The Impact Of Using Celebrities In Television Advertisement

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

The Impact Of Using Celebrities In Television Advertisement


Abstract


The focus of this work is on the impact of using celebrities in television advertisement. Thus to ascertain whether celebrities in adverts enhance sales is the prime motive/factor in the execution of this research. Chapter one looks at the introduction rationale of the study and the scope.

Chapter two focuses on the sources of literature,, and the review of related literature, especially, the postulations of Thomas C.O. Guinn et al 91998:286) Naresh K. Mathotra (1996:744), William Wells et al (1995:7) and other scholars were reviewed. The summary of the review was also hiched.

The research methodology, sample size and research instrument were the focus of chapter three. The survey method was employed, sample size was 120 respondents while the questionnaire was used as the instrument.

Chapter four deals with the presentation and analysis of data simple percentage bar chart and table were used to present the data. Further, the data was thoroughly analysed and used to test the hypothesis. It was thus upheld that; consumers are more likely to purchase a product when a celebrity endorses it.

  • An advert campaign tends to be more successful when a celebrities is used.
  • Adverts featuring celebrities would succeed more when the celebrities excel in its’ professions.

Consequently, chapter five concludes that an advertisement featuring a celebrity is not a waste of money some areas for further research are also suggested.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In recent years most adverts on television has a celebrity that projects the products or services by way of using the product and with this, has influence on the buyers and customers of these products and services and thus the sales volume of an organization. Basically, a celebrity is described as any famous and influential person that is admired and much spoken about by most people in a society. A celebrity endorser is “any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement” McCracken (1989). The use of celebrities has been adopted by various organizations in advertising products and services. Celebrity advertisements are now common place in the advertising world. Celebrity advertisements influence brand image through a transfer of meaning from the endorser to the brand. Communication activities establish a pattern of connectivity between the image of the celebrity and the image of the brand. According to Patrick Bishop (2000), a Marketing Expert, “When you get a celebrity to endorse your company or sign licensing agreement, you benefit from customer awareness of the property, which could include the perception of the quality, educational value or a certain image. If a celebrity is endorsing or the business is selling the product of a well-known person or entity, then people assume they must be a good company to deal with.” Both entities represent nodes in a cognitive network,whose connectivity can establish contingency between the two entities (Till, 1998; Till et al., 2008). Marketers must understand what happens to the buying decision of the customer when the cultural meanings of celebrities are disgraceful. This is because the customer purchasing and using the product endorsed by the celebrity can obtain some of those meanings and use them in constructing a satisfying self- control. This research is specifically on celebrity advertisement and the influences it has on consumer behavior and sales volume of an organization. Customers’ attitudes regarding brands and products are well enhanced by celebrities, but whether it generates repeat purchase intention and brand loyalty is not so clear (Byrne & Whitehead 2003).However, there is no evidence proving that the usage of celebrity advertisement will achieve increase of sales when compared to a non-use of celebrity advertisement. In fact, consumers might pay more attention to celebrities in advertisements than the actual product endorsed, which is not the marketers intention. As in most pampers advertisements, physically attractive celebrities are especially recognized. They might exert a magnetic power to consumers resulting in a behavioural purchase instead of true brand commitment. But whether or not the purchase behaviour will become repetitive is less clear (Byrne & Whitehead, 2003).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problem of whether or not celebrity advertisement greatly influences consumer behavior and sales volume has been a cause of worry especially as many organizations use celebrities and still not do too well in terms of sales.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following are the aims and objectives of embarking on this study

  1. To examine the impact of celebrity advertisement on consumer behavior.
  2. To examine the impact of celebrity advertisement on sales volume of an organization volume of an organization
  3. To make recommendations on the use of celebrities in the advertisement of products and services.

1.4 Research questions

  1. Does celebrity advertisement influence consumer behavior towards a particular product or service?
  2. Does celebrity advertisement influence the sales of a product or service?
  3. Are there ways the ways celebrity advertisements influence consumer behavior?

1.5 Research hypotheses

  1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between celebrity advertisement and sales volume of an organization
    Hi: There is a significant relationship between celebrity advertisement and sales volume of an organization
  2. Ho: Celebrity advertisement does not influence consumer behavior
    Hi: Celebrity advertisement does not influence consumer behavior

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study would be of immense benefit to organizations who are in a state of dilemma on whether or not to subscribe to celebrity advertisement of its product or service.

The study will also be beneficial to captains of industries, managers and directors of organizations and all relevant stakeholders who are interested in this research.


1.7 Scope / Limitations of the Study

This study is on the impact of celebrity advertisement on consumer behavior and sales volume of an organization.

Limitations of study
1. Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

2. Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Celebrity:

A famous person or the state of being famous

Advertisement:

A statement made in an advertisement usually by a famous or important person saying that they use and like a particular product.

Consumer:

A person who buys goods or uses services


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of Findings

The objectives of this study were;

  1. To examine the impact of celebrity advertisement on consumer behavior.
  2. To examine the impact of celebrity advertisement on sales volume of an organization volume of an organization.
  3. To make recommendations on the use of celebrities in the advertisement of products and services.

Findings from the study revealed that majority of the respondents are of the opinion that there is a significant relationship between celebrity advertisement and sales volume of an organization and that celebrity advertisement influences consumer behavior.


5.2 Conclusion

This research concluded that the Celebrity endorsed advertisements are more attractive than the non-celebrity endorsed advertisements. Respondents also voted that the best medium for watching the advertisements is TV and then Internet. It is further concluded that the highest relationship existed between the perception and the buying behavior. The lowest relationship is, between celebrity attractiveness and the perception. There is a significant relationship among all attributes of the celebrity. It is finally concluded that there is a significant relationship between celebrity advertisement and buying behavior. Respondents clearly conveyed that they do purchase those products and services, which are endorsed by the celebrities. Results show that the celebrity advertisement has reasonable impact on customers as per their attitude and buying intention. Physical attractiveness, credibility and congruence of the celebrity with the reference to endorsed advertisement all have impact on customer perception about the advertised product. It has also been highlighted that celebrity advertisement advertisements boosting up the sales and purchase of product, people like to buy the products more if endorsed by the celebrity and it shows that today’s customer is aware and influenced by media.


5.3 Recommendations

Celebrity advertisements has changed the way advertising used to be few decades ago. It is been accepted to be a ubiquitous feature of modern day marketing (McCracken 1989). The use of celebrity endorsers in the promotion and the sales of products have much influence on customers of organizations concerned. However, some respondents are not influenced by celebrities in adverts. Celebrity advertisement is an expensive engagement and must be planned carefully in order for firms adopting it to gain profitability. As a result a greater understanding of consumers ‘reactions towards celebrity advertisements can help marketers to use it more effectively. It is important that firms that have tarnished images turn to this sort of promotion because celebrities aid advertisement to effectively stand out from the other surrounding clutter. From managerial perspective, the outcomes of this study bring practically important results for marketers to consider when choosing a celebrity for an advertisement.

The following recommendations are suggested:

  1. Organizations are encouraged to intensify the use of celebrities to promote their products;
  2. Organizations should also critically assess the right personality of celebrities for the promotion of their products;
  3. Organizations involved should conduct cost benefit analysis to be sure if the use of a celebrity is worth the amount to be paid for the services of the celebrity;
  4. Companies should critically assess to see if the use of celebrities is really necessary so as to avoid misallocation of resources.
  5. In order to avoid image change and the corresponding loss of public recognition that is associated with celebrity advertisement, a firm should examine a celebrity’s life cycle stage at the time of the advertisement;
  6. To justify paying heavily for a celebrity endorser firms should select celebrities who enjoy wide audience.

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