Impact Of Broadcasting Media In The Crisis Management In Kaduna State
1.1 Background of the Study
The fast advancement of information technology has provided the media with more sophisticated tools for controlling the flow of information and influencing society’s ideas and emotions. Because of this capacity, the mass media are the most essential crisis management tools in society, capable of assisting in the reduction of crisis damage by promoting high levels of readiness and alerts (Ferrier &Haque,2003). As a result, individuals have grown to rely heavily on information gained from the media to develop pictures, views, and, in some cases, advice in their everyday endeavors. (MacQuail, p. 24 in MacQuail, 2000). One of the most often debated topics in the media is its fascination with crisis and crisis situations, which are newsworthy for a variety of reasons. Information is seen as a significant aspect in generating or lowering stress in times of crisis. Indeed, it is frequently suggested that the misuse of mass media instruments in times of crisis, particularly in complex and fragile countries such as Nigeria, might have significant implications. When it comes to crisis reporting, this is generally where journalists’ moral and professional obligations are put to the test. When it comes to crisis reporting, the majority of these journalists overlook their social obligations since they consider crisis to be one of the most important components of news value. (Sankore, 2001, p. 15) The importance of the media in soothing or dispersing societal crises cannot be overstated. This is because the media, as agenda-setters in society, have a critical role to play in averting or regulating crises once they have begun. It’s because the media, particularly broadcast media, wields the power to shape people’s minds and hearts. What people hear on the radio or television is usually taken as seriously as possible (Pate 2000:32). The media’s involvement is critical in every crisis situation. Information is thought to be a key aspect in raising or de-escalating conflict. Information concerning the problem is not carefully distributed to the public; this might have bad effects for the country in question. This is because, in times of crisis, the media’s reporting have the potential to set the entire country on fire. This is where the journalist’s social obligation is put to the test. As such, according to Sankore (2001), “nothing defines the nature of a media organization more vividly than any crisis that pits nation against nation or one part of society against another.” In times of crisis, the media’s role is amplified by society’s desire for more news, information, and analysis, as well as its increased ability to influence discussion and shape public opinion.”
The media is a neutral instrument that may be utilized for good or evil. In times of conflict, the media may be utilized to promote peaceful coexistence as well as to promote destructive behavior. In any given civilization, the media is so influential that it is referred to as the “fourth domain” of governance. Conflict experiences have shown that the media may act as a change agent in a conflict. Although the comments of presenters have undoubtedly fueled disputes and caused strain in relationships, there is a positive component of its usage that has contributed to peace building and conflict transformation. Conflicts have been shifted from bad to positive aspects as a result of the media’s frequent and substantial activities in preventing violence and promoting peace (Wilson, 2014). It is against this background that this study intends to investigate the role of mass media in crisis management.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The advancement of communication technology have had a profound impact on how conflicts, combat, and conflict resolution are conducted. Those today know far more and much sooner about key events in international relations than people in previous generations (Gilboa, 2002). There are millions of worldwide news networks that broadcast live from all corners of the globe and via the internet, giving viewers direct access to developing events and, in some cases, influencing how they develop and end. However, because knowledge is power, the media has the ability to intervene and prevent conflict at any level, whether it is latent or increasing. The media’s duties are commonly acknowledged to be to inform, educate, and entertain. The media’s information and instructional roles present it with a significant chance to assist in conflict resolution, especially when the profession’s ethics are properly followed. Media practitioners must be trustworthy, accurate, fair, and balanced in their reporting and broadcasting, according to ethics. The media’s role in conflict resolution may play a factor in the success of conflict resolution. This is dependent on a variety of elements, including ownership, journalistic interests, comprehension of the disputed subject, and others. The media can be biased and choose sides in a conflict, making it difficult to settle or manage (Otufodunrin, 2013).
Despite the important roles the media may play in crisis and crisis resolution, researchers and practitioners have not explored the issue thoroughly. Even though, in comparison to most African nations, Nigerian media is extremely vigorous, competitive, and free. According to libertarian media theory, this can scarcely be utilized for selfish advantage by states and people who work to safeguard their public image and stay politically neutral at all times. As a result, in such a setting, the media should support a competitive political system that promotes democracy, peace, and stability. A number of studies have also been conducted on the broad causes of the crisis in Plateau State’s Jos North Local Government Area and other regions of the nation. However, these studies have mostly ignored the media’s indirect and invincible involvement in crises. As a result, the study’s goal is to examine the role of broadcast media in crisis management in Kaduna State.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to examine the impact of broadcasting media in the crisis management using Kaduna State as case study.
Specifically the study seeks:
- To establish if there is broadcasting media accessibility and coverage within areas of crisis in Kaduna State
- To ascertain if broadcasting media has contributed to crisis management in Kaduna State.
- To identify the challenges, the broadcasting media has faced in dissemination of information during violent Crisis.
- To determine the roles, the broadcasting media plays in managing Crisis in Kaduna State
1.4 Research Questions
The research is guided by the following questions:
- Is there broadcasting media accessibility and coverage within areas of crisis areas in Kaduna State?
- Has broadcasting media contributed to crisis management in Kaduna State?
- What are the roles the broadcasting media plays in managing Crisis in Kaduna State?
- What are the challenges the broadcasting media has faced in dissemination of information during violent Crisis?
1.5 Significance of the Study
Finding from the study will be relevant to media presenters, journalist, security personnel and the government. To media practitioner it will increase the awareness of on the need to cultivate positive attitude while reporting crises cases in order not to create panic in the society and at length they should ensure that information dished out to public audience are genuine since they know that those details affect public opinion and beneficial to policy makers. The result of the study will heighten the enlighten the government on the need to come up with credible and implementable policies to curb the incessant crisis spurring up in all region of the country and improve their livelihood. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and serve as reference material to both scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.
1.6. Scope of the Study
The scope of this study borders on the impact of broadcasting media in the crisis management. It will further establish if there is broadcasting media accessibility and coverage within areas of crisis. The study will also ascertain the challenges, the broadcasting media has faced in dissemination of information during violent Crisis. The study is however delimited to Kaduna State in Nigeria.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. However in spite of the constraint all these constraint were downplayed to give the best.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
Crisis is any event or period that will lead, or may lead, to an unstable and dangerous situation affecting an individual, group, or all of society. Crises are negative changes in the human or environmental affairs, especially when they occur abruptly, with little or no warning.
Crisis management is the application of strategies designed to help an organization deal with a sudden and significant negative event. A crisis can occur as a result of an unpredictable event or an unforeseeable consequence of some event that had been considered as a potential risk.
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