The Impact Of Boko Haram Insurgency On Nigeria National Security

Project and Seminar Material for Criminology And Security Studies

The Impact Of Boko Haram Insurgency On Nigeria National Security


This study was carried out to assess the impact of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigeria national security. The study will seek to unravel the root causes of Boko Haram insurgency and its national implications. The specific objectives of the study are as follows; To investigate the challenges of terrorism and national security using Boko Haram as a case study; To consider different socio economic implication of Boko Haram especially the issue of poverty and injustice as being expressed by leaders as the causes of Boko Haram crisis.; To unravel the ideology driving Boko Haram insurrection; To make recommendation on possible solution to book Haram insurgencies.The study used the qualitative design and is descriptive in nature. It is what describes a particular state of things in a given time. This study has tried to unravel the foreground of poverty as the instigating factor of the Boko Haram insurgency, although it may be a necessary factor, but it is not enough to explain why Boko Haram has become a terrorist organization. Among others, the study recommended that the Nigerian government should intensify border patrols, particularly with Chad, Niger and Cameroon, and provide Nigerian immigration with sufficient resources to comply with its legal mandate to monitor the entry and exit of people, which makes it difficult for groups such as Boko Haram to invade and operate in Nigeria; that Security officers, especially police and state security services, must also be adequately equipped in place of reagents. They should be proactive in getting the information to collect the key to beating Boko Haram instead of showing brutal violence after each terrorist attack; and that the country should also work with the international community to fight against Boko Haram by sharing information that could weaken the group’s capacity.

Table of Contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Research Objective
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 The Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Insurgency
  • 2.2.1 Characteristics of Insurgent Warfare
  • 2.2.2 Differences Between Insurrection and Conventional War
  • 2.3 The Nigerian State’s Response To Domestic Insurgency: The Boko Haram Insurgency
  • 2.4 Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Method of Data Collection

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 History of Insurgency in Nigeria
  • 4.2 Origin, Ideology and Philosophy of the Boko Haram Sect
  • 4.3 Remote Causes of the Boko Haram Crisis
  • 4.3.1 Prebendal / Affective Relationships
  • 4.3.2 Politicization of Ethno-Religious Sentiments.
  • 4.3.3 Economic Deprivation / Poverty
  • 4.3.4 Almajiri Syndrome
  • 4.3.5 Proliferation of Terrorism Globally
  • 4.4 Boko Haram and Implications to National Security

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • Bibliography

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

It is a historical fact that human society has always been shaped by violence in various forms. In traditional societies, violence included raids, tribal wars, slavery and rebellion. These were carried out as individuals and groups sought to improve their power, status and influence over others, or to register their grievances. The insurrection has existed throughout history, but it has decreased in strategic importance. Today, the world has entered another time when rebellion is common and has strategic importance.

The uprising is a strategy used by groups that cannot achieve their political goals with conventional power takeovers. The uprising is characterized by persistent violence, asymmetry, ambiguity, the use of complex terrain (jungles, mountains, urban areas), psychological warfare and political mobilization that protect the insurgents and ultimately affect the balance of power in your favor. Insurgents may try to gain power and replace the existing government (revolutionary uprising), or they may have more limited goals such as separation, independence, or change in a particular policy. They avoid battlefields where they are weakest and focus on the areas where they can operate on equal footing. They try to postpone resolute action, to avoid defeat, to assert themselves, to expand their support and hope that the balance of power will change in their favor over time (Metz, 2004: 2).

In general, there are two types of uprisings. The first is what may be called a “national” uprising. The main opponents are the insurgents and a functioning government, which has a certain amount of legitimacy and support among the people. The differences between insurgents and government are based on economic class, ideology, identity (ethnicity, race, religion) or other political factor. The government may have external supporters, but the conflict is clearly between the insurgents and a national government. The national uprisings are triangular because they involve not only the two antagonists, the insurgents and the insurgents, but also a multitude of other actors who can change the relationship between one or the other supporting antagonist. The most important of these other actors is the population of the country, but it can also involve states, organizations and external groups. Insurgents and insurgents pursue strategies that somehow reflect the image of others as they try to weaken the other party, while at the same time attracting the neutrals or those who are not committed to one side or the other (Metz, 2004: 2). ).

The second important type is the uprising “liberation”. These place the insurgents against a ruling group that considers themselves external residents because of their race, ethnicity or culture. The goal of the insurgents is to “liberate” their nation from the foreign occupation. Examples include the uprising in Rhodesia, the white minority government in South Africa, the Palestinian uprising, Vietnam after 1965, the Afghan uprising against the Soviet occupation, Chechnya, the current uprising of the Taliban / Al Qaeda in Afghanistan, and the uprising. of Iraq (Metz, 2004: 3).

Insurgent movements have always been part of human history. Insurgent forces have been a constant factor in the history of the war, from the nomadic rebels who ousted the Roman Empire to the Internet jihadists who exploded the plane and unleashed the misunderstood “global war on terror” in the United States. And fighting them has become more difficult than ever. According to Max Boot, “Invisible Armies” is a narrative about guerrilla warfare and insurrection, from its origins to the fall of the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia in the 22nd century BC. Chr. To the present is enough (Boot, 2013).

Among the many “liberal” insurgents that Boat (2013) is considering is the American Revolution; The fight against Napoleon in the Iberian Peninsula. The war of Greece for independence against the Ottomans; The unification wars in Italy and several rebellions against the colonial powers, such as the slave revolt against the French, which led to the founding of the Republic of Haiti. In the twentieth century, Boot observed the effects of irregular forces in World Wars 1 and 2, contributing to insurrectionThe contribution to the insurrectional theory of Mao Tse Tung’s seminal work “In the War of the Guerrillas”, from whose experiences in the Chinese civil war the most diverse won
The French and British reactions to rebellions against their waning empires, the “chic chic” revolutionaries of the 1960s, and the rise of radical Islamism (Boot, 2013).

With insurgents putting the weak against the strong, history shows that most of them are failing (Boot, 2013). Between 1775 and 1945, only a quarter achieved most or all of its goals. However, according to the boat (2013), this number has increased to 40% since 1945. One reason for improving the success rate is the growing importance of public opinion. Since 1945, the development of democracy, education, the media and the concept of international law has worsened in order to undermine the will of the states that are committed to prolonged counterinsurgency. In the fight for the story, the insurgents have much more weapons at their disposal than before (Boot, 2013). As a result, regular armies from the American Revolution to World War II, Syria, and Afghanistan are facing irregular combatants who are hiding among the population and targeting their targets.

In many African countries there is widespread dissatisfaction and disillusionment between different communities, because successive governments are unable to resolve complaints that are due to a lack of response from the state and insensitivity to the difficult situation of the EU population for long periods of time. This creates despair and frustration that certain leaders use to organize defiant attacks or incipient anarchy. Terrorist acts committed by insurgent groups such as Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), Al-Shabab, the Islamic Salvation Front, the Niger Deltas Movement (MEND) and the current Boko Haram Crisis witnessed clear examples ,

The emergence of Boko Haram, an Islamic extremist sect that has moved through violent activities such as killing, bombing, and suicide bombing due to the introduction of stringent Islamic laws and the Islamization of Nigeria, has taken on a troubling dimension. However, Nigeria is not immune to the violent crisis of extremist groups. These include the 1980 Maitatsine riots in northern Nigeria, where thousands died. The unrest of Kano in 1982, the crisis of Ilorin in March 1986; Crisis due to Nigeria’s membership in the organization of the Islamic Conference in 1986; the Zangon-Kataf mutiny in the state of Kaduna in May 1982; Repeated crises of Jos from 2001 to today, just to name a few (Abimbola 2010: 97, Kalu 2008: 77-85, Bah 2008: 49 – 52). In addition, there are upheavals for various ethnic nationalities that make up Nigeria, which sometimes become violent. For example, the Ogoni People’s Survival Movement (MOSOP) and the Niger Deltas (MEND) Emancipation Movement in the south and south of the country provide a significant portion of their countries’ oil revenues. In the southeast there is the Movement for the Upgrading of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), which seeks the independence of Igbo spokespersons in this region. There is the Oodua People’s Congress (OPC) in the Southwest, whose thrill is to protect the interests of the Yoruba race in Nigeria. There is also an Arewa Youth Organization (AYO) in the north defending the interests of the north (Kalu 2008: 173-185, Bah 2008: 49-52).

Therefore, Nigeria is not new in the upheavals of various ethnic nationalities that make up the country for a fair participation in its government and the fair distribution of its wealth and resources. However, it took an unparalleled violent dimension when Boko Haram, a deadly Islamic sect, demanded the introduction and introduction of Sharia, an Islamic Criminal Code, not only in the north of the Muslim-populated country, but also the whole country. The arrival of Boko Haram and his demands added a new phase to the ethno-religious crises and upheavals of insurgent groups in Nigeria. Boko Haram started out as a benevolent Islamic organization, offering social services and preaching strict adherence to Islamic commandments, but along the lines of deviating from violent activities that not only undermine the government’s legitimate authority from Nigeria. but also an existential threat to the cooperative existence and unity of the country.

A US Congressional Report From November 30, 2011, on Boko Haram, the sect is an “emerging threat,” not just to the US. UU., But also for your interests. Congressman Patrick Meeham said in an interview that Boko Haram’s “rapid development” is worrying. He further stated that there was little evidence at the time that Boko Haram was planning an attack on the United States; He quickly added that the lack of evidence “does not mean it can not happen” (BBC).

The results of the United States Congress ( Boko Haram: 4) included:

  1. Boko Haram has quickly evolved and poses emerging threat to US interests and the U.S homeland.
  2. Boko Haram has the intent and may be developing capability to coordinate on a rhetorical and operational level with Al Qaeda in the land of Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and Al Shabaab.
  3. Boko Haram’s evolution in targeting and tactics closely track that of other Al Qaeda affiliates that have targeted the U.S homeland, most notably Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) and Tehrik – I – Taliban Pakistan (TTP).
  4. The U.S intelligence community largely underestimated the potential for Al Qaeda affiliate groups to target the U.S homeland, wrongly assessing they had only regional ambitions and threats against the U.S homeland were merely “aspirational”.
  5. The United States should work with the government of Nigeria to build counterterrorism and intelligence capability to effectively counter Boko Haram.

From the scenario described above, it can be assumed that Boko Haram poses not only a threat to Nigeria, but also to world peace in general. This was deftly demonstrated when it attacked the United Nations Headquarters in Abuja, the capital of Nigeria, on August 26, 2011. It is a suicide bomber who drives a vehicle loaded with an explosive device into the building and kills 23 people and more. 80 were injured. United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the attack as “an attack on those who want to help others” (The Guardian). In addition to the bomb attack on the UN headquarters in Abuja Boko Haram has committed numerous deadly attacks in the north. It is estimated that the Boko Haram sect has killed more than 1,000 people and injured thousands more.

1.2 Statement of Problem

The definition of terrorism has been controversial among researchers, while some would include both state and non-state actors; Some rejected the involvement of state actors as potential terrorists. Other definitions limit terrorism to attacks on civilian targets. Some definitions limit terrorism to an act with political ends and exclude criminal purposes, while others include both political and criminal purposes. Most definitions regard terrorism as an inadmissible method or means, irrespective of its objective, while few definitions consider it legitimate for a just cause, hence the aphorism, “for which the terrorist of a person fights.” the freedom of another person “(Martin 2011: 11), but there is consensus that altruistic terrorism is an extreme method or tactic no matter how altruistic terrorism is.

The United States House of Representatives’ United States codes of conduct define terrorism as “intentional and politically motivated violence against non-militant goals by subnational groups or illegal agents.” While the executive codes define it as “illegal use of force and violence against persons or property to force a government, the civilian population or any part of it to intimidate or coercion to achieve political goals or goals social” (Mahan and Griset, 2013). On the other hand, the British define it as “use of force for political ends, including use of force to frighten the public or part of the public” (Imobighe and Eguavoen 2016: 14).

Bruce Hoffman defines terrorism as “the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or the threat of violence in the search for political change”. Stern defines it as “an act of threatening violence against non-combatants with the aim of seeking revenge, intimidating or otherwise influencing an audience”. Laqueur argues that there is no definition that fully addresses the problem of terrorism, but in any case defines terrorism as “the use of covert violence by a political group” (Mahan and Griset, 2008: 4). ,

To fully understand Boko Haram’s ideology, terrorism is defined as a deliberate act of violence carried out by extremist organizations or individuals against unarmed or defenseless civilians, civilian targets, vulnerabilities, and military targets. and passive police. to cause maximum carnage and destruction to create fear, confusion and anxiety in people’s minds. And in accordance with the political, social, religious or ideological agenda.
It is very important to remember that the above definition does not take terrorism into account from above. H. The terrorism committed by the states. It only refers to terrorism from below, ie terrorism carried out by non-state actors.

In order to put Boko Haram in perspective, it is important to distinguish between terrorism, extremism and the struggle for freedom. There is a thin line between these three concepts. An extremist has a radical opinion or opinion about a political belief or political ideology that does not take into account the opposite opinion. Extremists are intolerant of other belief systems, consider their cause to be absolutely just and good, and anything other than their own is considered bad. The fact that extremists have such a belief or ideology is not translated into terrorism, but the moment the Rubicon becomes violently and energetically imposed on its beliefs and ideologies by murders, bombings, kidnappings, etc. to terrorism. , While a freedom fighter is someone who is perceived as fighting for a just cause, it is the liberation or liberation of a people or some other just cause. However, when the freedom fighters start using unconventional means to achieve their purpose, it becomes terrorism. For example, the provisional Irish Republican Army in the United Kingdom and the Basque separatist organization (ETA) known in Spain as Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) declare that they are fighting for the oppressed and for a homeland. These causes are noble, but the way they do so has led these organizations to be called terrorist organizations.

Although terrorism is not a new phenomenon, there have been various forms and modes for centuries. From the fearsome group of thugs, also known as Phansigars or Stranglers, which existed in the 7th century, violence and atrocities were committed by killing and dismembering the bodies of their victims in order to avoid cremation or proper burial deliver. the Hindu goddess of death and destruction. The assassins, also known as Ismailis-Nizari, existed between 1090 and 1275, with the goal of purifying Islam and speeding the eventual appearance of a Mahdi or Messiah who would eventually lead a holy war or jihad against the traditional establishment , In addition, the Jewish group known as Zealots-Sicarii was feared as a violent group (Rapoport in Horgan and Braddock 2012: 9-11). ).

However, terrorism became a hot topic after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center. This does not mean that there were no terrorist attacks before September 11, in fact the Israeli sports contingent in the Olympics in Munich, Germany. In 1977, they were taken hostage by the Palestinian militant of the Black Organization in September. The attacks killed 11 Israelis, a German police and five fighters (Jackson et al., 2011: 54). On December 21, 1988, the Pan American Flight 103 was destroyed by a bomb on Lockerbie in Scotland. The consequences of the attack killed all 259 passengers and 16 crew members. Eleven residents of Lockerbie also died in the attack, as parts of the plane fell and several houses in the city were destroyed (Mahan and Griset, 2008: 97).

After identifying Boko Haram as an extremist sect and using the instrument of terror to achieve its ideological beliefs, it is important to understand the reasons for the chaotic transformation of Boko Haram as published in the problem formulation. In order to exhaustively explore the problem area, different perspectives or ways of thinking about the causes of terrorism have to be examined. Could the metamorphoses of Boko Haram lead to a dreaded terrorist organization as a result of poverty, inequality, and economic imbalances, as claimed by the theorists of tension and deprivation (Forst, 2009)? Or are the operating psychopaths of Boko Haram the ones who kill for the simple act of killing because they are mentally unstable and disturbed? Probably Boko Haram is just a social movement in the political firmament of Nigeria, legitimately claiming the recognition, adaptation and integration of its ideological belief into the Nigerian government. Perhaps Boko Haram was the founding of northern political elites who considered the Nigerian government birthright and threatened to make Nigeria ungovernable if one of them did not emerge as president during the last presidential elections in Nigeria. Land Alternatively, Boko Haram’s metamorphosis may have been the result of social conflict between those who (ruling elites) and those who are not disappointed. Could it, on the other hand, be a reaction to the extrajudicial killing of its leader Yusuf and more than 700 of its members by the Nigerian police and security services during the sect’s first uprising in 2009?

1.3 Research Objective

The study will seek to assess the impact of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigeria national security. The specific objectives of the study are as follows;

  1. To investigate the challenges of terrorism and national security using Boko Haram as a case study
  2. To consider different socio economic implication of Boko Haram especially the issue of poverty and injustice as being expressed by leaders as the causes of Boko Haram crisis.
  3. To unravel the ideology driving Boko Haram insurrection.
  4. To make recommendation on possible solution to address Haram insurgencies

1.4 Research Questions

This research will try to answer the following questions, because they are germane to understanding the problem formulation. Why has Boko Haram a benign Islamic sect metamorphosed into a terrorist organization?

  1. What are the challenges of terrorism and national security with reference to Boko Haram?
  2. Did poverty contribute to Boko Haram Insurgency?
  3. Is injustice and lack of civil liberties to be blamed for Boko Haram crisis?
  4. What impact do revolutionary and radical Islamic ideologies have on Boko Haram Insurgency?


  • HO1: There is no significant impact of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigeria’s national security.
  • HA1: There is a significant impact of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigeria’s national security.

1.6 The Significance of the Study

Why has Boko Haram a benign Islamic sect metamorphosed into a terrorist organization? Nigeria being a secular state has been affected adversely by the activities of Boko Haram. In fact, Nigeria is titling on the brink of religious conflict which could destroy the cooperate existence of the country. Therefore, this study will try to provide an answer for the germane question posed in the problem formulation.

The study is expected to contribute to the advancement of knowledge on the insurgency of Boko haram terrorist group. The findings of this study are expected to stimulate further research in the field. It is also expected to contribute government’s effort in ensuring the positive development of the region through its socio-economic activities and also at fighting the surge of terrorist activities in the country so as to bring about peace and enhance national development and security therefore, this study will help to prefer solutions. Furthermore, it is hoped that the study will create awareness for all stakeholders of Nigeria’s security sector to the consequences posed by terrorism and the need to overcome them in order to enjoy peace not only in Borno but the entire country.

1.7 Scope of the Study

Violence is an intrinsic phenomenon in human society and its occurrence or recurrence indicates the ever dynamic character of society. Violence ensues because man‘s interests and inclinations are varied and often antagonistic. The propensity of man to pursue his selfish interests which usually give room for the outbreaks of violence necessitated the evolution of the state as an impartial referee to check human excesses. In Africa, conflicts leading to violence have become a major source of concern due to their recurrent nature and consequence on the continent‘s development efforts. This study covers the causes of Boko Haram insurgency and Federal Government of Nigeria‘s response to the Boko Haram insurgency in particular from 2009 when the sect‘s activities came to capture global and national attention, to 2018. Emphasis will be placed on the response of the Nigerian state within this period.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

The descriptive survey as a research design had its limitation of difficulty in using its findings for generalization since only a part can be used to represent the whole. To reduce this limitation however, literature works were widely consulted to make references to issues being discussed which are of relevance to the other areas of the country.
Difficulty in the collection of data. This challenge was the result of the seemingly reluctance of respondents to provide information relevant to the study. This was taken care of by taking a letter from the authorities that served as evidence that this study was just for academic purpose. Thus, the information given was treated with utmost confidentiality.

1.9 Definition of Terms


Means have a strong effect on someone or something. In this study, it refers to the effect that the Boko Haram insurgency has had on the national security of Nigeria.

Boko Haram:

Boko Haram, officially known as Jamā’atAhl as-Sunnah lid-Da’wahwa’l-Jihād, is a terrorist organization based in northeastern Nigeria, which is also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon. In 2016, the group split, resulting in the emergence of a hostile faction known as the Islamic State’s West Africa Province.


Is a violent, armed rebellion against authority waged by small, lightly armed bands who practice guerilla warfare from primarily rural base areas. The key descriptive feature of insurgency is its asymmetric nature: small irregular forces face the state’s large, well-equipped, regular military.

National Security:

Is the security and defence of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, which is regarded as a duty of government.

1.10 Organisation of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding it is broken down as follows:

  • Chapter one kicks off with the introduction, which consists of the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research hypothesis, scope and significance of the study.
  • Chapter two begins with the conceptual framework on which the study is based, the theoretical literatures and also the empirical literature and thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research methodology.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis, interpretation and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This study was focused on assessing the impact of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigeria national security. This study has tried to unravel the foreground of poverty as the instigating factor of the Boko Haram insurgency, although it may be a necessary factor, but it is not enough to explain why Boko Haram has become a terrorist organization. He disagrees with Gurr’s theory of relative deprivation as a precursor to the Boko Haram crisis, and also with Krueger’s position that the main lack of civil liberties is the main cause of terrorism. Having a single theory to explain terrorism, namely the Boko Haram rebellion, is fraught with inadequacies. For example, what has led to the revolt of Tamils in Sri Lanka differs significantly from that of Boko Haram. If both disturbances are measured on the same scale, this eventually leads to the falsification of the facts.

This work was able to reduce the metamorphosis of Boko Haram to the ideological beliefs of the group rooted in Islam. This belief system rejects any form of domination that is not based on the Qur’an. And I have clearly shown the influence of fundamentalism and the role played by the structure of political opportunity in the metamorphosis of the group. Due to the structural change, they had a space to satisfy their demands. Such a thing would not have happened during a despotic military regime where the only word in its dictionary is oppression. Groups like Boko Haram knew that they activated their borders during the democratic regime in Nigeria.

In addition, this work has clearly shown that Boko’s metamorphosis has to do with his ideology, which deviates from the secular democratic ideology in Nigeria. This is a political conflict between two different ideologies.

Jürgensmeyer (2000) suggests that “an act of terrorism usually implies an underlying power and a legitimizing ideology” (125). It goes without saying that Boko Haram tried to legitimize his own ideology about the secular ideology in Nigeria, and this inevitably led to the political conflict destroying the country today.

5.2 Conclusion

It is quite regrettable that the activities of Boko Haram have had a negative impact on the country, Nigeria has been considered a terrorist country. A country that yearns for foreign direct investment to boost its economy is struggling to attract international investors. The activities of Boko Haram have also paralyzed social and economic activity in the north of the country.

Southerners who live and carry out their economic activities are retreating to the south. This has even led to speculation that the country could disintegrate if the Boko Haram uprising is not adequately addressed by the government. In addition, cases of retaliatory attacks were reported by Christians whose churches were bombed in Kaduna, fueling sectarian violence. This could lead to the failure of the country’s existence if the situation degenerates into a religious conflict.

In any case, although the issue of poverty is being promoted as the agent of the insurgence, injustice and lack of civil liberties of Boko Haram, the Nigerian government should try to adopt programs that remedy the situation as much as possible. Poor disenchanted, so groups like Boko Haram would not have created tools for their insidious activities.

5.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations are given taking into account the results of the study:

  1. The Nigerian government should intensify border patrols, particularly with Chad, Niger and Cameroon, and provide Nigerian immigration with sufficient resources to comply with its legal mandate to monitor the entry and exit of people, which makes it difficult for groups such as Boko Haram to invade and operate in Nigeria.
  2. Security officers, especially police and state security services, must also be adequately equipped in place of reagents. They should be proactive in getting the information to collect the key to beating Boko Haram instead of showing brutal violence after each terrorist attack.
  3. The Nigerian government should introduce a mechanism that allows financial institutions to monitor any unusual financial transaction. This would allow the government to prosecute the group’s financiers.
  4. Nigeria should also work with the international community to fight against Boko Haram by sharing information that could weaken the group’s capacity.
  5. The government should be willing to dialogue with the moderate groups of this group, since violence and repression alone cannot solve the problem of Boko Haram.

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