The Impact Of Conflict Management On Organizational Effectiveness (A Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri)

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


Abstract


This project with the topic, “Impact of Conflict Management on Organizational Effectiveness” has been chosen as a result of the menace in our organization today both the private and the public.

The first chapter, being the inductor part of the project will give a brief introduction of the topic as well as the purpose of the study, its significance, historical background of federal Polytechnic, Nekede Owerri as the case study and the research questions on the topic.

In the chapter two which is referred to as the chapter of literature review, effort will be taken to review textbooks and current journals as well as write up on areas like the theoretical framework of conflict, the views of different scholars on it.

The third chapter which is the research methodology chapter will present various means of employed in gathering data used for the study and how the research work was structured viz-a viz the research instruments and their description, sampling plan adopted and its procedures.

Chapter four which is tagged, “Presentation and analysis of data” will analyze all the data both those in section A and section B that is the bio data of respondents and individual statements.

The last chapter will give the summary of the whole project and logical conclusion will be drawn from the findings of the analyzed data.


Table of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Certification Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Theoretical frame of the concept
  • 2.3 Dysfunctional and functional aspect of conflict
  • 2.4 Types of conflict
  • 2.5 Sources of conflict in an organization
  • 2.5.1 Conflict resulting from structural organizational Structural differentiation.
  • 2.5.2 Conflict resulting from individual differences
  • 2.5.3 Other issues which can lead to conflict
  • 2.6 Process of conflict Development
  • 2.7 Conflict management in an organization
  • 2.7.1 Structural Approach
  • 2.7.2 Interpersonal Approach
  • 2.8 Conflict and disputes settlement procedures
  • 2.8.1 Internal Procedures for settling conflict
  • 2.8.2 External procedure
  • 2.9 Ordinance governing procedure for handling conflict between polytechnic authority and the students’ union
  • 2.10 Certain Do’s and Don’ts in handling conflict
  • 2.11 Management and organizational effectiveness.
  • 2.12 Management of organizational effectiveness
  • 2.13 Summary
  • References

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Design and Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3` Sources / methods of data collection
  • 3.4 Population and sample size
  • 3.5 Sample techniques
  • 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation of data
  • 4.3 Analysis of data
  • 4.4 Interpretation of result

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Most organizations cherish esprit de cope. They preach it but fail to work for its survival, hence conflict is born. The fact still remains that whereas there is a group of people living or working together in an organization either having a formal or informal setting, conflict is bound to occur.

Right from the genesis of man till date and days to come, conflict has been part of the system. According to a renown psychologist, he said, “science and technology has come to teach us how to fly in the sky like birds and swim in the ocean like fishes but it has failed to teach us how to live peacefully on the surface of the earth”. This is a pointer to the fact that conflict is part and parcel of man’s system.

Flashing back to history, we discover that conflict is as old as man. Right from the day one, when Almighty God created Adam, there arose first ever conflict between God and devil, the accursed over the creation of man.

Likewise, as the world is going globalized, bringing about increase in the world’s output. Decrease in trade barriers between nations, free flow of capital as well as human resources and technology know-how conflict had refused to vanish with all these changes rather they are serving a catalyst to this development.

The term conflict was broadly defined by Agom Assumpta as a situation of disagreement between two parties. It starts where one party perceives that another party has negatively affected or is about to negatively affect something the first person cares for. This is a true picture of the situation in Nigeria organization be it private or public set up regardless of the size of such.

To elaborate it further on this issue, different schools of thought have taken the plan to really r-ray the true nature of conflict. Like the traditional schools of thought, they are of the opinion that conflict is devilish in nature and all effort should be exerted to bring it to an end. But the truth has been unveiled and established by the contemporary school of thought.

This school has presented the true view of conflict as being inevitable. Considering our modern and sophisticated technology as well as people of different and diversified culture, we discover that conflict is not totally devilish nor can it be avoided as presented by the first schools. Rather, if it is effectively managed, it will bring about positive change as well as improve individual morale and dignity.

Pertinent to this, it becomes essential and important on research on the various causes of conflict, its impact on the individuals as well as the organization, design an effective conflict management mechanism which will enhance good and healthy working environment, ensure cordial relationship among the various stakeholders, reduce conflict to the barest minimum and enhance the organizational performance as a whole.


1.1 Background Of The Study

The Federal Polytechnic, Nekede Owerri in 1978 as the college of technology Owerri. It was established by Imo state Government through Edit No.16 of April 1978. It took of at its temporary site at the premises of Government Technical College (GTC), Owerri along Egbu road in the same year.

In 1981, the institution moved to its present and permanent site located in Nekede, Owerri.
By Imo state government Edit No. 6 of 1987, the name of the institution was changed to the Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri’. Six years after, and precisely on the 7th April, 1993, the Federal Government institution. Consequently, it was again renamed “The Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri”.

Functions Of The Polytechnic

The Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri is regulated by the Federal Polytechnic act (CAP139) of 1979. The functions of the polytechnic as provided for in section 2(1) of the act are as follows:
To provide full time or part time courses on instruction and training.

  1. In technology, applied science, commerce and management
  2. In such other fields of applied learning relevant to the needs of the development of Nigeria in the areas of industrial and agricultural production of distribution and for research in the development and adoption of technique as the council may from time determine.
  3. To arrange conferences, seminars and study groups relative to the fields of learning specified in paragraph (a) of this sub section(1).
  4. To perform such function as in the opinion of the council may serve to promote the objectives of the polytechnic. Conscious of the objectives for which the polytechnic was established, it adopted the motto “Knowledge and skill for service” right from its objectives.
Policy Making Organs Of The Polytechnic

The major policy making organs in the polytechnic are

  1. The governing council
  2. The management committee
  3. The academic board.
The Governing Council

This is the highest policy making organ of the policy techniques. The successive governing council have formulated policies and pursued programmes that facilitate the achievement of the objectives of the polytechnic.

Since the inception of the polytechnic in 1978, it has had ten governing council headed by eminent citizens of the Federal Polytechnic of Nigeria as follows:

  1. Mr. Justice A. Ikewechegh – chairman (Jan. 1978 – June 1980)
  2. Prof. C.O Okafor –chairman (July 1980 –Sept 1981)
  3. Engr. I.T.I Ordor – Ag. Chairman (Oct. 1981 – Dec 1982)
  4. Cdr. Chijioke Kaja – Chairman (Aug. 1985 – Nov 1987)
  5. Prof. M.O Chijike – Chairman (Dec 1987 _ Sept 1990)
  6. Dr. Tobais Enyinnia – Chairman (Jan 1991 – Dec 1991)
  7. Dr. I.S. Izugbokwe – Chairman (Oct. 1992 – Dec 1993)
  8. Dr. Lambert M. Udoh – Chairman (Oct. 1992 – Dec 1993)
  9. Prof. Suleiman E. Bogoro – Chairman (Aug. 2006)
  10. Prof. (Mrs.) Akghigbe – Chairman
The Management Committee

The management committee is the second highest policy making organ of the polytechnic. It is made up of all the principle officers of the polytechnic, Deans of schools, directors and heads of division.

The Academic Board

The academic board, which is the equivalent of the university, formulates policies on academic matters.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

It has been observed that most organizations have met their waterloo courtesy conflict and some are still wallowing in some agony due to the same reason, but the fact still remains that conflict is inevitable in every organization.

Hence, management should not fold their arms and look without playing a crucial role.
The aforementioned effect of this inevitability of industrial conflict thus necessitates the need to manage, minimize and if possible avoid its negative impact on the organizational effectiveness in other to enhance a cordial relationship in organizational settings. It is this assumption that is motivating the researcher to embark upon this research work.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The need to embark on this research became cogent due to the intensity of the effect of conflict on organizational performance and the need to design on effective management mechanism.
To this end, the following points highlighted below will serve as the basis for the study.

  1. To look at the concept: Conflict” from different scholars view and its various manifestations.
  2. To show its impact on individual effectiveness and that of organizations as a whole.
  3. To identify the causes of conflict between employees and employer in an organization.
  4. To show the importance of having a good conflict management mechanism.
  5. To prefer good conflict resolutions and management mechanism.

1.4 Research Questions

To ensure effectiveness of this project, the following research questions would need to be answered:

  1. Does conflict have a great effect on organizational effectiveness?
  2. Could cordial relationship exist between the management and the staff during conflict in your organization?
  3. Is internal dispute settlement procedure the best means of settling dispute in an organization?
  4. Does salary and arrears always reduce labour efficiency?
  5. Does communication always enhance organizational effectiveness?
  6. Is strike an effective tool used by workers in getting their demands?
  7. Is there a great relationship between motivation and conflict?
  8. Is stress one of the causes of conflict in an organization?
  9. Can conflict be avoided totally in an organization?
  10. Does economy situation and political instability has an effect on conflict development?
  11. Can social problems emanating from homes cause conflict on an organization?
  12. Is Favoritism and godfatherism also another fundamental cause of conflict in an organization?
  13. Can structural changes in an organization also generate conflict?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

Successful completion of this project will go a long way in assisting human resources managers regardless of their industry, academicians as well as others that believe that human beings as an essential resources needs to be accorded his true position in the organizational realm.

In addition, it will also serve as a good analytical tool in managing conflict in organization and as a reference for other researchers to come.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

This project work will be limited to Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri which is an institution with reasonable large number of staff. The findings of these study were therefore involved the analysis of different ways in which the conflict can happen and the ways out of it.

The data to be analyzed are big and they are usually updated day-in-day-out their system to which these data will be inevitable affected by financial position of the research of these study.


1.7 Limitation Of The Study

The restriction of the research sample size to sample of thirty (30) respondents was as a result of fund required in carrying it out, the time as well as the materials. The project was time consuming and the researcher equally went through some odds as regards meeting the fund requirement.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

Collective Bargaining

This is a system whereby wages and conditions of services are jointly determined by the employer and the employees or their representatives.

Conflict

This is nay dispute or disagreement between two or more individuals or groups resulting from disagreement over an issue.

Effectiveness

This is the degree or extent to which an organizational goal is achieved.

Effective Communication

This is the transmission of messages or signals between a person known as the sender and another known as the receiver and the presence of feed-back.

Employee Turnover

This is the rate at which employees leave and come into the organization i.e. resignation and taking up appointment.

Globalization

This is the process of turning the whole world into a global village by reducing all forms of barrier.

Industrial Relation

This is the interviewing activities of the workers, management and the government for better working conditions.

Management

Management is the act of getting things done through others. It can also be referred to as the position of those occupying the decision making level in an organization.

Technology

This could be defined as the study, mastery and utilization or manufacturing industrial method or systematic application of scientific knowledge to practical tasks industry.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This chapter deals with the summary of the project and draws logical conclusion from the findings of the analysis of the data gathered. Equally, various recommendations on how to reduce and effectively manage conflict in our modern organization were made. Suggestion is equally made for further studies.


5.2 Summary Of Findings

Without mincing words, the project has been chronologically arranged in order to critically establish the impact management on organizational effectiveness, causes of conflict and how it can be managed effectively in an organization.

This first chapter of the project started with a brief introduction of the topic “The impact of conflict management on organizational effectiveness”. The purpose of the study as well as its significance was equally presented without ignoring various research questions and hypothesis that were formulated in order to validate and authenticate the geniuty of the data collected. Effort was equally made to x-ray the background of Federal Polytechnic being the case study and conceptual clarification was made on various terms in the course of the project.

In the second chapter, effort was made in reviewing some relevant and current journals and text books. The theories and views of the concept, conflict, its causes, development, disputes settlement procedure etc. were equally examined after which a summary of the chapter was done with a brief perception of the writer as regard conflict.

Chapter three dealt with research methodology, that is, the research design, instrument used, sampling procedures and plan, description of the research instruments, etc.

The chapter four of the project critically analyzed the administered questions both those in the bio-data section and those in the individual statements section. It equally featured various hypothesis tested with necessary interpretation and decision.


5.3 Conclusion

By and large, every logical thinking academician, employer, manager as well as consultants will have no other choice than to believe that conflict management has a great impact on organization effectiveness. If conflict is effectively managed, it will have a great impact in enhancing and improving the organization effectiveness of the organization concerned. Hence, the project has been able to establish that effective conflict management is a great panacea to organizational effectiveness and employee-employer disagreement. If the relationship between employee and employer as well as that of management staff, senior staff and junior staff can be well monitored via absolute conflict management, this will go a long way in fostering peace and harmony in an organization.


5.4 Recommendations

In order to ensure a continuous employees effectiveness, enhance cordial relationship between employer and employees, reduce conflict in an organizational effectiveness as a whole, the following recommendations are made:

  1. The employer should maintain a cordial relationship with the employees. If this could be done, a peaceful and conducive environment would be created.
  2. A good motivational package should be put in place since the study has revealed that delay in salary and arrears are other causes of conflict generation, once an organization is able to put in place very good motivational packages, the rate of conflict will be drastically reduced.
  3. In addition, salary and overtime should be promptly paid as at when due.
  4. Effective communication mechanism should equally be provided for. Since information is the backbone of every organization and such information cannot be transmitted without an effective communication system, hence, an effective communication mechanism with little or no barrier should be put in place.
  5. Job overload should be avoided. Since the aftermath result of job overload is stress and this will gradually metamorphose into conflict in an organization. Therefore, the management should ensure that workers/ employees are not over burden with junk of job.
  6. Human resources should be given a great priority and preference in the organization. It is quite obvious that man is the most important element among the 4m’s (man, machine, material, money) but despite this, some organizations are still head bent as regards recognition of this priority, hence human resources must be given its place as the backbone and life wire of an organization in every organization.
  7. Decision making is equally another fundamental cause of a conflict because when some organizations are making decision that will affect the employees they hardly consult them or making decision for their representative and this does affect the implementation of such decision. Hence, employees or their representative must always be consulted when vital decisions that will affect on the field are to be made.
  8. As a result of fear of losing present reward, position, peer group or unaware of what the future has in stock etc. employees do resist change and this go a long way in generating conflict. Hence, employees should be well educated, consulted and orientated before introducing changes in an organizations, be it structural one or what so ever.
  9. Equity and justice should equally be given room to operate in an organization promotion and recruitment among others should be based on merit.
  10. Finally, trade unionism should be recognized and called upon for collective bargaining and negotiation when the need for such arises.

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