Impact Of Class Size On Learning Of English Language Among Pupils In Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area, Ogun State

Project and Seminar Material for English Education

Impact Of Class Size On Learning Of English Language Among Pupils In Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area, Ogun State


Abstract


This study was carried out on the impact of class size on learning of English Language among pupils in Ado Odo Ota local Government Area, Ogun State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of students and English teachers in some selected secondary schools in Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area, Ogun State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that class size influences students concentration during the in Learning of English Language. The study also revealed that class size influences students participation in English learning activities. Th study also reveals that over crowed class room affect the effective learning of English among pupils. And class size influence students cognitive engagement during the learning of English language. Therefore, it is recommended that educators should develop great interest in finding ways of improving pupils reasoning in English and this could be achieved through reduction of class size which makes it easier for the teacher to have more one on one interaction with the pupils. However, it ensures active participation and engagement and work gets done faster. And workshops and seminars should be organized for teachers of English language periodically to enhance and improve their classroom efficiencies and government should make provision for more language instructional materials such as language laboratory, conducive and serene learning environment for the purpose of optimizing the teachers and students output in English Language. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.0 Data Presentation
  • 4.1 Analysis of Data
  • 4.2 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.3 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

With the abolition of slave trade in Nigeria at the beginning of the 19th century, British Colonial interest shifted to agricultural production from exportation to Europe. During this period, precisely in 1842 and 1846 {2009 Britannica encyclopedia} the first missionary stations were established in Badagry (near Lagos in the South West) and Calabar (in the South-East) respectively. Then evangelism grew sporadically to produce the first generation of students who were made up of mainly children of slaves whom the village communities thought they would not miss much. As the British Colonial government felt the needs of African who were literate in English language, who would serve both trade and colonial interests, the missionary therefore in 1880s was officially ordered to teach English language in their schools. As time goes on English language became a language of concentration for reasons such as: it was financially rewarding to study English language more than any of the indigenous languages; certification became conditional upon passing English before any recognition or consideration is given. However, this development and the need to learn English as a Second Language {ESL} necessitated the establishment of the first state school in Nigeria in 1899. It is undoubtedly obvious that English language in Nigeria has an enormous importance so much that for over a century now, it has continued to enjoy the pride of place in all spheres of the nations endeavor – educational, business, communication to mention a few (Ogbonna, 2008).

English language today has gained constitutional recognition to have served as an official language and even gaining the advantage of being the First Language {L1} over the Mother Tongue {MT}. Despite all the importance and position of English language in the country’s educational system, English language still suffers set back in its output. This has been ascertained and established by various examination bodies, government, education planners and individuals. It is highly pathetic and embarrassing that a secondary school graduate could not write an error- free sentence. Some of these students are eloquent but their reading and writing are nothing to talk about (Opeola, 2007), some of this issues that can cause this set back are teachers teaching method, poor study habit of students and lass size.

Badures (2006) opined that class size is the number of students or individual in a particular classroom.He also opined that number of the students required in particular class should be below 40.Any class that has a total of 40 and above students is large class. The effectiveness of class size on students’ achievement and motivation, and its synchronous relation to teaching process and teachers’ workload, attitudes and motivation, is probably the most written about but however a least explored topic in the educational field. Yet, there is no consensus definition in literature to what constitutes a large and small class as material developers, teachers and students in different parts of world have various perceptions of what frames large, small or ideal classes. According to Hayes (2007) there is no numerical determination of what shape a class as teachers’ perceptions of classes differs from one context to another.

Badures (2006) believed that regardless of the number of students in a class, it is a teachers’ perceptions towards the class size in a certain context with particular tools and facilities which are provided that make classes either small or large. Hence, we can say that large classes are those with a specific number of students that teachers cannot handle and resources are not enough to facilitate the teaching and learning process and can pose insurmountable problems for both teachers and students. Mulryan-Kyne (2010) also shares that view and points to a large class as “a class that is too large for effective teaching to occur”. Brown (2001), on the other hand, believed that an ideal class should not exceed 12 students. In another word, a class should be big enough to offer variation and allow interaction and small enough to provide students with opportunities for participating and receiving individual attention.

Finn (2003) revealed that class size has great effects on students’ social and academic involvement in the class and on the teachers’ personality as well. That is to say that students in small classes, on contrary to their peers in large ones, are always under pressure to participate in class activities as “they are on the frying line”, by being more visible to the teacher and may be called upon at any time to answer questions or to participate in a class activity” (page. 346). On a similar view, Resnick (2003) claimed that smaller classes elevate students’ achievement as teachers in such context pay greater attention to each and every student, leaving students with no time to either be destructive or distracted by any means. Consequently, students in small classes encounter continuous pressure to engage in various activities and become active class. On a similar view, Normore and Ilon (2006) conclude that classes of a small size positively influence the teaching process as they encourage students and teacher engagement, allow students to be more cognitively engaged, offer ample time for teachers to cover the whole materials and provide safe school environment with fewer misbehaved students.

Al- Jarf’s (2006) opined that some teachers hold negative views against large classes as they believe having many students in one class can cause some problems that affect them and their students. Some commonly comments heard by teachers are: there is no communication, the class is out of control, lack of individual attention and difficult to set effective group activities. Other teachers always emphasize that it is impossible to concentrate on all students and therefore not enough reinforcement will be made to encourage all to participate in different activities. Participants in Al-Jarf’s (2006) study commented that “due to the size of the class they do not have enough time to pay attention to each student or give every student a chance to speak and participate” (Kennedy, 2006). In words, such context makes some students, especially the shy or weak ones to be neglected or left behind. Kennedy & Kennedy (2006) shared similar view as they believed it is difficult to overcome all of what occur in class when the number of students exceeds a certain limit.

On the contrary, teachers in small classes are able to pay great attention to their students and the benefit from the presented activities is considered to be high. From that, we can say that it is abundantly evident that English teachers encounter great challenges when teaching large classes as they encounter difficulties in knowing all students in the class, having time for all individuals or presenting effective activities and therefore many students, especially the weak ones, tend to lose concentration. Another problem which is borne out in the words of the teachers, and hinders the learning process in large classes is identifying and controlling students who tend to distract their classmates from concentrating on the lesson.

Lazear (2003) assumed that if a student misbehaves and begins disturbing the class, the teacher has to attend the disturbance and control the noise. Such action from one student or more in a large class will block the learning of that moment and demolish the capability of others to learn. Pedder (2003) confirms: in larger classes, more time is needed for non-academic activities related to administrative and organizational procedures and to the management and control of discipline. Reductions in the quantity of learning opportunities constrain teachers from achieving the necessary pace, depth and breadth of curriculum coverage as class size increases (Pedder, 2007). Noise level of some students is also considered to be a problematic issue as it will produce disturbance and prevent their classmates from learning. AL-Jarf (2006) recorded that “large class sizes inhibit small group activities and individualized instruction, because of the noise level and lack of space in the classroom). Admittedly, some researchers have found that classroom noise is a result of students’ boredom, vague instructions of activities presented in class and teachers’ low voice (Harmer, 2000; Lacastro, 2001 and Zhang, 2008). In the light of the aforementioned, this study seek to impact of class size on learning of English language among pupils in Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area, Ogun State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Despite the importance of English language in our society, it still suffers set-back in all our institutions of learning, the secondary school is not left out of this language trauma. It has been discovered that most complaints by students and teachers of English language is the alarming rate which the class-size increases. The truth of the matter is that the first curriculum priority is language. Therefore, English language as far as Nigeria is concerned provides a connecting tissue by which all other subjects are pursued. It is as a result of this that the researcher needs to throw a search light on this subject matter to ascertain the fact if truly class-size affects teaching and learning of English language. More so, it shall be known at the end of this research, the ways by which teachers of English language can teach their subject effectively in an over-crowded class.

Nevertheless, a strong willingness to investigate the influence of classes size on English language teaching according to teachers’ perceptions made the researcher undertake this study where the main theme of this study is to list the problems Nigeria secondary teachers/students encounter when learning English in large classes.

Therefore, it is the researcher intention to draw on a selection of studies from different research to, firstly, examine the study main goal which is the influence of class size on English teaching and learning, secondly, provide personal examples culled from actual experience, thirdly, recognize the issues of concern to English teachers facing these large classes and finally, furnish some recommendations to facilitate the teaching and learning process. This is because Observations have revealed that most of our classes in schools have not less than fifty students; this is an indication that for each of the classes, there would be the challenges of the classroom management, classroom control, classroom maintenance and deviance for the teacher.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the impact of class size on learning of English language among pupils in Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area, Ogun State. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain whether class size influences students concentration in Learning of English Language.
  2. Ascertain whether class size influences students participation in English learning activities.
  3. Determine whether over crowed classes affect the effective learning of English among pupils.
  4. Ascertain whether class size influences students cognitive engagement during the learning of English language.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. Does class size influence students concentration in Learning of English Language?
  2. Does class size influence students participation in English learning activities?
  3. Does over crowed class room affect the effective learning of English among pupils?
  4. Does class size influence students cognitive engagement during the learning of English language?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • H0: Class size has no impact on the learning of English Language.
  • Ha: Class size has an impact on the learning of English Language.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study when completed would enable the teacher to know the dangers associated with over-crowded classroom. It would assist the government and education planners on recruitment and supervision of teachers bearing in mind the expected teacher-learner ratio. The study will assist in providing a guide in the realization of one of the core objectives of Nigeria education which is to make Nigeria one of the technological advanced countries in the world.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on the impact of class size on learning of English language among pupils It will further ascertain whether class size influences students concentration in Learning of English Language, ascertain whether class size influences students participation in English learning activities, determine whether over crowed classes affect the effective learning of English among pupils, and ascertain whether class size influences students cognitive engagement during the learning of English language. However the study is however delimited to selected secondary schools in Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area, Ogun State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Class Size

Class size refers to the number of students a teacher faces during a given period of instruction. Dozens of studies on class-size reduction demonstrate its positive impact on student performance, though a smaller number of studies attempt to cast doubt on the connection between class size and student learning.
Academic Performance: How well or badly students do in studies at school.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of class size on learning of English Language among pupils in Ado Odo Ota local Government Area, Ogun State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the impact of class size on learning of English Language among pupils in Ado Odo Ota local Government Area, Ogun State.The study is was specifically set to investigate ascertain whether class size influences students concentration in Learning of English Language, ascertain whether class size influences students participation in English learning activities, determine whether over crowed classes affect the effective learning of English among pupils, and ascertain whether class size influences students cognitive engagement during the learning of English language.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent arestudents and English teachers in some selected secondary schools in Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area, Ogun State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Class size influences students concentration in Learning of English Language.
  2. Class size influences students participation in English learning activities.
  3. Over crowed class room affects the effective learning of English among pupils.
  4. Class size influences students cognitive engagement during the learning of English language.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Educators should develop great interest in finding ways of improving pupils reasoning in English and this could be achieved through reduction of class size which makes it easier for the teacher to have more one on one interaction with the pupils. However, it ensures active participation and engagement and work gets done faster.
  2. Workshops and seminars should be organized for teachers of English language periodically to enhance and improve their classroom efficiencies and government should make provision for more language instructional materials such as language laboratory, conducive and serene learning environment for the purpose of optimizing the teachers and students output in English Language.

Get Complete Project Material

6,000 Naira

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦6,500 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($25)
FOR GHANIAN STUDENTS
Make Payment of 200 GHS to 0553978005 | Douglas Cloud Osabutey | MTN MoMo

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Impact Of Class Size On Learning Of English Language Among Pupils In Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area, Ogun State

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.