The Impact Of Early Marriage On The Academic Attainment Of Women In Amuzi Community In Obowo L.G.A Of Imo State

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Project and Seminar Material for Education


Abstract


The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of early marriage on the academic attainment of women in Amuzi Ikeneazizi in Obowo Local Government Area of Imo State.

Questionnaire was used to obtain information from women about early marriage.

To direct the collection of data the following research questions were asked:

  1. To what extent is early marriage associated with the decline of enrolment of women in tertiary institution of this state?
  2. What is the impact of early marriage on the level of educational attainment of women in Amuzi?
  3. To what extent does early marriage affect the privileges and right of women in Amuzi?
  4. What is the impact if early marriage on the role of women in the development of Amuzi?

During the analysis of data, scores and percentage were used.

  1. 46% of the population married between the ages of 12-15 years.
  2. 52% of the women completed their schooling 18% did not complete due to early marriage while 30% did not go to school at all.

Finally, it was recommended that the government should fashion out ways of empowering the less privileges so as to eradicate poverty in the society, as poverty leads to parents giving out their female children in the name of marriage at the tender age.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Certification Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Scope of the study
  • 1.4 Purpose of the study
  • 1.5 Significance of study.
  • 1.6 Research Questions

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Definition and origin of marriage
  • 2.3 Effects of early marriage
  • 2.4 Academic Attainment
  • 2.5 Summary.

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Area of study
  • 3.4 Population of the study
  • 3.5 Sample and sampling Techniques
  • 3.6 Instrument for data collection
  • 3.7 Validation of the instrument
  • 3.8 Reliability of the instruments
  • 3.9 Administration of the instrument
  • 3.10 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Data Analysis

  • 4.1 Data collection
  • 4.2 Summary of findings

Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion of Findings, Recommendation and Conclusion

  • 5.1 Discussion of findings
  • 5.1.1 Decline of enrollment of women in tertiary institution in association to early marriage.
  • 5.2.1 The impact of early marriage on the level of educational attainment of women in Amuzi
  • 5.1.3 The effect of early marriage on the privileges and right of women in Amuzi Obowo.
  • 5.1.4 Impact of early marriage on the role of women in the development of Amuzi
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Educational implication
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • 5.5 Limitation of study.
  • 5.6 Suggestion for further studies
  • 5.7 Summary of the entire work
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Marriage is the relation between married persons, it involves the action or act of marrying in which two persons are made husband and wife. ( the Webster Reference dictionary of English Language Volume 1). Marriage is a union between a mature man and woman for the purpose of companionship and procreation.

It is a noble institution recognized by God and man. According to the Holy Bible in second chapter of Genesis verse 24. It is written that “a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined together with his wife and the two shall become one flesh.

This institution is meant for reproduction and fruitfulness and is for mature minded individuals that are mentally, emotionally, economically and psychologically balanced Faoya (2002). This prerequisite is necessary because the individuals need to understand because the individuals need to understand one another and be capable to live peacefully with one another for a lifetime.

Igwe (2003) stated that marriage is the first oldest institution in the Bible that God Instituted with the intent to make life meaningful and fulfilling and therefore should not be approached without adequate preparation knowing that the consequences of the life long relationship could be very grave.

Diehl Lampe and Laton (2002) commented that from generation to generation marriage has been considered a sacred issue and it was being entered into with respect, caution and dignity, both with time, all these values depreciated and are no longer respected . Diehl, et al (2002) also emphasized the legality of marriage.

The further explained that a marriage of two people is a legal contract with each country having laws that define the right and obligations of each party in marriage. Young people thinking of marriage should therefore be sure they that understand the legal aspects, as well as the personal and social aspects of marriage. Marriage can be made in a Christian or Muslim way, law court and traditional way. There are different forms of marriage such as monogamy, polyandry, liverate, sourrate.

(igwe 2003)In Obowo local government, most families due to greed, lust for wealth and selfish tendencies give their daughters for marriage even with or without their consent.

The issue of early marriage is assuming alarming dimension in Obowo Local Government Area. Women who are lured into early marriage are deprived of educational pursuits and when this happens their major attention becomes how to nurse children and face challenges affecting a new family setting. As we know, education starts from birth and ends in the grave. It is a continuous process in the life of an individual. It shapes the total outlook and behaviors of an individual and enhances its status in society.`

The right and privileges of a woman as discussed in 1989 women conference in Atlanta U.S.A, stressed the importance of educating young girls and women generally before allowing them settle in their husbands home. The inability of most women to take advantage of educational opportunities account for the uneven representation of women in the scheme of things in Nigeria and especially in Obowo Local Government Area, where most important official position were given to men to the neglect of women.

This study has been motivated by the number of factors inherent in the people’s culture, which brought about a well institutionalized early marriage syndrome in Obowo. Parents who gave their female children Western education were treated with disdain.

One of the objectives of this study therefore is to highlight the various environments in which early marriage strives in Obowo and to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the system in the overall development of the community.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

The practice of early marriage is a common experience in Obowo Local Government Area in Imo State. Girls as young as (16) sixteen years are given to marriage by their parents.

The practice is even assuming and alarming proportion as almost every compound or nuclear family as now being affected by the practice. Girls abandon their education in preference to making a home under such situation. The schools cannot produce reasonable number of educated women and the problem of women marginalization deepens.

Efforts by the state Government to correct the situation through Public Enlightenment as well as the federal government Programme on universal Basic Education which enjoins all children of school age irrespective of their gender, creed, social origin etc have not improved the status quo.

If the practice of early marriage in Amuzi Obowo is not addressed properly now, most girls will still remain uneducated and illiteracy and its attendant problems continue to deepen. The problem which this study sets out to investigate is delineated in this question. What could be the possible consequences of early marriage on the education of the women in Obowo Local Government Area?


1.3 Scope Of The Study

The study is to identify the impact of early marriage in Obowo Local Government Area of Imo State. The Research is limited to Obowo Local Government Area. The study will take into account the rural women and the social clubs in the area with a view to getting oral information on their views on early marriage in the area.


1.4 Purpose Of The Study

The purpose of this study is to;

  1. Ascertain whether early marriage has any bearing with the decline of enrollment of women in tertiary institutions of the state.
  2. Establish the impact of early marriage on the level of educational attainment of the women in Obowo.
  3. Examine the extent early marriage affected privileges and right of women in Obowo.
  4. Find out the impact of early marriage on the role of women in the development of Obowo Local Government Area.

1.5 Significance Of Study

Since the focus of this study is on women in Obowo, it implies that the primary beneficiary of the study is the women group in the community. The study will create awareness to the evils of early marriage and therefore make them to be in better position to decide when to maturely get involved in marriage.

Besides, the entire community will also benefit because an appraisal of this study will enlighten the men who have the habit of being involved in marrying young girls within the age limit of this study to desist from doing so.
Since Obowo is an integral part of a larger community Viz the Local Government Area, the state and nation in general, this study will therefore be of immerse significance to the general public as it is intended to discourage early marriage an therefore enable the women tap full potentials such as education, industry and commerce.
The study will also raise a higher interest in academic pursuits as it may attract more research interest in problems associated with women.


1.6 Research Questions

The following research questions will be used in carrying out this study.

  1. To what extent is early marriage associated with the decline of enrollment of women in tertiary institution of the state?
  2. What is the impact of early marriage on the level of educational attainment of women in Obowo?
  3. To what extent does early marriage affect the privileges and right of women in Obowo?
  4. What is the impact of early marriage on the role of women in the development of Obowo?
  5. What are the possible ways of curbing the problems associated with early marriage?

Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion Of Finding, Recommendation And Conclusion

In this chapter the researcher discusses the findings made in the study, the conclusion, the education implications of the study, as well as offers some recommendation, limitations of the study and suggestions for further studies. A summary of the report is also presented in this chapter.


5.1 Discussion Of Findings

The discussion of findings are made based on the purpose:

Decline of enrollment of women in tertiary institution in Imo state due to early marriage.

The first objective of the study is to ascertain whether early marriage has any bearing with the decline of enrolment of women in tertiary institutions. According to the findings made from the study early marriage is not much associated with the decline of enrollment of women of Amuzi into tertiary institution of the state. This findings did not agree with Wagbara (2007) who in his own idea attributed the declined of enrollment of women to early marriage.

We also discovered in our findings that despite the fact that most of them married at the tender age it did not stop them from going to school. Good number of them enrolls into the various institution of higher learning every year.
Diehl, lamp and Laton, (2002) pointed out that since marriage had existed from generation to generation it could not be a determinant factor to the decline of enrollment of women in tertiary institution.

Their opinion agrees with the findings of the study which revealed that some of the women are already in tertiary and secondary school before, and those of them in secondary school strive hard to meet up with their counterpart already in the higher institution, a situation that make the enrollment a lot easier. The reason behind this occurrence is not far from the fact that most husbands not all of these women are education conscious.

The Impact Of Early Marriage On The Level Of Educational Attainment Of Women In Amuzi.

The second objectives of the study is to establish the impact of early marriage on the level of educational attainment of the women in Amuzi. From the analysis of the study in chapter four, the impact of early marriage in the level of educational attainment of women in Amuzi need not to be over emphasized as it is not much felt. The study reveals that the minimum level of educational attainment of women in Amuzi is the primary level; even though some of them attributed it to their not completing. Our findings did but tally or agree with Wokagbule (2005) who attributed the imbalance in educational attainment of the people of Amuzi and women in particular to early marriage.

Wagbara (2007) also stated that because of agricultural pursuit of the people of Amuzi most women were denied the opportunity of forwarding their education into the universities but from our study it was discovered that though agriculture has a great influence on the people of Amuzi more especially the women, since they were used for the labour force, this also did not affect their educational attainment.

It is interesting to note that those of them whose educational attainment were affected by early marriage find time to enroll into the adult education Programme (AEP) organized by a non- government organization (NGO) operating within the local government.

The Effect Of Early Marriage On The Privileges And Rights Of Women In Amuzi Ikenanzizi

The third objective of the study is to examine the extent early marriage affected privileges and right of women in Amuzi Ikenanzizi.

From the analysis made on the study, it was discovered that not much of the right and privileges of that the women were affected by early marriage especially the recently married ones even through some of them agree to this fact. Our findings were in line with the United Nations population fund, (2006) which emphasis education as a right of the child.

Also our finding tallied with the stipulated rights and privileges of a women as discussed in (2009) women conference in U.S.A credited the importance of educating young girls and women generally before allowing them settle in their husbands home. Our findings also did not support Wokagbule (2003) who opined that early marriage did not allow the women of Amuzi participate in politics and governance. But a visit to the community will tell you that early marriage did not affect them. They partake very well in politics and governance, good example being a women heading the office of the treasury in the community development committee one of the ruling body in the community and also a woman representing the community at the local government level as ward counselor and a woman as a care taker in the local government.

Impact Of Early Marriage On The Role Of Women In The Development Of Amuzi Ikenanzizi.

The fourth objective of this study is to find out the impact of early marriage on the role of women in the development of Amuzi community. It is indicated from the research finding that early marriage has no impact on the role of the women in the development of Amuzi. Every woman whether married early or not or being educated or not educated has one developmental venture or another. This finding was upheld by Wagbara (2007). He also highlighted that in Amuzi certain crops were exclusively reserved for women to own and that young women who wanted to grow in affluence and influence early in life got married early. These developmental ventures could be on individual or group basis. Group in the form of social organizations or family meetings. As also upheld by Wokagbule (2002).

The women are into building of community halls bus stop stand, office complex in schools, places of public convenience etc. some of the women go into the purchase of cassava grinding machine that goes around the community grinding cassava for people. Though from the data gathered most of the them stated that their rights and privileges were affected in education and others. A lot of women are teacher in the primary and secondary schools have observed all these and also taking into account the data analyzed in research question 4 in chapter in chapter four one can conclude that early marriage has little or no impact on the role of women in the development of Amuzi community.


5.2 Conclusion

From the findings of this study, the following deductions can be stated as follows:

Though the early marriage issue as practiced in Obowo Local Government Area is quite different in Amuzi Community.

First early marriage has no much association with the decline or enrollment of women in tertiary institution of the state as indicated by the researcher.

Secondly, it has little or no impact on the level of educational attainment of women in Amuzi.

Thirdly, it also has no affect on the right and privileges of women in Amuzi and it has no effect on the women of Amuzi towards contributing to the development of the community.


5.3 Educational Implicational Of The Findings.

AS stated in the National policy of education (2004), one of the aims is to inculcate in the individual a discipline and sound mind in order to sharpen his outlook and develop his mental ability. It can be seen from the findings that most girls who abandon their education in preference of making a home, end up frustrated and become social misfits in their communities as a result of half education. This affects them emotionally.

Again, the right and privileges of a woman as discussed in (2003) women conference in U.S.A stresses the importance of educating young girls and women generally before allowing them to settle in their husbands home. As a result, the inability of the most women to take advantages of the 6-3-3-4 education system account for the uneven representation of them in the scheme of things in, Nigeria. This resulted to marginalization as the findings of the study revealed in Obowo Local Government of Imo State education Opportunities have not been balanced between the male and female as a result of inherent culture and tradition.

In other words, women who were lured into early marriage are deprived of educational pursuits and when this happens, their major attention becomes how to nurse children and face challenges affecting a new family setting.

This affects them emotionally and psychologically.

As a result of stress and frustration caused by inadequate and sound education, most women end up frustrated in their homes and even die pre mature without achieving their aims and objectives in life.


5.4 Recommendation.

Having examined the influence of early marriage on the academic attainment of women in Amuzi community of Obowo local Government Area of Imo State, the researcher is recommending the following.

  1. Government should fashion out of empowering the less privileged so as to eradicate poverty in the society as poverty leads to parents giving out female children in the name of marriage at the tender age.
  2. Government after carrying out the above suggestions, should enact laws that will restrict parent from giving out their daughters for marriage at a tender age.
  3. Parents should give good home upbringing to their children to avoid desire for independence from parental control, a situation that leads to early marriage at adolescent age.
  4. Certain cultural beliefs and practices that encourage early marriage should be abolished.
  5. Public enlightenment should be organized from time to time to educate parents on the needs or importance of sending not only the male children of theirs to schools but also their female ones.

5.5 Limitation Of The Study

IN AS much as this study is concern the researchers do not claim a monopoly of information and data analysis rather the perfect execution of the work like this requires enough time manpower, money and co-operation from the public but the reverse remains the case. As all of these affected the successful completion of this work.


5.6 Suggestion For Further Studies.

It is our wish to suggest that for the overall development and emancipation of the entire Amuzi and Obowo Local government Area of Imo State, the government should support and provide funds for would be researcher to dig more into the problems associated with early marriage and modify existing work for more improvement.
The problems which this study sets out to investigate is delineated in this question, What could be the possible consequences of early marriage on the education of the women in Obowo local Government Area and Amuzi in particular? This particular topic calls for more in depth research and studies in future. More researches should be carried by students while government should provide funds and logistics support to interested groups in order to enhance knowledge.


5.7 Summary Of The Entire Work.

The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of early marriage on the academic attainment of women in Amuzi in Obowo Local Government Area of Imo State.

The work comprises of five chapters, in chapter one, the introduction comprises of background of the study, statement of problems, scope of the study, and significance of the study and research question.
Questionnaire was used to obtain information from women about early marriage. The following research questions were asked:

  1. To what extend is early marriage associated with the decline of enrollment of women in tertiary institution of the state.
  2. What is the impact of early marriage on the level of educational attainment of women of Amuzi Ikenazizi.
  3. To what extent does early marriage affect the privileges and rights of women in Amuzi?
  4. What is the impact of early marriage on the role of women in the development of Amuzi?

All these questions were answered in subsequent chapters. In chapter two, which comprises of review of related literature, has the following subheadings. Definition and origin of marriage; causes of early marriage. These headings were treated under

  1. Agriculture
  2. Social factor
  3. Tradition and culture
  4. Lack of education
  5. Economic factors: this chapter further examines the effect of early marriage, academic attainment and summary.

In chapter three, comprises of research methodology, introduction of research design, Area of study, population sample and sampling, instrument for data collection, validation of instrument and administration of the data collection.

In chapter four, we analyzed the data which make up the discussion of data collection and summary of findings.

From the above findings.

  1. Research question 1, shows that most respondent married early between the ages of 12-15 years having a total of 92 and represents 46% of the total respondent interviewed.
  2. Research question 2, shows that majority of the respondents completed their schooling while 30% of them were not certain, 18% of them did not complete schooling and they attribute it to early marriage.
  3. Research question 3, indicates that despite the practice of early marriage in the area that lead to most of the women getting married in time, their rights and privileges were not infringed. 52% of the women attested to this fact while 48% of them declared that it infringed on their rights.
  4. Research question 4 indicates that 75.5% of the respondents attested that early marriage did not prevent them from contributing towards the development of their community. In chapter five which comprises of the discussion of findings recommendations and conclusion the following conclusion were drawn,
    • Even though early marriage is practiced in Obowo local government Area, the situation is a bit different in Amuzi community.
    • Early marriage has no much association with the decline of enrollment of women in tertiary institution of the state.
    • It has little or no impact on the level of educational attainment of women in Amuzi.
    • It also has no effect on the right and privileges of women in Amuzi. As a result, it has no effect on the women of Amuzi towards contributing to the development of the community.

The Impact Of Early Marriage On The Academic Attainment Of Women In Amuzi Community In Obowo L.G.A Of Imo State


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