The Impact Of Bio-Data Of Drivers On The Level Road Accidents In Nigeria
The aim and objectives of this study centred on the analysis of Bio data of drivers on the level of Road Traffic accident on Onitsha – Owerri highway, as highlighted from the onset of the work, the analysis is based on reports of road traffic crash from year to year over a period of ten (10) years time frame (2008 – 2017) showing types of vehicles involved and periods of the day it commonly occurs. The study used both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary sources of data (questionnaire) were obtained using quota and simple random sampling technique on the respondents at the seven (7) motor parks. Secondary sources of data were collected from the records of Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) on reported crash cases, its causes, vehicles involved and time from 2008 – 2017. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistic and trend analysis involving tables of percentage.
1.1 Background of the Study
The occurrence of fatal road accidents in Nigeria is alarming. Road accidents in Nigeria overtime have witnessed an unprecedented geometric rise. This has been a major concern to both the populace and the government, this is because a lot of properties loved ones and other valuables have been lost as a result of this malady. Road accidents don’t just occur, they are caused. Given the fact that Nigeria has one of the highest road accidents rate as well as the largest number of death per 10,000 vehicles (Bala 2010), one may be prompted to believe that the level of awareness on the major causes of road traffic accidents is very low among Nigerians. On the contrary, however; Okoro (2010) has shown that Nigerians a well informed on the major causes of accidents. Accidents are defined as anything that happens by chance or anything occurring unexpectedly; Odegbami (2011).
Road traffic accident is therefore an unexpected phenomenon that occurs as a result of the use of vehicles on highways. Accidents can either be fatal; it is fatal when it leads to death of the victims or minor when victims sustain serious injuries whether physical or mental. The dividing line between fatal and minor is however thin. As it has been defined, accident would scarcely give warning although careless drivers should anticipate the consequences of their recklessness. In total, accidents do not just occur but they are majorly brought about by human carelessness, recklessness or negligence. Even when the immediate cause of a road accident is traced to mechanical factor, carelessness in the form of omission to check and maintain the vehicle at the right time would have scarcely contributed.
Constant checking and maintenance of the vehicles could avert and imminent accident. Road accidents also occur as a result of one of the following factors: Human factors; Vehicle factors; Road and environmental factors according to AUSTROADS (1995). Driving faster or slower than the flow of traffic-which may or may not come with the posted speed limit-has majorly been demonstrated to increase the likelihood of crashes, as shown by the Solomon Curve (OOIDA,2003).The factors of traffic accidents are drivers, the highway and motor vehicles (Aaron 1999). Most traffic accidents often involve the three elements. Most road traffic accidents involve motor vehicles (Stutts and Hunter, 1999). A high proportion of road traffic accidents can be apportioned to bad roads and unsafe human acts. The drunken drivers of motor vehicles make the clearest example (Hijar et al., 2000).
1.2 Statement of the General Problem
The rise in the road traffic accidents in Nigeria has overtime been a cause for major concern. A lot has been said about the age grade, gender, marital status and educational qualification of victims of road traffic study, this also has led us in undertaking this research work with a view to knowing if the bio data of drivers has an effect on how they drive which will ultimately rub off on the level of road traffic accidents in Nigeria.
1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study
The impact of bio data of drivers on the level of road accidents in Nigeria is centered on the following objectives:
- To know if the victims of road traffic accidents is gender related.
- To know if the victims of road traffic accidents is age related.
- To know if there is a relationship between marital status of victims and the level of road traffic accidents in Nigeria.
- To know if there is a relationship between educational qualification of victims and the level of road traffic accidents in Nigeria.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is to benefit both the research and readers, for it makes for a very interesting and educational reading, since the study will attempt to make everything in detail which will attract readers and researchers. The research hypotheses and date analysis will also enable organization to determine whether or not bio data of drivers has an impact on how they drive which in turn leads to the level of road traffic accidents.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is on the impact of bio data of drivers in relation to the level of road traffic accidents in Nigeria.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
A study of this nature will normally entails investigation into a variety of issues to be able to achieve a comprehensive study of the problems, a lot of constraint would be encountered in form of collection of data, lack of adequate information and scarcity of researchers infrastructures. A principal limitation of this survey is the difficulty in getting accurate information on the bio data of victims of road traffic accidents.
1.7 Definition of Terms
An unpleasant event, especially in a vehicle, that happens unexpectedly and causes injury, death or damage.
The vehicles that are on a road at a particular time.
Causing or ending in death.
A serious problem or an illness.
A thing that is used for transporting people or goods from one place to another.
1.8. Research Hypotheses
- H0: there is no relationship between the age of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
- H1: there is a relationship between the age of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
- H0: there is no relationship between the gender of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
- H1: there is a relationship between the gender of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
- H0: there is no relationship between the educational qualification of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
- H1: there is a relationship between the educational qualification of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
- H0: there is no relationship between the marital status of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
- H1: there is a relationship between the marital status of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
Recommendations and Conclusion
Arising from the findings above the following recommendations were offered to reduce the level of RTA along Owerri- Owerri- onitsha highways.
- Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) and other government organizations involve in traffic management in Nigeria should improve their efforts at sensitizing and educating the public especially the drivers on the need for proper behaviour while on steering. Since the driver of a vehicle is the most important determinant of the occurrence of an crash, the quality of drivers on the roads in the study area cannot be over-emphasised. Consequently, training and retraining of drivers on defensive driving, Highway Code understanding, attitude enhancement should be a basic effort towards reducing RTA. The training and retraining of drivers constitute a formidable means of effectively dealing with the issue of road traffic crash reduction.
- Regular monitoring and patrol by FRSC and VIO with the objective of checking the excesses of drivers along the routes should be intensified, with particular focus on the Owerri – Owerri axis, where the road is more narrow/ winding and where more causalities were recorded.
- It is evident that the traffic carrying capacity of the road has been exceeded, judging by the volume of vehicles that ply the road on a daily basis. Therefore, the dualization effort that is on-going on the study area should be intensified. This will increase the capacity of the road to accommodate more traffic, thereby reducing vehicle competition for space on the road.
- The stokeholders, drivers, passengers, unions (NURTW) and NGOs can also help in sensitising and educating the public on the need for proper behaviour while on steering.
Road traffic crash, a well documented consequence of motorization is the leading cause of deaths in Nigeria. While crashes occur in all modes of transport, including air and rail the degree and magnitude of Road Traffic accident on the road mode is indeed alarming, especially with the fact that, it involves the young and active age bracket of the population. Effort at bringing down the tide of RTA is the responsibility of all as living safely is a challenge that must be accepted by everyone if we are to continue to move forward in an ever-changing society. Generally, Nigerians have been found to exhibit nonchalant attitudes to traffic regulations, as such traffic offence has become a regular behavioural tendency among various classes of road users. Thus, an obvious policy question is how to increase the level of compliance of road user‟s with traffic regulations so as to reduce the level of traffic offences. There is need to create avenues through which road users‟ behaviour can be improved upon in order to conform to existing road safety norms.
This study has therefore contributes to the search for policy actions on road safety management. In this regard, the study concludes that we must emphasize that within the variable traffic equation, one constant element remains which is the human being behind the wheels. Roads can be built or improved, and vehicles may be better designed to operate under adverse conditions, while a more forgiving environment for transport can be created, but shaping and reconstructing human behaviour remains a major challenge. This understanding and consideration must form the focus of all road safety management actions in the country and this is a wake-up call to all road users in
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