The Impact Of Work-Life Balances On Marriage Stability Among Married Women

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The Impact Of Work-Life Balances On Marriage Stability Among Married Women


Abstract


This study was designed to explore work-life balance, as predictors of marital stability among women in Anambra State. A total of 540 married female secondary school teachers and bankers participated in the study through multistage sampling procedures from schools and banks in five local government areas of Anambra State. The study employed the descriptive survey design. The participants completed measures of the Work-Life Balance and Revised Marital Adjustment Scales. Two research questions and two research hypotheses were raised. The research questions were answered using the descriptive statistics while the hypotheses were tested at p=0.05 level of significance, using inferential statistics. Simple linear regression analysis was used to test hypothesis one while independent sample t- test for hypothesis two. The results revealed a high prevalence of problems associated with work-life balance among women in Anambra State. Work-life balance was found to significantly influence marital stability (F=18.913, p<0.05). Furthermore, no significant difference was found in the marital stability of teachers and bankers (t=2.751, P>.05). Based on the findings, the study recommends: promotion and implementation of work-life balance policies/initiatives, promotion and establishment of work-place/occupational counselling services in collaboration with human resources department as their activities will assist employees to build and develop good state of mental health, emotional and interpersonal relationships. The study concluded that there was high prevalence of problems associated with work-life balance and that work-life balance significantly influences marital stability. Finally, no significant difference was found in the marital stability of working women in Anambra State.

Keywords: Marital Stability, Predictors, Work-Life Balance, Women.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Marital stability describes a situation in marriage where couples experience a firm, steady, well-balanced and healthy marital relationship. Ojukwu (2017) described marital stability as a situation in which two married people consistently lived happily together in harmony sharing and pursuing common goals and objectives. A stable marriage makes way for a healthy, longer and happy life and provides the necessary condition for having and nurturing responsible children (Whisman et al., 2018; Meçe, 2015). According to Roostin (2018), the stable family environment exerts a directional influence on behaviour and personality development of a child. Children from broken homes are at risk in terms of psycho-social problems (Thomas & Hagnas, 2015).

However, the institution of marriage has recently suffered a considerable setback globally. Instability and marriage breakdown is on the increase. Onokpegu (2018) reported increase in divorce rates in Nigeria. This is devastating and has negative effects on the couple’s well-being, their children and the society at large. Drug abuse, school dropouts, truancies, teenage pregnancies, prostitutions, kidnappings, poor academic performances, armed robberies and other behavioural problems are the resultant effects of marital instability in our society (Torekegan, 2015). A number of factors have been identified as predictors of marital stability. Koraei et al. (2017) identified factors of marital stability as conflict resolution, responsibility, quality of sex life, quality of marital life, couples’ congruence, commitments, shared values, work-life and financial issues.

Presently, there are more women in paid employment and self-employment compared to pre-millennium era. They have taken paramount positions in profitable ventures such as private businesses and formal careers of all kinds (International Labour Organzation, 2018). Maintaining a balance between work and family demands is posing a challenge for women because of the dual responsibilities of managing the home and office work. This sometimes results in stress, burnout, marital dissatisfaction and disruption among other issues (Adisa et al., 2017; Ukeka & Raimi, 2016). Work-life balance is therefore crucial for their effective coping on the two responsibilities and consequently on their marital stability.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

One of the new and challenging developments in modern family life is the increasing rate of marital instability characterized by divorce, separation and cohabitation (Perelli‐Harris et al., 2017). In the commercial city of Anambra, it was reported that at two customary courts, 354 applications for divorce were filed. Ninety-three applications were granted, thirty were withdrawn while 231 were pending in the two courts (Ola et al., 2017). The trend has not changed. For example, in the capital city of Nigeria, about 4000 divorce applications had been filed in the first eight months of 2020. This trend of divorce according to Brand Spur (2020) is worrisome.

The global economic recession that forced companies to fold up have triggered stressful situations for workers and are further aggravated by high organizational demands. A number of bank mergers and acquisitions have brought about high expectations from the employers on their employees (Oludayo et al., 2015). Because of this, a large number of Nigerian workers, especially married female bankers and others, have complained that strains from their jobs results in various degrees of marital dissatisfaction (Ebenuwa-Okoh & Osho, 2015). Although there are several literature on work life balance among working women, most previous researches have focused on job satisfaction, work-life balance policies and practices, productivity and marital satisfaction (Oludayo et al., 2015; Mordi & Ojo, 2011; Ajala, 2013). Several crucial gaps can be identified. The prevalence of problems associated with work-life balance among women in Anambra State and influence work-life balance on marital stability have been scarcely explored.

Working women face different issues such as long working hours, safety issues in moving in different modes of transportation after office hours, child care facilities, unsupportive family members, gender inequality in promotion processes and salaries (Vasumathi, 2018). Women experience problems of long working hours as a result of the hectic nature of working in Anambra State, women leave their homes very early in the morning and come back late at night, spending most of their time in the offices and on the roads with its attending risks. These expose them to stress, poor communication, and inability to relax with their spouses, children and perform other personal responsibilities. Furthermore, they worry about the negative effects of their work on their health, child care, marital relationships, extended family members and friends. Inflexible work schedules, new technology and job characteristics result to burnout, absenteeism, poor job satisfaction and turnover intention.

Work-life balance influences marital stability when work-to family conflict reduces marital satisfaction or when work enhances marital satisfaction. When work demands make it difficult to meet the needs of spouse and family, instability can occur which is work-family conflict and when family domain makes it difficult to perform effectively at work, it results in family-work conflict (Minnotte et al., 2015). On the other hand, work can positively influence family life through psychosocial capital and evolving resources derived from engaging in work leading to enrichment and facilitation of marital stability (van Steenbergen et al., 2014).

The study focused on the female married bankers and teachers in Onitsha, Anambra State because of the following reasons – A large number of women in contemporary Nigeria have joined and dominated the lalour force in the banking and financial sectors. The working conditions in the bank especially in the marketing section where the women are given target to meet within a precise time expose women to risks in the society which include sexual request from their prospective male customers. The long working hours, insufficient flexible working options, and poor support for family responsibilities make women to encounter mid-career and family conflict, leading many of them to quit their jobs for the sake of their personal lives (Wyman, 2016). The teaching professional at the secondary school level in Nigeria is predominated by women also. The perception that teaching profession is a caring and helping vocation and the flexible working condition of the profession as well as the orientation towards life and work balance attracts women to the profession (Tašner et al., 2017). However, advancement in science and technology require the professionals in the education sectors to develop their skills & enhance the knowledge through in-service training to meet the challenge of the century as well as meeting the teaching and learning needs of the large population of students in Anambra State public secondary schools. Thus, the need to balance their job roles, career and family lives.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of work-life balances on marriage stability among married women in Onitsha Anambra State.

Specifically, the study has the following objectives:

  1. Determine whether there is a relationship between work-life balance and marital stability.
  2. Examine the prevalence of problems associated with work-life balance among women in Onitsha Anambra State.
  3. Examine the extent work-life balance influences marital stability of women in Onitsha Anambra State.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Is there a relationship between work-life balance and marital stability?
  2. What is the prevalence of problems associated with work-life balance among women in Onitsha Anambra State?
  3. To what extent does work life balance influence marital stability of women in Onitsha Anambra State?

1.5 Hypothesis

  1. There will be no significant influence of work-life balance on marital stability of women in Onitsha Anambra State.
  2. There will be no significant difference between the marital stability of teachers and banker in Onitsha Anambra State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will help the couples to understand the impact of work- life balances on stability of their marriages. Marriage counselors, Anambra State Government Citizens’ Mediation Centre also will benefit in that they will improve their methods of dealing with troubled married couples. The study will also benefit academics in providing literature for further study on the contemporary topic of work life balances. Judges will gain better insight to aid in the administration of justice to affected couples, and for the judiciary for the promulgation of marital and family laws. Also employers of labour will see the need in introducing flexible working hours. The government will see the need to pass flexible labour laws. Marriage registries can also benefit for the purpose of counseling would be couples.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This research activity is generally interested in assessing the possible impact of work-life balance on the marital stability of women. The study will focus completely on married women who work as bankers or teachers. The reason behind the selection of this group was stated expensively in 1.2. Geographically, this study will be limited female married bankers and teachers in Onitsha, Anambra State.


1.8 Limitation of Study

There is no research/study that has not suffered from one constraint or the other. This study is not an exception obtaining sufficient data (such as names of political elites involved in the violence, number of lives and properties lost, etc.) that may be classified as highly confidential among government circle is cumbersome as most public offices holders are unwilling to make such disclosures. In fact, a great deal of data hoarding takes place in government departments all in the name of maintaining confidentiality. But efforts must be made by the researcher to over-come these limitations so as far the study not to be jeopardized in any form.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Marriage:

Is considered to represent a lifelong commitment by two people to each other and it is signified by a contract sanctioned by the state (and for many people, by God).

Work:

Is defined as the carrying out of tasks, which involves the expenditure of mental and physical effort and its objective, is the production of goods and services that cater to human needs.

Work Life Balance:

Work-life balance has been defined as “a satisfying, healthy, and productive life that includes work, play, and love.

Work-Life Conflict:

This means the competing demands of work and personal life outside work on the individual.

Work-Family Conflict:

(WFC) is defined as discord that arises when the time devoted to or time spent fulfilling professional responsibilities interferes with or limits the amount of time available to perform family-related responsibilities.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on investigate the implication of the electoral violence on democratic consolidation in Rivers State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to investigate the impact of work-life balances on marriage stability among married women in Onitsha Anambra State. The study was specifically set to determine whether there is a relationship between work-life balance and marital stability, examine the prevalence of problems associated with work-life balance among women in Onitsha Anambra State, and examine the extent work-life balance influences marital stability of women in Onitsha Anambra State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 540 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are female married teachers and bankers in the study area.


5.3 Conclusion and Recommendations

The study concludes that there is high prevalence of problems associated with work life balance, work-life balance significantly influence marital stability and no significant difference in the marital stability of working women in Anambra State. The study therefore recommends that the implementation of work-life balance policies/initiatives should be improved in private and public organizations. When employees are able to balance their work roles and family roles, they are happier in their marriages and more productive at work. Work-place/occupational counselling services in organizations should be established and promoted in collaboration with the human resources management in all sectors of the economy. Their activities will assist employees to build and develop good state of mental health, emotional and interpersonal relationships which will directly or indirectly reflect on their marital lives. Mentally and physically healthy employees enjoy high level of life satisfaction both at work and in personal lives. This will not only reflect on productivity and efficiency which is important for organisations’ growth and survival but also on their marital satisfaction and life fulfilments. Further studies should be conducted on the other factors that can influence marital stability among women. For instance, poverty, environment, emotional intelligence, duration of marriage and educational attainment.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

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