational Facilities On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In View Of Identifying The Factors Militating Against Its Comprehensive Utilization In Ilorin South Local Government Area Of Kwara State

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The Impact Of Educational Facilities On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In View Of Identifying The Factors Militating Against Its Comprehensive Utilization In Ilorin South Local Government Area Of Kwara State

Chapter One


Background to the Study

Education, in every human community, is an indispensable instrument for human, empowerment, progress and effective national development. This suggests that a nation that lacks a sound educational culture and philosophy stands the risk of decay whereas a nation that sees to the development of its education is bound to achieve great success.

The national policy on education and the latest education reform of the government in area of secondary education has the broad aims of human capital development that aimed at preparing students for useful living within the society and preparing them for higher education. However, a cursory look at the secondary schools in recent times suggests that the schools are not living up to expectation in the provision of functional qualitative education in the three domains of learning; viz: cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains.

It appears that over the years, the emphasis of secondary school education have been on the cognitive domain (academic performance) at the expense of the two other domains (affective and psychomotor). Meanwhile, Bandele (2002) argued that the affective and the psychomotor domains exert great influence on the cognitive domain as well as making the beneficiary of the education system live a fulfilled life and contribute meaningfully to the development of the society.

It has been generally observed that one major obstacle bedevilling the secondary schools is the students’ involvement in the anti-social vices thereby making the schools ineffective in the affective domain. Students’ anti-social vices manifest in form of absence from school, lateness to school, insubordination to school authority among others. Many students, these days, appear to be lazy, dishonest, and always search for shortcuts to success.

Personal experience has also shown that most secondary school leavers lack requisite technical skills to be able to function effectively in the society. It appears that the schools seem not to consider the importance of sports to the development of individuals and to nation-building. Sporting activity (which is a very good index of psychomotor domain) is not just a routine or an annual fund-raising activity for schools but a very good avenue for talent hunt.
The ineffectiveness of schools in these two domains of learning (affective and psychomotor) have been attributed to a number of factors such as parental factor, societal factor and school factors but school factor appears to be prominent. The school factor considered in the study is the school facilities. Availability of school physical facilities and the conduciveness of the school learning environment have been said to be potent factors influencing students’ achievement in the affective and the psychomotor domains.

Personal visits to some schools have shown that the school physical facilities have not been in good shape. In some cases, students sit on the ground to receive lessons. Many of the classrooms, laboratories, libraries, playing grounds are in a terrible state of despair.

Statement of the Problem

An overwhelming number of poor and minority students in Nigeria are being educated under deteriorating educational facilities not conducive to increasing student motivation and/or academic achievement. In the absence of appropriate and decent/safe educational facilities in which most urban students can access the tools to confidently pursue their education, it is becoming almost impossible to expect tremendous gains in areas of student conduct, motivation and achievement.

Research Questions

This project aims at how teaching facilities affects the performance of students in some selected public secondary school. In order to achieve this, the following research questions are very essential.

  1. Are there enough educational facilities in schools?
  2. Are there materials or educational facilities relevant for academic performance?
  3. Do educational facilities have impact on the academic performance of students?

Research Hypotheses

Since the study is focused on impact of educational facilities on academic performance of secondary school students, the hypotheses highlighted will be used in our analysis.

  1. Educational facilities in secondary school is not enough (H₀), while (H₁) is the reverse.
  2. There are no materials or educational facilities relevant for academic performance (H₀), while (H₁) is the reverse.
  3. Educational facilities has no impact on academic performance of secondary school students (H₀), while (H₁) is the reverse.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to find out the impact of educational facilities on academic performance of secondary school students in Ilorin South Local Government Area of Kwara State. While we do not have the data to identify the specific mechanism by which compliances is linked to educational outcomes, from existing research, we know that school buildings in poor shape lead to reduced learning. Based on the findings, recommendations were made on how to improve the performance of the students.

Significance of the Study

This study is meant to help educators and education planners realize what problems students are subjected to. Since there is the rapid desire for education by an increasing population of Nigeria, it will go a long way to identify the area of need of students in term of adequate educational facilities.

The study is meant to identify these problems and how much effect it has on the performance of the students since these facilities exist to facilitate and stimulate the instructional programme of the school system they should be provided and maintained.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study will be limited to a few selected secondary schools under Ilorin South Local Government Area of Kwara State.

The study covers the following schools

  1. Government Day Secondary School, Jebba Road, Ilorin.
  2. Government Day Secondary School, Tanke, Ilorin
  3. Government Day Secondary School, Kulende, Ilorin.
  4. Saint Anthony’s Secondary School, Oloje, Ilorin.
  5. Lower Niger Basin Staff School, Ilorin.

The study will be limited to the above five Government Day Secondary Schools in Ilorin South Local Government Area of Kwara State.

Definition of terms

Academic Performance:

This means the level of attainment on what the students have been able to achieve in terms of success in examination. It may be either excellent or poor performance.


These are materials that make it possible or easier to do something, such facilities in teaching like desks, chairs, libraries etc. for easy learning process.


Things needed for a particular purpose. School equipment like modern equipment, learning technology for writing on.


Enough in quantity or good enough in quality, for the purpose or need for effective academic performance.


This is the importance of something or educational equipment


This is a room or building used for scientific research, experiments testing etc.


This is the passing of knowledge from an experienced person to an inexperienced person.


This is producing the result that is wanted or intended.


This is the process of teaching and learning to improve knowledge and develop skills of an individual to the society.


This is where teaching and learning takes place.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

This is the last and concluding chapter of this research work and it is further divided into summary, conclusion and recommendation. The summary is the review of the entire study from chapters one to four. The conclusion is based on deductions from the research findings, idea from the review of literature and research questions tested, while the recommendations are based on the conclusion of the research study.

Summary of Findings

Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative and quantitative research investigating on the impact of educational facilities on students’ academic performance view of identifying the factors militating against its comprehensive utilization in Ilorin South, Kwara State.

Results of the findings show that most of the respondents opined were inadequate educational facilities in the schools. As a result of these inadequacies, some of the secondary school students will be affected academically, therefore, having a negative impact on their academic performance.

It was further observed that there were educational materials or educational facilities in secondary schools, though not enough to circulate the large number of the students. Hence, the respondent opined that the available educational materials were relevant for academic performance of the students.

Result of the findings also shows that level of students’ academic is moderate and the students are improving in their academics. Also accessibility to technology and a conducive learning environment has impact on the secondary school students’ academic performance.

Findings across the schools further reveal that educational facilities have impact on students’ academic performance in secondary schools. In the final analysis, the methodologies employed in this research study were designed and intended to ascertain a clear sense of the degree to which the nature of the built physical learning environment, learning materials and adequacy of teachers impacts students academic achievement, as well as the extent to which the condition of the learning environment impacts student perceptions or beliefs regarding those who staff and operate our public secondary schools.


This has explored factors affecting the impact of educational facilities on students’ academic performance in secondary schools; the findings suggest that both demand and supply side factors of educational facilities have an important influence on students’ academic performance in secondary schools.

The study has also proven that school educational facilities were the most potent determinant of academic performance. Educational facilities in terms of qualifications of personnel, who are directly involved in the pedagogy; laboratory, library, school buildings, chairs/tables, administrative blocks, chalk-board, school maps and the likes are very crucial to high academic attainment. The study indicates that achievement is a function of availability of facilities to students in public secondary schools.

Experience cannot be ruled out in this study, however, as an important factor in achieving academic excellence. It has been established that educational facilities are potent to high academic achievement of students; therefore, Kwara State Government should provide adequate material resources to rural urban locations to enhance teaching and learning processes. The Parent Teacher Association (PTA), philanthropist and other charitable organizations are also implored to compliment the effort of the government to boost the performance of students in SSCE.

There are some facilities that could be improved by the teachers and the students in order to facilitate teaching and learning hence such facilities should be provided by the teachers and students respectively.


In the course of this empirical study, many important things have been discovered, things that goes a long way to distort the impact of educational facilities development effort in Nigeria. From the personal interview conducted, observation made and questionnaire administered.

Educational facilities can be developed to foster increased students’ academic performance in the educational sector of the country most especially during the era of globalization by embarking on the under-suggested recommendations:

  1. Provision of educational facilities, occupational guidance and similar schemes by the Nigerian government which are aimed at bridging the gap between educational facilities and students’ academic performance in the country.
  2. Meeting secondary school requirements by the government for successful educational development take off and the optimum development of students’ academic performance in the country as a whole.
  3. Strengthening of the existing educational facilities and establishing or providing additional ones in identified areas of need by the government.
  4. More effective planning and better co-ordination of the teaching services aiming at expanding the various types of educational programmes and curriculum in the country.
  5. Correction of the existing imbalances in the educational system consistent with the changing requirements of the country as a whole.
  6. Reduction of educational resources cost so that less privilege students will be able to patronize and benefit from school services.

If all these strategies are properly implemented/employed, there will definitely be improvement in students’ academic standard in Nigeria which is an important determinant factor of the level of students’ academic performance. Apart from this, this improvement will further lead to an improvement in the socio-economic and demographic welfare of the whole populace.

The aforementioned recommendations are applicable to all other globalised countries like Nigeria that are less developed educationally.

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Frequently Asked Questions

How do facilities affect students with special educational needs?

Facilities have a great impact on academic performances of students, and inadequate facilities translate to poor performance. The study examined the availability and convenience of the facilities that were provided to students with special educational needs in mainstreamed schools.

Do physical facilities affect academic performance of senior secondary school students?

There is no significant relationship between physical facilities and the academic performance of senior secondary school students.

Do instructional resources affect students‟ academic performance?

Adeogun, (2001) discovered that, a very positive relationship between instructional resources and students‟ academic performance exists. He asserted that, schools endowed with more resources performed better than schools that are less endowed.

What are the factors that influence students‟ performance?

Dada, (1986) posited that, the quality and quantity of these materials (school plant and facilities) have been identified as significant factors determining students‟ performance.

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