The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking


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Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering


Abstract


The application and use of computer technology affords a better way of doing things. Therefore, since the advent of computer, there have been great changes in the world, scientifically and technically. With this effect, automated online trading is becoming more popular substituting manual forex trading tools.

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Systems and methods that enable real-time foreign exchange (FX) pricing via retail branch networks, wire room operations and cash management platforms are provided. Essentially, the systems and methods decouple the FX-infrastructure and enable downstream banks to effectively and efficiently access FX transaction services and infrastructure without the need to locally manage such an FX platform in doing so, an FX generation component is employed in connection with standard downstream mechanisms to provide necessary information to a partner FX processing component.

The partner FX processing component conveys information to the downstream entity from risks and costs involved in FX operations. A computer implemented method of processing a foreign exchange (FX) transaction, comprising; receiving an FX transaction request wherein the FX transaction request is received at the downstream banks; employing domestic funds transfer system to generate FX result message is formatted in a standard domestic format transmitting the FX request message to partner entity and receiving a rate file from the partner entity based upon the request.


Introduction


1.0 Introduction

Foreign exchange transaction is the act of buying and selling of international currencies. The evolution of foreign exchange transaction in Nigeria up to its present state was influenced by a number of factors such as the changing pattern of international trade, institutional charges in the economy and structural shifts in production. Before the establishment of the central bank of Nigerian (CBN) in 1958 and enactment of the Exchange control Act of 1962, foreign exchange was earned by the private sector and held in balances abroad by commercial banks which acted as agents for local exports.

During this period, agricultural exports contributed the bulk of foreign exchange receipts. The fact that the Nigerian pound was tried to the British pound sterling at par, with easy convertibility, delayed the development of an active foreign exchange market. However, with the establishment of the CBN and the subsequent centralization of foreign exchange authority in the Bank, the need to develop a local foreign exchange market became paramount.

The increased exported of crude oil in the early 1970’s, following the sharp rise in it’s prices, enhanced official foreign exchange receipts. The foreign exchange market experience a boom during this period and the management of foreign exchange resources became necessary to ensure that storages did not arise. However, it was not until 1982 that comprehensive exchange controls were applied as a result of the foreign exchange crisis that set in that year. The increasing demand for foreign exchange at a time when the supply was shrinking encouraged the development of a flourishing parallel market for foreign exchange.

The foreign exchange market transaction was liberalized in 1995 with the Introduction of an Autonomous Foreign Exchange Market (AFEM) for the sale of foreign exchange to end-users by the CBN through selected authorized dealers at market-determined exchange. The Foreign Exchange Market was furtherly liberalized in October 1999 with the introduction of an Inter-bank Foreign Exchange Market (IFEM).


1.1 The Purpose Of The Foreign Exchange Transaction

The purpose of the foreign exchange transaction market “FOREX” is to assist international trade and investment. The foreign exchange market allows business to convert one currency to another foreign currency. For example, it permits a U.S business to import European goods and pay Euros; even the business income is U.S dollars. Some experts, however, believe that the unchecked speculative movement of currencies by large financial institution such as hedge funds impedes the markets from collecting global current account Imbalances. This Cary trade may also lead to loss of competitiveness in some countries. Uniqueness of foreign exchange market includes the following;

  1. Trading volume results in market liquidity
  2. Geographical dispersion
  3. Continuous operation 24 hours a day except weekends
  4. The variety of factors that affect exchange rates
  5. The low margins of relative profit compared other markets of fixed income.
  6. The use of leverage to enhance profit margins with respect to account size

1.2 Structured Of Foreign Exchange Transaction

The Nigerian foreign exchange market has witness tremendous changes. The second- tier Foreign Exchange Transaction Market (SFETM) was introduced in September 1986,the unified official market in 1987, the Autonomous foreign Exchange Market (AFEM) in 1995, and the inter-bank. Foreign Exchange Market (IFEM) in 1999.
Computerization of the order flow in financial markets began in the early 1970’s

With some landmarks begin the introduction of the designated order turn around system (DOT) and later super DOT which routed orders electronically to the proper trading post to be executed manually, and the “opening automated reporting system” (OARS) which aided the specialist in determining the market cleaning opening prize.


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How to nail it on the head during your project / seminar defence


You are through with writing that project / seminar like “The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking“. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important when defending “The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking“. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset: your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers when defending “The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking“. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line for The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of “The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking” is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential while defending The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome defending The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work e.g The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students just like this topic “The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking” who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

Just like The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking, A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few e.g “The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking” is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking.


References:

This is where every source cited in the research work “The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking” is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.


Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic


Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are: dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being accessible?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.


Structure of a Seminar Paper


I feel like there is a lot of stress out there among grad students about writing seminar papers, especially when we’re told that our goal should be to make an original contribution to the field. That idea can be quite intimidating when we’re just starting out. It feels like you’ve asked us to jump off the deep end of the pool and we don’t know how to swim.

I think part of the problem is that we’re still working out how to structure seminar papers.** Each paper we write is another step closer to a successful, effective, and effective paper; however, we’re still flailing our arms (and other miscellaneous body parts) around because we’re uncertain of exactly how to go about it. I realize, of course, that there is no one right answer. However, below is my suggestion at sticking your toes in the water.


Section #1 — Introduction

Provide a little bit (or a lot) of motivation for the reader to read your entire paper. Failing that, your reader should know what the paper is going to be about by reading your introduction.

Paragraph #1 — Get some attention.

  1. Provide a context by citing a recent text in the field — the point that is cited may or may not be the main point of the text — it is what jumped out at you.
  2. Set-up broader context of what you’re going to do

Paragraph #2-?? — Define issue and the gap.

  1. Define issue and any key terms
  2. Limit scope as necessary
  3. Establish significance of issue
  4. State problem by defining the gap
  5. Explain how present research attempts to fill the gap
  6. Outline contributions (readers will see lit review for more detail.)
  7. End with thesis and preview organization of the rest of the paper

Section #2 — Literature Review

Give some credit where credit is due.

  1. Indicate the current state of the issue/problem/topic
  2. Define or qualify terms
  3. Engage sources in conversation with each other (don’t just copy in annotated bib)

Section #3 — Argument / Discussion

As stated in the Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing: wallow in those complexities!!

  1. Examine issue
  2. Argue how issue can be mitigated, mediated, or mashed
  3. Provide evidence and support
  4. Make some lively commentary along the way

Section #4 — Conclusion

We’re almost done. Don’t quit now.

  1. Summarize research question
  2. Qualify argument/discussion if you need to
  3. Explain where we go now
  4. End well

Section #5 — Works Cited

Double check

Is everything listed on the works cited?

Tips: it’s ok to use sub-headings to keep yourself organized.


Tips On How To Know What Your Supervisor Is Looking Out For In “The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking“


Apparently all schools/colleges ask their undergraduates especially the final students to write their final year project before they are certified to be graduates. These projects are mostly discovery activities geared towards problems solving or basically to make new discoveries or better still have a better understanding of a problem with the aim of proffering better solutions.

With this assigned task an undergraduate will need an advisor, a counselor or a supervisor to guide and direct this activity for a desired result and a successful ending and of course, in return the supervisor have factors to look out for in a student project, so that the aim of the project writing will not be defeated.

As a final year student planning to write your final year project, there are some factors you need to consider when trying to have a good working relationship with your supervisor and you must have the below tips at your fingertips to know what your supervisor look at for in your project.


Selecting the right topic or title:

The supervisor would want to know how knowledgeable one is, in a chosen topic and how far one can go with the topic by asking one diverse questions which could be simple or a bit tough. So one thing is to choose a right topic and another thing is to be knowledgeable about the said topic.


The relevancy of the project topic to the degree course: The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking

This is one of the important things a supervisor looks out for in a project. A final year project must have a purpose and objectives and most importantly be problem solving and must be related to the course of study. So a project topic should be relevant and interesting.


The realistic plan for the project:

A project supervisor will always look at how realistic a project topic is like “The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking“. Will the project aims be achieved and at the specified time. If it will outlived the specified time such topic might be dropped and a new topic adopted to run the set time and fulfill its purpose.


Quality of research materials available:

Another factor a supervisor will consider in project writing by a student is the quality of the materials available for research on the chosen project topic, can materials and information be readily available and are those materials of high standard and convincing not just bogus and fictitious analysis but materials that research has be carried out by scholars related to course of study. So a source of materials used for a project is very important and most supervisors look out for this.


The funding channels:

Almost all project writing needs a good amount of funding to achieved the desired aim, A supervisor would always want to find out how the project will be funded, so as not to have hitches when the project is on. So to have a smooth working relationship with ones project supervisor, the funding of the project must be considered and revisited from time to time. Because a supervisor will look out for this aspect too.


Guidelines for Writing Projects


This guideline we are about to list out was also used to write “The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking“

Undergraduate research project is an independent effort required of students in tertiary institutions. The students, though supervised by an academic staff, are to carry out a pre-determined research within the constraints of their study.

The supervisor is primarily to receive proposals of the research interest, approve it, provide guidance and assess the work at the end. An external supervisor is usual, to provide an external and independent assessment of their research work.

The proposal for the topic is to include the intended subject of study, a brief description, justification for the work, aims and milestones, software and hardware to be employed, assumptions to be made, the methodologies involved and the references.

There are standards in the research build-up, actual research, presentation and print submissions. These put the students in shape for the strict rules they are to face after-school.

In developing the content, there are certain guidelines that would be beneficial.

The work is usually divided into five chapters (broadly) before any further divisions.

Hence the typical formats as such:


  • Title Page: The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking
  • Declaration
  • Certification
  • Dedication Acknowledgement
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • List of Appendices
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses (if applicable)
  • 1.6 Scope of Study
  • 1.7 Significance of the Study
  • 1.8 Organisation of the Project Report

Chapter Two:

  • Literature Review
  • 2.1 Conceptual Clarifications
  • 2.2 Related Theories
  • 2.3 Review of Empirical Literature
  • 2.4 Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three:

Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques (if applicable)
  • 3.4 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.5 Measurement of Variables
  • 3.6 Reliability and Validity of the Research Instrument
  • 3.7 Model Specification (if applicable)
  • 3.8 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.9 Limitations of the Study

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation, Analysis And Discussion Of Findings

  • 4.1 Characteristics of the Sample
  • 4.2 Presentation of Data and Test of Hypotheses Relating to Objective 1
  • 4.3 Presentation of Data and Test of Hypotheses Relating to Objective 2
  • 4.4 Presentation of Data and Test of Hypotheses Relating to Objective 3
  • (Continue as in 4.2 to 4.4 until all the objectives are covered)
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary Of Findings, Conclusions And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary of Findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References (Using American Psychological Association (APA) Style, 7the Edition
  • Appendices

Format Explained

Title Page: The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking

Here, the name of the institution is put, the title of the report (The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking), the name of the Author, then the reason for the report (this is why it is required that students add that it is ‘in partial fulfilment of the course requirement required for the award of the B.Sc degree.’ Then the date is added.

Approval Page:

The name of the institution and department, then a statement signifying approval for the work by the supervisor, head of department and external supervisor. Space is reserved for signatures of all listed parties as well.

Dedication Page:

This is where the researcher dedicate the research to a deity, someone, dead or/and alive. This is different from the acknowledgement.

Acknowledgement:

The researcher here writes to appreciate all that contributed, (technical, financial, moral and otherwise) to the success of the research.

Abstract:

This is the synopsis of the research work of The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking. It is often written last with the tense in past. Usually less than 100 words summarizing the problem statement, the methodology employed, the findings, conclusion and recommendations. This should be in a single paragraph and the word limit not exceeded.

Table Of Content:

The main headings and sub-headings and page numbers of The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking are listed. This allows for easy page identification and reference. The table of content should be edited at the final stage as well, to correctly capture the reflections in the work.

List Of Tables / Figures / Symbols:

The list is to aid the reader in locating tables/figures/symbols. It should contain the tag numbers, tag which reflects the content and the page numbers. It should be well-numbered and unambiguous. In the main content, the figure/table should be well-labelled.
(The body of the work)

Chapter One:

This is the introduction of The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking.

This describes the background, scope and purpose of the research. The rest of the report should be tied to the information supplied. The researcher should strive to present sufficient details regarding why the study was carried out. It shouldn’t be rushed, a gradual build-up of the content from bottom to top is ideal. It should be closed with a linking paragraph that would disclose the objectives, constraints and limitations.

Chapter Two:

This is the literature theoretical review of The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking.

This presents basically, the work done by others. It is on the ground work done by others that the current research is to be based, hence the review. It sums up the pros and cons of all past work but due credit should be given to the various Authors (see the guide on referencing on this website). The use of quotations should be less in use, more of paraphrasing (reading and making out meaning in your own words), making comments in the review is great as well, it just depends on the context.


Chapter Three:

This is the research methodology of The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking.

Here the language used should be in past tense. It is a sum-up of the research design, procedures, the area and population of study. The data sampling and data sources are detailed as well. The method used, from all alternatives, should also be justified. The materials and equipment used is also included.


Chapter Four:

This is for data presentation and analysis (results and discussion) of The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking.

The results obtained in the research are presented here. Visual aids like graphs, charts and the likes should be used as well. The results should be discussed then compared with results of past Authors. The effects and applications of the results should be detailed as well.


Chapter Five:

This part houses the conclusions and recommendations of The Impact Of Computerised Foreign Exchange Transaction In Banking.

From the results of the research, conclusions are made, then suggestions for improvement for other researchers with similar interest. Based on the whole happenings, recommendations are proffered.


References:

This is a list of all the relevant journals, books and all sources of information consulted in the research work, either online or print. Plagiarism should be avoided at all costs, all quoted and exact words of different sources should be properly referenced, in-text and at the references’ list/bibliography. MLA, APA and Chicago style are the commonest referencing styles. (See a comprehensive guide on this blog)


Appendices:

This is for all extra materials that were not added to the body of the work. This encapsulates extensive proofs, official data from case study, list of parameters, et al.

P.S: After writing, the researcher should painstakingly proofread the whole content for grammatical and spelling errors. This could be very distracting while reading the material.

The page numbers are easily distorted by changing font size and type, spacing et al. The final submission should be very clear, error-free(to a large degree) and as required by standard


Understanding Referencing Style When Developing Project Topics like


In developing project topics, it is essential to understand and effectively reference your research. In tertiary institutions, it is also important to note that referencing is a major component of every final year or post graduate research. Most graduating students find it difficult to know which type of reference or citation pattern to deploy.

Reference can simply be defined as a page is the last page of a research, listing It lists all the sources used you’ve used in your research project. The basic reason for referencing is so readers can easily finds what you’ve cited.

In other to properly reference any project or research, one must also understand what reference styles are available and which is appropriate for which or what kind of research being carried out.

Referencing style in research can be said to dictates the research information necessary for a reference and how the research information is ordered, as well as punctuation and other formatting.

How To Choose A Referencing/Citation Style When Developing Project Topics

To effectively reference a research, one must understand that there are many different ways of citing or referencing resources from your research. The citation or reference style sometimes depends on the academic discipline involved. Below are examples of referencing styles, when and how to use them during research:

1. The APA (American Psychological Association) Referencing/Citation Style

The APA referencing style is a kind of referencing that is using used when developing education project topics, Psychology project topics and some other natural sciences. The is the most common type of referencing used in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

The APA referencing style calls for three kinds of basic/essential information to be included in in-text citations namely; the author’s last name and the date of publication of the work being referenced, and these items must match exactly the corresponding entry in the references list.

Below are Examples of APA Referencing List
When referencing A book in Print;

Baxter, B. (2007). Gender equality in Schools and colleges. Philadelphia: Ballière Tindall.

When referencing An article in a journal;

Scholes, M. W. (2009). How children change their minds: Strategy change can be gradual or abrupt. Journal Developmental Psychology, 35, 127-145.

When Referencing Professional or personal websites

The Famous research Site. (2010, July 7). Retrieved January 5, 2018, from https://www.samphina.com.ng

2. MLA (Modern Language Association) Reference Style

The MLA reference style is majorly used by the humanities especially in language and literature. Final year students who are developing project topics in mass communication, languages and communication project topics, theater Arts research topics, History and international project topics, Media and communications studies project topics are advised to use the MLA in referencing their research.

If you’re referencing a source using the MLA reference style, such as a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an article in a journal or website, then ensure that you place the title of the piece in quotations and add a full stop afterwards. Follow it with the title of the full research source, in italics, and then add a comma. This second portion is called the container. Containers are key in MLA referencing as it hold the sources.

Below are Examples of MLA Referencing List
Example of Referencing a Song (Container: Album)

Cardy B. “Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It).” I am…Sasha Fierce, Sony, 2009, track 2.

Example of referencing a book (Container: Book)

Wole, Soyinka. “I’m Drifting.” An Anthology of Modern Indonesian Poetry, edited by Burton Raffel, State University of New York Albany, 1965.

Example of referencing Online Journal Articles

Snyder, Vivian. “The Effect Course-Based Reading Strategy Training on the Reading Comprehension Skills of Developmental College Students.” Journal of Research and Teaching in Developmental Education, vol. 18, no. 2, Spring 2002, pp. 37-41. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/42802532.

Example of referencing An Article (Container: Website or Periodical)

Vance, Erik, and Erika Larsen. “Mind Over Matter.” National Geographic Magazine, Dec. 2016, pp. 30-55.

3. Chicago/Turabian Reference Style

The Chicago/turabian Reference style is generally used by students in Business, History, and the Fine Arts disciplines.

The notes and bibliography style is preferred by many students and researchers in the humanities, including those in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography.

Example of Referencing a Book in Print

Note Style: 1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

Duplicate Note: 2. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.

Bibliography: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

Example of Referencing an Article in a print journal

Note Style: 1. Joshua I. Weinstein, “The Market in Plato’s Republic,” Classical Philology 104 (2009): 440.

Duplicate Note: 2. Weinstein, “Plato’s Republic,” 452–53.

Bibliography: Weinstein, Joshua I. “The Market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology 104 (2009): 439–58.

Example of Referencing an Article in an electronic journal

Note Style: 1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.

Duplicate Note: Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 439.

Bibliography: Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Example of Referencing a website

Note Style: 1.“Google Privacy Policy,” last modified March 11, 2009, http://www.google.com/…

Duplicate Note: “Google Privacy Policy.”

Bibliography: Google. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11, 2009. http://www.google.com/…..

Note: You will need to consult with your project supervisor to determine what is required in your specific course

Appendix

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