Impact Of Digitization Of The Broadcasting Media In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Imo Broadcsting Corporation (IBC))
This book is dedicated to the almighty God who made it possible for me to produce it, and to the memory of my late uncle, father Chidi Fabian Eluwa who led the foundation of my success today, May God almighty accept you in his kingdom. Amen.
I am delighted in appreciating the support of my supervisor Mrs. Linda Ikechukwu and all those who contributed to the realization of this work. First and foremost, I acknowledge the strong support, encouragement and contribution of my mother in my domestic and academic activities.
I also appreciate the support and encouragement of my fellow student in mass communication department federal polytechnic Nekede, Owerri for their work well done. May god bless you all, Amen.
The purpose of embarking on this study was to provide a well detailed account on the impact of digitization of the broadcasting media in Nigeria. The study ascertained the level of media digitization in Nigeria television? Authority, Imo (IBC) in this Era of ICT and interest operations.
The researcher used served research design to enable here determines the sample size which is 150 through the appropriate statistical method to represent the population of the study. Survey research method was employed in the collection of data because it is easier to bought people’s opinions using questionnaire. Data gathered from the study well analyzed and interpreted using simple percentage and tales. Also summary of findings, conclusion, and recommendations were made on the study for future studies.
Table Of Content
- Title page i
- Certification page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of contents vi
Chapter One: Introduction
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Scope of the study
- 1.6 Limitation of study
- 1.7 Significance of the study
- 1.8 Operational definition of term.
Chapter Two: Review Of Literature
- 2.1 Review of concept
- 2.2.1 The Concept of digitization
- 2.2.2 The concept of broadcasting media
- 2.3 Review of related studies
- 2.4 Theoretical framework
- 2.5 Summary of literature review
Chapter Three: Research Methodology
- 3.1 Research design
- 3.2 Population of the study
- 3.3 Sampling technique/ Sample size
- 3.4 Sources of data
- 3.5 Instrument of data collection
- 3.6 Validity of instrument
- 3.7 Method of data collection
- 3.8 Method of data Analysis
Chapter Four: Data Analysis And Presentation
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Data presentation and analysis demographic data
- 4.3 Discussion and findings
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary of findings
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
- 5.5 Suggestion for further studies
1.1 Background Of The Study
Unlike many other inventions throughout history, the history of the television credits many inventors instead, of just one in his case, there were many inventors working on the idea of watching pictures on the screen.
The earliest proposal was in 1908, in a paper by A.A Campbell-Swinton which postulated the use of cathode rays. The first practical demonstrations, of television, however, were developed using electromechanical methods to scan, transmit, and reproduce image. As electronic camera and display tubes were perfected, electromechanical television gave way to all electronic systems in nearby all applications.
The beginnings of mechanical television can be traced back to the discovery of the photoconductivity of the element selemium by Willoughby by smith in 1873, the invention of a scanning disk by Paul Gottibe Nipkow in 1884 and John Logic Baird’s demonstration of televised moving images in 1926. (withipedia, 2010).
A 23 year old German university student, Paul Nipkow proposed and patented the first electron mechanical television system in 1884. Although he never built a working model of the system, variations of Nipkow” spinning – disk “image rasteriser” for television became exceedingly common, and remained in use Bentill 1939. Constatin Perkyi Coined the work television in a paper read to the international electricity congress at the international work fair in Paris on august 25 1900. Perskyi’s paper reviews the existing electromechanical technologies, mentioning the work of Nipkow and others.
However, it was not until 1907 that developments in amplification tube technology, by lee deforest and Arthur Kom among others made the design practical. The first demonstration of the instantaneous transmission, of still Sillhoutte images was by Georges Rigrioux and as a Fournier in Paris in 1909, using a rotating mirror- drum as the receiver.
In 1911, Boris Rosing and his student Vladimir Zworykin created a television system that used a mechanical mirror drum scanner to transmit. In Zirorykin’s works “very crude images” over wires to the “Braun Tube”. (Cathode ray tube or “CRT”) in the receiver. Moving images were not possible because, in the scanner, “the sensitivity was not enough and the selenium cell was very laggy”. On March 25, 1925, Scohish inventor JOHN LOGIE Baird gave the first public demonstration or televised siloiette images in motion, at selfridge’s department store in London. At and T.S bell telephone laboratories transmitted, Halftone still images of transparencies in May 1925. On June 13 of that Year, Charles Frances Jenkins transmitted the silhouette image of a toy windmill in motion, over a distance of five miles from a naval radio station in Maryland to his laboratory in Washington using a leased disk scanner with a 48 – Line resolution.
However, if, television is defined ad the live transmission, of moving images with continuous tonal varoatopm, Baried first achieved. This privately on October 2, 1925. But strictly specking Baird had not yet achieved moving images on October 2. His scanner worked at only five images, per second, below the threshold required to give the illusion of usually defined as at least 12 images per second. By January, he had improved the scan rate to 12.5 images per second. Television Broadcasting in Nigeria started with the initiative of the western Region premier Chief Obafemi, Awolowo who on October 31, 1959 Launched Television Broadcasting at Ibadan the head quarters of the region. The western Region went into partnership with the overseas Rediffusion limited. The western Nigerian Radio vision services limited were created with the responsibility of radio and television, broadcasting under one management.
Nigeria as the giant of Africa has to her credit, the first television outfit in Africa, the western Nigeria Television (WNTV) on NTA Ibadan. The emergence of what is known today as Nigerian television. Authority (NTA) was borne out of the sheer desire to cater for the crying need of variegated audience in terms of News gathering, packaging and transmission this became the second oldest station after (WNTV) resuming transmission on 1st October 1960. The degree NO 24 or 1977 caused all existing television stations in the country to be taken over by the federal government and then led to change of name to Nigerian television authority (NTA).
However, television broadcasting in Nigerian since inception has been transmitting through analogue televisions which use complete waves to transmit pictures and sounds. The major drawback of this is that location plays an integral factor, disabling, distorting images and audio on Television in rural areas (KOMOL: 2008, P. 13).
Over the years, television transmission had grown from strength to strength. It moved from monochrome (black and white to color transmission and today we talk of digitization.
The international telecommunication union (ITU) a united nations organization body responsible for co-coordinating, the use of Telecommunication among nations in its treaty engendering the digitization of broadcast in every member state before 2015. In consonance with the above treaty and with the intent to beat this deadline, the national broadcasting commission which is Nigeria’s broadcast regulatory body gave an ultimatum to Nigeria broadcast firms to digitalize its operations before 17 June 2012 or stand license revocation.
Three years ahead of the global. Deadline, the data was however shifted because it is seen all over that the broadcasting industry was not fully prepared for the digitization to kick off. A new data was them issued by the Nigeria broadcasting commission where Mr. Yomi Bolarinua, Director General, national broadcasting commission announced to the whole world that Nigeria will achieve the digitization of its broadcast stations by June 17 2015. It is unarguable to state that to be in the leading position in todays highly technological and competitive media industry the world over, Nigeria must strive to acquire and utilize state of the art information and communication technologies in its daily news; programme transmission etc. anything short of this will spell doom. For such media organization.
According to Anaeto et al (2008, p.6) information communication technology has been the converging platform for different word of media communication, information machine and technologies and equipment that is Radio, Television, Computers, Satellites, Fibre optic cables, phones, facsimile machine etc. consequently the acquision utilization and application of information communication technology in media practice today makes the world activity less cumbersome, faster with realistic scholarly position adopted by maid (1996. P.13) who posits that new information, communication technologies have revolutionized information gathering, processing, storage, retrieval and transmission, making information available even more widely, rapidly and less expensive.
They do not only gather, process and disseminate information, they can also arrange, marshall and select information rapidly. In spite of the above merits, the truth still remains that acquisition and application of these advanced media technologies by media outfits in Nigeria especially the government owned stations in their gathering, packaging, and transmission equipment is still insufficient. Indeed the recent survey carried out in a bid to ascertain. The comment state of acquisition and utilization of ICT facilities by Imo Broadcasting Corporation which is the study of this project clearly depicts that the station has not fully embraced this trend in the overall packaging and transmission of news and programmes.
Ibeh (2009), deputy director engineering (IBC) seems to agree with the foregoing viewpoint when he stated that although the station has technologies in the packaging and transmission of its news programmer yet such sophisticated communication equipment are still inadequate. The above viewpoint throws more light to challenges, and hindrance of digitization of media broadcast, which is a progeny of information communication technology. It also presupposes that inspire of the much touted technological improvement; there are still gaps in the media world especially in developing countries like Nigeria.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The National Broadcasting commission (NBC) in its stations on TV and Radio broadcast in Nigeria observed that most private and public owned broadcast media outfit an yet to make digital transmission part of their daily broadcasting and even those who are into it are practically implementing it. These researches intend to look at the impact of the digitization of the Nigeria broadcasting media.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
- To identify problems hindering the digitization of broadcasting in Nigeria.
- To evaluate the possible way of surmounting these challenges.
- To understand the socio-economic advantages of digitizing the broadcasting industry.
1.4 Research Question
- What are the problems hindering the digitization of broadcasting in Nigeria.
- What are the possible ways of surmounting these challenges?
- What are the socio-economic advantages of digitizing the broadcasting industry in Nigeria?
1.5 Scope Of The Study
This study focuses, on the impact of the digitization, of broadcasting media in Nigeria, using Imo broadcasting corporation (IBC) as a study area.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
This study is timely because it is on one of the most current prominent issues. Today there is intense competition in broadcasting industry all over the world. Also the study will be of immense benefit of Nigeria’s especially media professionals as it focuses on providing possible sensitization of making digitization a reality.
It is expected that this, will shade more light on where and how media outfit will deliver quality services to the satisfaction of the teaming audience. Finally, students of mass communication will also find the work useful as it touches on their area of specialization.
1.7 Limitations Of The Study
The research study will discuss the effect or digitalization broadcast industries in Nigeria. There are a lot of limitations encountered in the course of the research study such as financial constraints, time factor in availability of materials in ability of the researcher to give in-depth, information to analysis on constitutional provision as contained in the NBC act. Above deregulation of television in Nigeria.
1.8 The Key Terms Used In The Topic Of The Study Are Defined Operationally Thus:
The influence and impression created by television programmes.
This means the use of digital data rather than analogue waveforms to carry out TV broadcasting. Broadcast media: This means one of the mass media channels that make use of television and radio.
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