Impact Of E-Mapping Strategies On Academic Performance Of Students In Biology In Senior Secondary Schools In Education Districts II, Lagos State
The study investigated the impact of e-mapping strategies on academic performance of students in biology in senior secondary schools in Education Districts II, Lagos State. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study, and quasi-experimental research design was adopted. The sample for the study comprised two hundred and forty-one (241) students drawn from the population of study in three schools in Enugu Education Zone using multistage sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was Biology Achievement Test (BAT). Data collected from the research questions were analyzed using mean and standard deviation, and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results revealed that students taught biology using concept mapping performed better than their counterparts taught using lecture method. Female students had higher achievement scores than their male counterparts in biology when taught using concept mapping. There was no significant interaction effect of instructional methods and gender on students’ mean achievement score in biology. In line with the findings of the study, the educational implications of the findings were highlighted; and recommendations were equally proffered among others that science teachers should adopt concept mapping in teaching.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.5 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Education has been described as a vital and indispensable key to any form of development (Offiah and Achufusi, 2010).it is an instrument for economic, political and scientific development of all nations (Olarinoye, 2001 and Otuka, 2006).This could be the reason why the Federal Government of Nigeria emphasised the Teaching of Science (biology inclusive where genetics belong) in its National Policy on Education (FGN, 2008). It has been observed that the major challenges in teaching is to create experiences that involve the student and support of his own thinking, explanation, evaluation, communication and application of the scientific models needed to make sense of these experiences (Afolabi &Akinbobola 2009). In science education, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of learner-centeredness in the teaching learning situation which has generated a lot of attention in relation to understanding how learners learn and how to help them learn about concepts in sciences (Jegede, Alaiymota & Okebukola 1990).These efforts according to Cliburn (1990) and Danjuma(2005) assisting learners to learn more effectively have led to the development of metacognitive strategies to enhance meaningful learning. According to Novak,(1983) meta-cognitive strategies, are meta-knowledge and meta-learning which are strategies that empower a learner to take charge of his/her own learning in meaningful ways. Novak & Godwin (1984) explained further that metaknowledge refers to knowledge that deals with the very nature of knowledge and knowing, and metalearning refers to learning that deals with the nature of learning or learning about meaningful learning. Malone & Dekker (1984) stated that meaningful learning means that learners can integrate new knowledge into their existing networks of concepts and propositions in their cognitive structures.
Therefore, concept mapping according to Kinchin,(2005) is a strategy that help learners organise their cognitive frameworks into more powerful integrated patterns. Many researchers such as Okebukola and Jegede, (1988); Novak,(1983);&Bello and Abimbola(1997) have observed that concept mapped can improve meaningful learning and help learners, learn independently. Concept mapping according to Novak & Godwin (1984). is a schematic device for representing a set of concept meaning embedded in a hierarchical diagram that illustrate the interconnections between and among concepts. It can be deduced that concept map provide a visual road map showing the pathways a learner can take to construct meaning of concepts and propositions.This strategy as observed by Novak & Godwin (1984) and Novak,(1990) serves as both learning tool as well as evaluation tool, which encouraged the students to use meaningful mode-learning patterns. Similarly, Chiou (2008) conducted a research on the effect of concept mapping on students’ learning achievements and interest. It was concluded that those exposed to accounting using concept map performed better than those exposed to accounting using expository method.
Despite the effort of science educators such as Bello (1996); Danjuma (2005) & Jibrin and Abba (2011) towards finding a suitable instructional strategy for effective teaching in secondary schools. There still exist some reports of poor academic performance in public examinations results such as NECO and WAEC in Biology (Lakpini, 2007; Ogbenevwede, 2010; Adebayo, 2011 & WAEC, 2011). The poor performance were attributed to the use of inappropriate method of teaching; poor spelling of technical terms; shallow knowledge of the subject matter; and inability to differentiate between phenotypic and genotypic ratio in genetics among others. Also Omole (2011) was of the opinion that 75 per cent failure in mathematics and sciences is worrisome. There is the need to identify teaching methods that students can relate with share ideas and interact academically within themselves. The present study is designed to look at the effects of concept map instructional strategy on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students’ in genetics.
There is no gain emphasizing the fact that the level of achievement of the objective of biology at secondary school level could be measured by students’ achievement in the subject matter. The teacher’s role in making students learn in a meaningful manner is paramount, and this depends essentially on the teaching approaches. According to Hornby (Githae, Keraro & Wachanga, 2015) teaching is the issuing of instruction to an individual for the purpose of learning to occur. Smith posited that teaching entails creating an environment and engaging learners so that they learn things. The primary objective of teaching is to develop learners’ thinking ability and perception of the things around them(Githae, Keraro & Wachanga, 2015). The achievement of this lofty idea by the teacher depends on the teaching methods applied. The methods of science instruction are applied to science content for learning and open for all resourceful teachers(Sequeira, 2012). All sets of deliberately and systematically arranged procedures that are exchanged between science teachers and learners, learners and learners; and learning experiences with a view to causing permanent change in the behaviour of the learners are methods of science instruction. They are the routes that carry learners from where they were to where they should be after their achievement of the objectives of the new lesson (mastery of new content).
Teaching method is seen as one comprising the principles and methods applied by the teachers to promote students’ learning, and these strategies are determined partly on the subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner. According to Sakala(2013), which method is best for a particular lesson is determined by a number of factors, including the students’ age and developmental level, what they already know and what they need to know, the subject-matter content, the lesson’s objective, and the time, space, and material resources available.
Biology is regarded as one of the important science subjects studied in Nigerian senior secondary schools. Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) confirms the importance of biology in Nigerian educational curriculum by enlisting it as one of the core science subjects in external examinations. Therefore, biology is an essential and somehow compulsory science subject studied in the Senior Secondary Schools in Nigeria. To science inclined students, biology is a core subject, but to arts inclined, it is a choice to fulfill all righteousness. Martins-Omole and Yusuf(2013) posited that biology occupies a unique position in the school curriculum as it is central to many science related professional courses in higher institutions such as Microbiology, Medicine, Pharmacy, Nursing, Dentistry and other related courses. It, therefore, becomes imperative that anyone who wishes to undergo the above mentioned courses in higher institution is expected to offer biology as a pre-requisite subject to enable him/her gain admission into higher institution. However, the students’ low achievement in biology in the external examinations has been a source of worry to teachers, parents and other stakeholders.
Research has shown that many students experience poor academic achievement in Biology and this is essentially due to the teaching methods adopte the biology teachers(Eriba, 2013). One of the main problems students face during their studies is organizing and retaining information. Students’ achievement and enthusiasm in science are falling, according to Nzewi. Science knowledge among secondary school and college students is frequently lacking in coherence, and the majority of pupils learn primarily by rote. According to Chaudhury(2011) , the problem is two-fold viz; the abstract and high conceptual nature of science seem to be particularly difficult for students; and teaching methods and techniques do not seem to make the learning process sufficiently easy for students. Gilbert in Erbas and Demirer(2012) also attributed poor academic achievement to the abstract and complex nature of certain biology concepts apart from the teaching method adopted by instructors. The current teaching methods do not actively engage students in the learning process, and they appear to deprive them of control over their education. Despite the fact that most teachers and students have devised and embraced a variety of learning methodologies and innovative methods, boys and girls’ low academic attainment in schools appears to persist. Anih and Egbo(2012) indicated that problem of gender effect in achievement of science concepts is also a factor in low achievement.
Gender is the societal meaning assigned to male and female with a particular role that each should play. In other words, it is the role and responsibility of male and female that is created in families, societies and culture. The concept of gender according to Ezeh (2011) is the expectations held about the characteristics, attitudes, and likely behaviours of both men and women in the society(Akej, Rotimi&Kenni, 2013).. This is provable since males are thought to be superior to girls in terms of physical appearance, cognition, logical reasoning, and even academic accomplishment in Nigeria(Daley, Durning&Torre, 2016). Some researchers believed that males perform better in certain science subjects than females However, other researchers have indicated no gender differentiation in some subject areas like biology courses. According to them, gender differentiation that exist in some science related subjects which lead to variation in academic achievement of male and female students remain an issue of concern to researchers. Moyer, Hackett and Everett in Ajaja(2015) indicated that the contemporary students are learning science in the passive way in classroom where information is organized and presented to them by their teachers. To what extent this lecture method of instruction assists the students is also a major concern to many scholars.
Lecture method is just one of the several teaching methods, and stands to be the oldest and widely used method of instruction in classrooms. It is a long tradition, probably even dating from the dawn of mankind (Daley, Durning&Torre, 2016). Lecturing is a time-tested instructional method where an instructor who has the knowledge on a given subject matter delivers all relevant information to learners verbally. It relies on one-way communication that mostly leaves the learners as passive participants only to take notes and probably ask questions after the delivery, if and when time permits. According to Schmidt et al.,(2017) lectures can be quite engaging if delivered by a charismatic teacher who has the ability to explain difficult concepts in a simple yet effective way. However, Kelly(2008) noted that lecturing is ultimately an out-dated form of instructional delivery that does not benefit students in that it does not accommodate individual needs but cause students to rely on the teachers. This onesided teaching technique often leads students to develop a dependency on their teachers. Students accustomed to lectures lack selfdirected learning skills and are unable to teach themselves. Lecture method does not promote meaningful learning as it often leads to rote memorization.
Researchers have highly recommended new teaching methods that may prevent superficial learning; bring about meaningful learning that may lead to improvement of critical thinking, skills, problem solving and increased memory for better academic achievement. Such new methods of instructions which are process-based and learner-centered include discovery/inquiry method, scaffolding, programmed learning, computer-assisted learning, target task method, meta-cognition and advance organizer method, cooperative learning, field trip and excursion method, concept mapping and so on. According to Schmid and Telaro(2012) as the problem of improving the teaching/learning process preoccupies educationists/researchers, concept mapping instruction seem to promise a panacea useful for enhancing meaningful learning. According to Daley et al.(2016)concept mapping, a teaching and learning strategy developed by Novak and Gowin, is one strategy that can promote meaningful learning. Concept mapping is a teaching technique which permits a visual representation of concepts concerning a topic and reveals the relationship among them as a whole(Daley et al., 2016). It is one of the active teaching methods that can help teachers to train students who are capable of critical thinking and problem solving. Concept mapping is a graphic representation of concepts showing the relationship between the ideas through the use of linking words. It motivates young learners and encourages critical thinking, innovations and creativity(Schmid &Telaro, 2015).
Concept maps help learners to make evident, the key concepts or propositions to be learned and suggest connections between new and previous knowledge. Concept maps are diagrams of key concepts and relationship between those concepts. The main concept is placed at the top or centre and their concepts are arranged from top to bottom; some lines are drawn between concepts, and communicative sentences are written on the lines(Schmid &Telaro, 2015). A knowledge acquired through a meaningful way such as concept mapping will be kept in mind for a longer time, and this leads to improvement in critical thinking skills and the ability to problem solving in students. Concept mapping strategy has been proved to be effective in enhancing academic achievement and retention in many subjects such as Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics(Schmid &Telaro, 2015). The learning and teaching of science requires physical and mental processes, and this entails hands-on and mindson activities that involve active and meaningful learning. Students participate in active learning by actively contributing their thoughts and ideas to a relevant activity, which is typically supervised by the teacher, rather than simply listening and taking notes during lectures(Kelly, 2019).
Concept mapping method of instruction or learning is one of the currently evolved innovative methods of science instruction. It is process-focused and learner-centred, as well as a meta-learning technique that is based on theory of meaningful learning(Kelly, 2019). It is a special two-dimensional diagrammatic learning which emphasizes the relationship between and among important concepts. However, some researchers have noted that concept mapping has its own disadvantages. It is not beneficial to low ability learners. Many science teachers lack the knowledge and so no skills and competence required for effective use of the method. The method requires close guidance and supervision of the learners which is often not possible with large classes. It may be expensive in terms of resources for its application. Often times the important concepts and links are omitted and it may not be suitable for certain science concepts. Although instructions often use concept maps to promote learning, these visuals have the potential disadvantage if they muddle relationships and discourage critical thinking.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Suffice to note that students’ achievement in West African Senior School Certificate (WASSC) and other 0’ level biology external examinations has been consistently poor, and that some authorities have placed the blame on the ineffective teaching methods and arrays of other problems source. This casts some doubts on the right choice of instructional methods of teaching and learning of biology to impart necessary knowledge, skills, attitudes and retention on the students which are the prerequisites for meaningful achievement in the subject. Researches have been carried out in the past to ascertain the appropriate teaching methods to enhance maximal achievement in science subjects to no avail. Biology, a vast science subject in Nigeria Educational Curriculum has been a vital subject directly or indirectly for all categories of students, be it science-inclined or arts-inclined. It becomes imperative that the appropriate teaching and learning process be put in place to better students’ academic achievement especially in external examinations to enable them gain quick entrance into the higher institution after their secondary school education for their academic pursuit. Consequent upon this quest for better solution to this inherent problem, the present study sought to investigate the effect of concept mapping strategy on senior secondary school student’s achievement in Biology.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of e-mapping strategies on the academic performance of students in biology in senior secondary schools in Education Districts II, Lagos State. Specifically, this study sought to:
- Determine the mean achievement scores of students taught with concept mapping and those taught with lecture method of teaching as measured by biology achievement test (BAT).
- Determine the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught with concept mapping and those taught with lecture method as measured by BAT.
- Investigate the interaction effect of instructional methods and gender on students’ biology achievement.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions formulated by the researcher guided the study:
- What is the difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught Biology using concept mapping instructional strategy and those taught with lecture method as measured by BAT?
- What are the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught Biology with concept mapping and those taught with lecture method as measured by BAT?
- What are the the interaction effect of instructional methods and gender on students’ biology achievement?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following Null Hypotheses as designed by the researcher guided the study, and were tested at a 0.05 level of significance:
- There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught biology topics using concept mapping and those taught with lecture method.
- There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught biology using concept mapping instructional method and those taught with lecture method.
- The interaction effect of instructional methods and gender on students’ biology achievement will not be significant (P > 0.05)
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, some aspects of this study are anchored on David Ausubel’s meaningful learning theory as well as Jean Piaget’s cognitive constructivist learning theory. Piaget’s learning theory emphasized learning by doing. Ausubel who was influenced by the teaching of Jean Piaget, theorized that people acquire knowledge primarily by being exposed directly to it rather than through discovery. He believes that students should have previous knowledge to enable them acquire new one i.e. from known to unknown to enable the learner to anchor new knowledge. Ausubel stressed that meaningful learning manifest when there is link between prior knowledge and the new knowledge. Since linking concept is a learning theory in concept mapping, this study will enable people to carry out meta-learning (learning to learn). Practically, the following people would benefit immensely from the findings of the study: students, Biology teachers and the curriculum formulators, school administrators as well as researchers. The result of the study could enablethe students appreciate the two methods of imparting knowledge. It could also help the students to become knowledgeable in critical thinking, research work, problem-solving, and being self-confident and sufficient in learning. The students can stand the chance of embarking on meta-learning i.e. learning how to learn by incorporating new meaning or concepts into the prior knowledge. Concept mapping is said to be a useful tool that help students learn about their knowledge structure and the process of knowledge construction (meta-knowledge) whereas lecture method encourages students to go into deep research for new knowledge. The findings of this study would enable the science teachers make use of concept mapping strategy for effective teaching. It will also be beneficial to the students as they will make use of the process knowledge construction in learning even other subjects. The empirical evidence from the study stands to guide not only the teachers, but the curriculum experts and researchers on their developmental and implementation process in educational system. Specifically, the findings of the study could form a basis for introducing concept mapping in teaching as an alternative innovative instructional strategy to lecture method in school curriculum plan. Finally, the research work would assist school administrators, to encourage teachers of science subjects on the need to adopt and effectively apply concept mapping and lecture method of instruction in teaching and learning process when required. The awareness campaign can effectively be actualized during in-service training of serving teachers and proprietors of schools.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study was carried out to investigate the impact of e-mapping strategies on the academic performance of students in biology in senior secondary schools in Education Districts II, Lagos State. Senior Secondary I (SSI) students were used for the study. The choice of SSI students was based on the fact it was not an exam class. The content scope of the study involved animal nutrition chosen from the SS1 biology curriculum of the Federal Ministry of Education.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The limitations of this study revolve around data collection issues, researcher and participant bias. Leadership behavior is a sensitive issue as no one wants to admit to any form of irresponsibility, incompetence, prejudicial or unethical behaviors in relation to public sector administration. Consequently, I would likely encounter abridged or ambiguous answers to interview questions. Data collection for the study will be primarily gotten from face to face interviews but there is the alternative of using secondary data collection in the event that I was unable to conduct all interviews as scheduled and as such the advantage of primary data is reduced.
It is important to note that I work in Tertiary Education Trust Fund which is the public sector organization where data will be collected from. This could be an advantage to the study as the interviewees might be more relaxed with me due to pre-existing familiarity. It could also have a negative effect on data gathering, as my acquaintance with the organization might produce tailored and surface answers to interview questions, thus reducing the quality of data collected. The familiarity could also mean that there will be an imbalance of power while interviewing because hierarchically, some of the participants are my superiors and that might affect flow of interview process. The perceptions of participants on the central issues of leadership effectiveness may vary and also their interpretation, expression or articulation of their views will contrast, this means that the onus lies on me to streamline data collected.
1.9 Definition of Terms
a general plan to achieve one or more long-term or overall goals under conditions of uncertainty.
the scientific study of life.It is a natural science with a broad scope but has several unifying themes that tie it together as a single, coherent field.
any collection of materials including animate and inanimate objects and human and non-human resources that a teacher may use in teaching and learning situations to help achieve desired learning objectives.
a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution.
An educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is sometimes compulsory.
Is a person who helps
1.10 Organisations of the Study
This research work is categorized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), background to the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms.
- Chapter two encompasses the conceptual review theoretical review and empirical reviews on which the study is based.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of Findings
The findings of Jibrin & Zayum, Githae et al., and Ijoyal et al., who discovered that students who are taught with concept mapping performed better than their counterparts who are taught with lecture method, are consistent with this result finding that showed higher academic achievement occurred when taught with concept mapping. The results, however, differ from those of Martins Omole & Yusuf, who investigated the impact of concept mapping and lecture methods on the academic performance of biology students in secondary schools in Lagos State and came to the conclusion that there was little to no difference between students who were taught using concept mapping and those who were taught using the lecture method.
According to the study’s findings, female students in the experimental group outperformed their male counterparts in terms of mean accomplishment scores in biology. The results confirm those of Okoh et al., Ezenwosu, and Nworgu, who found that gender affects pupils’ academic performance in science. Studies conducted by Oludipe Ajaja, Githae et al. maintained, in contrast to this conclusion, that there is no gender difference in academic achievement in science courses.
This study’s findings regarding the interaction between concept mapping and lecture methods and gender and students’ mean achievement scores in biology revealed that there was no discernible interaction between these factors. This is consistent with Ajaja’s findings, who came to the same conclusion in his research regarding the impact of method and gender on students’ mean accomplishment scores in science disciplines. This suggests that idea mapping is not only cost-effective but also innovative when used to teach both male and female students in a mixed-gender classroom. There would need to be a difference in instruction for males and females because there is no relationship between method and gender. However, the performance of the female students was higher than that of their male counterparts, and there was statistically significant difference. This difference in the performance of female students and their male counterparts could be as a result of the nature of instructions delivered to the students, which enabled both the male and female students to be actively involved in the teaching and learning process. This difference in the score of female students and their male counterparts could be as a result of the students’ disposition to learn, both male and female students had equal opportunity to participate actively, but maybe the female students were more determined to learn than their male counterparts.
The summary of the findings also include the following;
- Students taught biology using concept mapping performed better than students taught with lecture method, and there is a significant difference between the mean scores of students taught with concept mapping and those taught with lecture method.
- The male and female students in the experimental (concept mapping) group performed better than those in the control (lecture method) group. The female had a better overall performance. However, there is significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students in biology achievement test (BAT).
- There is no significant interaction effect between methods of instruction and gender on students’ achievement in biology.
From the results obtained in the study on the effect of concept mapping instructional strategy on students’ achievement in biology, it was found out that:
- Students taught biology using concept mapping performed better than their counterparts, taught biology using lecture method.
- Female students performed better than their male counterparts in biology achievement test since the difference in favour of the former was statistically significant.
- There was no significant interaction effect of instructional methods and gender on students’ mean achievement score in biology.
Based on the findings of this study, and their implications, the following recommendations are made.
- Biology teachers should be trained on how best to involve students in concept mapping during biology instructions so as to facilitate students’ achievement in the lesson. This could be achieved through seminars and workshops or in-service training for teachers.
- Teachers should make teaching and learning of biology gender friendly.
- The curriculum planners should ensure that concept mapping teaching approach is included in biology curriculum, as it will help to promote students’ achievement in the subject.
- In view of the fact that concept mapping was more effective in enhancing students’ achievement in biology than lecture method of teaching, the Ministries of Education should ensure that textbook authors should incorporate concept mapping in the instructional methods for secondary schools biology teaching and learning activity.
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