Impact Of Bullying On Mental Health Of Students In Secondary School
This study was carried out to examine the impact of bullying on mental health of students in secondary school using some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State as a case study.The study was specifically set to ascertain the prevalence of bullying among secondary school student, determine the perceived causes of bullying behaviour among secondary school student, and find out the effects of bullying on the mental health of students in secondary school. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students of some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of bullying among secondary school student is high.Furthermore the result of the findings reveals thatthe effects of bullying on the mental health of students in secondary school includes: emotional truma, anxiety, depression, and stress. Therefore, it is recommended that awareness program for family and community about signs and symptoms, factors influence bullying in schools and how to deal with it should be encouraged. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Bullying exists in all communities, either in developed or developing societies from long years, it is considered the most common form of aggression and violence in schools. Multiple studies indicated that bullying makes schools to be unsafe places for students (Elsayed et al., 2019). Bullying is defined as repetitive violent behavior that occurs over time in relationships characterized by an imbalance in power and that can be manifested in many different ways. It is the systematic abuse among peers or a process of intentional and repetitive aggression, characterized by aggressive behavior that involves direct or indirect intimidation, insults, harassment, exclusion and/or discrimination (Oliveira et al., 2017). Bullying can take different forms, it can be physical which may involve kicking, hitting, taking personal belonging, pushing, e. t. c., it can also be verbal which involve teasing maliciously, calling the victim names, being shouted at, being humiliated, threat, isolation e. t. c., it can also be social, for example social exclusion, spreading of rumors, extortion, false gossip, mocking e. t. c., and it can also be cyber for example bringingdiscomfort to others through the use of cell phones and the internet, humiliation (Lee et al., 2017).
Adolescence is arguably one of the most significant yet challenging developmental stages characterized by achieving numerous milestones, while dealing with rapidly unfolding emotional and social-relational incidents. At this stage of development, it is essential to have a healthy and successful completion of developmentally required tasks, as healthy adolescent progression impacts future biopsychosocial wellbeing (Zhang et al., 2019).
Mental health includes psychological and social wellbeing. It has a hug influence on how we think, feel and behave. A good state of mental health and wellbeing is required for an individual to carry out day to day functions. Mental health is important at every stage of an individual’ s life. Mental health defined by (WHO, 2018), as being physically, mentally and socially wellbeing, and the absence of disease. It is interconnected to the promotion of wellbeing, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of people affected by mental disorders.
Adolescence who are exposed to bullying report problems such as emotional trauma, a negative impact on school life, syndromes such as depression and anxiety, anxiety spectrum disorders such as social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder, behaviors such as psychotic symptoms and somatic symptoms (e.g., stomach ache, headaches, dizziness, and back pain), sleep disorders, and physical damage in the short term (Çalışkan, et al., 2019).
Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses (PMHN) have the ability to assist in bullying prevention in schools by early detection by obtained information in active listening that becomes the basis for assessment andintervention activities. PMHN they are able to assist in implementing anti-bullying programs, assist victims, bullying and individuals who are present in a bullying incident, by providing counseling services, and they can also be utilized to teach students skills relating to their social contexts (Staples, 2016).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Bullying is a very serious problem in schools. If not seriously tackled, bullying can lead to absence from school, damage to school property and even death. Some students had been hospitalized as a result of bullying which consequently affected their academic performance. In some cases, the victims of bullying do not report incidences of bullying to their parents, guardians and teachers and end up being emotionally depressed and truants. Students with special needs are worse hit because by their very nature, they are very vulnerable. Several reports on bullying that students loitering during lesson while some play in nearby compounds refusing to go to school because of fear of being bullied. As noted by Aluede (2006) and Fajoju (2009), the use of guns, knives and other dangerous weapons is now more common than ever in Nigerian school system. This causal observation and several reported cases of bullying in schools prompted this investigation with a view to identify the common types of bullying and the causes, factors of bullying and, teachers’ perception about bullying and its impact on academic performance of students and school administrators strategies for managing bullying in school so that the environment could become student friendly for their effective learning. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the effect of bullying on children (a case study of selected primary school inNvuigwe). There is the need to be able to identify some bullying traits among schooling adolescents and techniques that could be adopted to curb or substantially reduce bullying among schooling adolescents.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major of this study is to examine the impact of bullying on mental health of students in secondary school. By extension, this study will specifically;
- Ascertain the prevalence of bullying among secondary school student.
- Determine the perceived causes of bullying behaviour among secondary school student.
- Find out the effects of bullying on the mental health of students in secondary school.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following questions
- What is the prevalence of bullying among secondary school student?
- What are the perceived causes of bullying behaviour among secondary school student?
- What are the effects of bullying on the mental health of students in secondary school?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- Ha: The prevalence of bullying among secondary school student is low.
- Ho: The prevalence of bullying among secondary school student is high.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Bullying has risen to become one of the most important forms of interpersonal violence among adolescents worldwide. However, the study has the following potential benefits. In the first place, the study findings would boost teachers’ understanding on the bullying behaviours in schools. Second, the study would provide greater insight to the school administrators, managers and teachers on the factors that contribute to bullying. Thirdly, it would provide the need for school counsellors to identify bullies, prevent victimization and help students to interact in more appropriate way with their schoolmates. Finally, it would help teacher preparation colleges and educational curriculum developers to improve their programmes so that teachers can be more effective in dealing with students’ behaviour.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study focuses to examine the impact of bullying on mental health of students in secondary school. Geographically the study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Lagos State.
1.8. Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Bullying is a type of aggressive behavior that a student or group of students intentionally and repeatedly exerts upon another student who cannot defend themselves because of an imbalance of power.
A person’s condition with regard to their psychological and emotional well-being.
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of bullying on mental health of students in secondary school using some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State as a case study.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of bullying on mental health of students in secondary school using some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State as a case study.The study was specifically carried out to ascertain the prevalence of bullying among secondary school student, determine the perceived causes of bullying behaviour among secondary school student, and find out the effects of bullying on the mental health of students in secondary school.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent arestudents of some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- The prevalence of bullying among secondary school student is high.
- The perceived causes of bullying behaviour among secondary school student includes: wrong upbringing, poor parent-child relationship, jealousy, low self-esteem, and cruelty.
- The effects of bullying on the mental health of students in secondary school includes: emotional truma, anxiety, depression, and stress.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- Awareness program for family and community about signs and symptoms, factors influence bullying in schools and how to deal with it should be encouraged.
- The school should provide counselling and support for students at risk of being involved in bullying.
- Psycho-educational program by psychiatric mental health nurse, school health nurse and social workers in schools to equip students social and interpersonal skills and know them the negative effect of bullying on colleagues.
- Further follow-up of students by counselors and school nurse for predicting those at higher risk of behavioral abnormalities.
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