The Impact Of Brand Image And Rebranding On Customers’ Purchasing Decision In Nigerian Universities (A Case Study Of Nestle)

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The Impact Of Brand Image And Rebranding On Customers’ Purchasing Decision In Nigerian Universities (A Case Study Of Nestle)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine reading culture of secondary school students and their performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West, Ondo State. The study was specifically set to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between reading culture, determine the effects of the poor reading culture on students academic performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West, determine the implications of the poor reading culture on students academic performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West, and find out the factors affecting students study habit in secondary schools. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Akoko South West, Ondo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between reading culture and students’ academic performance in secondary schools. Furthermore the study also revealed that he factors affecting students study habit in secondary schools includes: inadequate learning materials, truancy, overcrowded classroom, noisy school/home environment, and students’ attitude towards the subjects. Therefore it is recommended that the learners should be reminded of the inexhaustible gains of reading. The personal efforts of individual learners count so much in order to cultivate the desired attitude towards reading, learners should devote much of their time to purposeful activities. Taking pains to read both at home and school will enhance language. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Reading is perceived as an indispensable tool for academic success and also forms an integral part of any learning situation, and is as well the bedrock of education. Therefore, Access to information is crucial to individual advancement as well as corporate educational development. Information is indispensable, and, according to Yusuf (2007), bridges the gap between knowledge and ignorance. One of the major sources of acquiring information is reading. Reading is the base by which other academic skills are built. It offers a productive avenue to improving vocabulary, word power, and language skills. Tella and Akande (2007) assert that the ability to read is at the heart of self-education and lifelong learning and that it is an art capable of transforming life and society. Yani (2003) posited that reading habits of Nigerians are what has become a matter of concern in our educational and national development. He stated further that in a developing country like Nigeria, the concept of reading habits should not be relegated to the background. This is because through reading, human beings get better informed and understanding of the universe they live on. More so, reading makes a way for better understanding of one’s own experience and can be an exciting voyage of self discovery. A child that forms the habit of reading is always performs better than his colleagues at school because he becomes he gains more knowledge than them and understands better than his colleagues what they are being taught in class.

It is saddening to note nowadays that in Nigeria students reading culture is deficient. This is because the general orientation has placed priority on other less important things. For instance, majority of the youth believe that reading does not bring quick money. People believe that education and reading is a long term project which does not yield immediate dividend but, if at all, future money. Youths find it difficult to wait for a long term to make fortune; and because they want immediate money through Machiavellian means they venture into politics, business, internet fraud that brings money quickly. As a result of these, reading culture does not mean anything to many students nowadays anymore. An examination of reading shows its significance. Reading involves series of systems like eye to eye movement, tracing, moving along with hands while reading. A poor reading habit therefore does not only affect proficiency in the English language and other subjects, it possibly affects the coordination of some body parts.

There is a general feeling that many Nigerian students do not like reading. Many teachers often complain about the poor reading habit among their students which can have implication on the personal and intellectual development. Edomwandagbon (2005) held tenaciously to the view that if students who were preparing for both internal and external examination avail themselves of facilities in the various Libraries, read their notes and text books diligently, the incidence of cheating, impersonation and examination malpractice and cultism will be greatly reduced. In 2001, according to Omo-Ojugo (2005), the World Bank in conjunction with the Nigerian Institute for Social and Economic Research, Ibadan produced a grim report on the Nigerian graduate which has confirmed the fears of educators, parents, employers and the general public about the degeneration of the country’s education. The report revealed that the average graduate who leaves a university or polytechnic with a degree or certificate is not worth the qualification, which he is supposed to have. The report concluded by saying that the average Nigerian graduate lacks technical skill, has a poor command of English, is poorly trained and largely unemployable. Harold (2001) opined that lack of vibrant reading culture among Nigerians has been many a publisher’s nightmare for a long time in the country. Poverty, illiteracy and high cost of books were fingered as being responsible for this. Obafemi (2006) opined that the poor reading culture among Nigerian students was due to economy that was prostate; reading was expensive and had become a leisure most people could ill afford. Also, the in-thing according to him was that people prefer to stay in their homes and watch home videos rather than pursuing education.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The general feeling that poor reading habit among Nigerian students is getting out of control is very terrifying and infuriating. The high failure rate in both internal and external examinations, the increase in student dropout rate, the production of half-baked graduates, etc, are all affecting the country socially, economically and politically. The Government effort in fighting illiteracy is being thwarted by the students who do not read neither their prescribed textbooks nor for pleasure. The much needed manpower which the tertiary institutions are supposed to produce fall beyond required standard because of the students’ nonchalant attitude towards their studies with regard to reading. Many students, who would have contributed immensely if properly trained, drop out because of poor performance due to inadequate preparation for their examinations. This study therefore intends to carry out an investigation into assessment of reading culture of secondary school students and their performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objectives of this study is to assess reading culture of secondary school students and their performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West. The specific objectives include:

  1. Ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between reading culture and students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
  2. Determine the effects of the poor reading culture on students academic performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West.
  3. Determine the implications of the poor reading culture on students academic performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West.
  4. Find out the factors affecting students study habit in secondary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. Is there is a significant relationship between reading culture and students’ academic performance in secondary schools?
  2. What is the effects of the poor reading culture on students academic performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West?
  3. What are the implications of the poor reading culture on students academic performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West?
  4. What are the factors affecting students study habit in secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between reading culture and students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
  • Ha: There is no significant relationship between reading culture and students’ academic performance in secondary schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is hope that result findings of this research will be of relevancy or significance in the following areas:

  1. It will help students to make adequate planning on reading so as to boost their academic performance.
  2. It will enlighten the teacher on what to do to promote reading culture among students.
  3. It will serves as an eye opener for educational policy makers or planners and administrator on the effect of reading culture on the academic performance of students thereby promoting adequate preparation in planning the curriculum.
  4. It will help the parents to provide necessary reading materials for their children and monitor them in order to improve their reading habit.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will focus generally on reading culture of secondary school students and their performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West. Hence the study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Akoko South West.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse’s nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Reading:

Reading refers to the meaningful interpretation of visual and graphic symbols into ideals and concept.

Reading Culture:

Is the process of building up positive reading attitude among students and children over a period of time.

Students:

Is a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution.

Academic Performance:

Can be defined as the level of accomplishment the person or an individual students in academic line achieves in a given time


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on reading culture of secondary school students and their performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West, Ondo State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine reading culture of secondary school students and their performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West, Ondo State. The study was specifically set to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between reading culture, determine the effects of the poor reading culture on students academic performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West, determine the implications of the poor reading culture on students academic performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West, and find out the factors affecting students study habit in secondary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Akoko South West, Ondo State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a significant relationship between reading culture and students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
  2. Poor reading culture has a negative effect on students academic performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West.
  3. The implications of the poor reading culture on students academic performance in internal and external examinations in Akoko South West includes: poor participation in class assignments, irregular reading of books leads to poor performances, not visiting library regularly results to poor performance, inability to consult teachers regularly for explanation of topics not understood leads to poor performance, and inability to read at home affects students performance.
  4. The factors affecting students study habit in secondary schools includes: inadequate learning materials, truancy, overcrowded classroom, noisy school/home environment, and students’ attitude towards the subjects.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The learners should be reminded of the inexhaustible gains of reading. The personal efforts of individual learners count so much in order to cultivate the desired attitude towards reading, learners should devote much of their time to purposeful activities. Taking pains to read both at home and school will enhance language.
  2. Parents should encourage their children to develop a good reading culture from infancy.
  3. Governments at all levels should partner with the private sector to reward school children and individuals that demonstrate evidence of commitment to the reading culture. This can be achieved by organizing award nights and library week’s where prizes could be obtained by those deserving individuals and groups.
  4. Teachers like their counterparts, in the civil service, public or private sector deserve good remuneration and better conditions of service in order to enhance effective teaching. Government should stop lukewarm attitude to education in order to promote reading culture of the children. Government should organize various courses, workshops and conferences to sell the noble idea of good reading culture to student and all stake holders in the educational system. Where the above steps are taken and implanted with all sense of seriousness and commitment, the reading culture of our secondary school student will definitely improve.

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