Impact Of Banditry And Terrorism On The Socio-Economic Development Of Abuja Municipal Area Council

Project and Seminar Material for Criminology And Security Studies

Impact Of Banditry And Terrorism On The Socio-Economic Development Of Abuja Municipal Area Council


Abstract


This study was carried out on the impact of banditry and terrorism on the socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council. The study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence of banditry and terrorism operations in Abuja municipal area council, determine the extent at which banditry and terrorism affects the socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council, examine the causes of banditry and terrorism in Nigeria, determine the implications of banditry and terrorism on socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of resident of Gwagwa area of Abuja. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The hypotheses was tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that The extent of the prevalence of banditry and terrorism operations in Abuja municipal area council is high. The study also revealed that the causes of banditry and terrorism in Nigeria includes: unemployment and poverty, lack of education, huge gaps between the government and the people, biasedly fighting against corruption, religious antagonism, tribalism. Therefore, it is recommended that the law enforcement agents including the Nigerian Army should be properly equipped with good firing power and communication gadgets. They should retrain their intelligence unit; empower the Nigerian Army with efficient military hardware to ensure effective land patrol. Henceforth, the government should set-up a well-equipped/Effective anti-kidnapping agencies in order to over-power the perpetrators of kidnapping. It is believed that this would assist in stemming the tide of kidnapping in Nigeria. To mention but few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • 5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Study

Civil instability, terrorist threats, banditry, and persistent terrorism of Nigerians, notably the well-publicized kidnapping of school boys and girls by bandit and terrorist organization, highlight the continued difficulties that Nigeria has in maintaining national security and advancing national development (Ibrahim, & Ahmad, 2020).
One of the most fundamental issues that contemporary nations must face is figuring out how to assure national prosperity in the face of a wide variety of ever expanding security threats. The problem of organized crime stands out as one of the most significant of these dangers (Imhonopi, & Urim, 2021). Racketeering and international syndication are two common methods used in the commission of organized crime, both of which are considered high-profile offenses. Terrorism, banditry, money laundering, kidnapping, and are just a few examples of crimes that fall within this category. There are several signs that can be found all across the world that point to the fact that not only are organized crimes becoming more common, but they are also becoming more sophisticated, centralized, and politicized. As a result of this, they are getting a better foothold in both their local and global communities.

The term “banditry” refers to the commission or recurrence of armed robberies or other forms of violent crime (Ihe, 2022). It requires the use of physical force or the threat of such action in order to frighten a person with the purpose of robbing, raping, or killing them. Banditry is a type of violent crime that targets individuals. It is a prevalent type of criminal activity that also contributes to the proliferation of violent behavior in modern communities (Ibrahim, & Ahmad, 2020). It would appear that the rate of banditry in Nigeria has been high and has been increasing over the past several years. Similar to the Northeast of the country, where terrorists affiliated with Boko Haram have inflicted devastation over the course of the previous 10 years, Nigeria’s Northwest is quickly becoming another significant regional theater of bloodshed (Ihe, 2022). A conflict that first manifested itself as localized disagreements between herders and farmers over access to land has evolved into an unsolvable dilemma that poses a significant risk to the safety of both the nation and the area as a whole. Since 2014, the amount of banditry that occurs in rural areas has continued to rise, which has drawn a lot of attention. While it is reasonable to assume that increased political undertones are the masterminds behind this, the fact remains that it has a significant impact on the ability of the average person to survive and that it slows down the process of national development (Imhonopi, & Urim, 2021).

Banditry is a term that refers to armed violence that is typically motivated primarily by the goal to steal and pillage. The pursuit of greater economic accumulation is the driving force behind it. The victims include individuals and groups that have lost assets or, in the majority of cases, regular people who have been forced out of their homes.

In the past several years, the level of banditry in the northwestern states of Kaduna, Zamfara, and Katsina has reached an alarmingly high level. Bandits are allowed to harass the villagers without consequence. They have genuinely established themselves in the Kastina State, constructing fortified enclaves in the hinterland and on the borderlands, and using these locations as bases from which to plan and carry out their actions (Ibrahim, & Ahmad, 2020). Among the most typical acts of rural banditry in Nigeria’s countryside include armed robberies, the kidnapping of schoolchildren, the rustling of cattle, and raids on villages.

Terrorism, which is identical with , is typically followed by the demand for a ransom, which can be in the form of money or other advantages. It is therefore deemed to constitute the commission of the crime of when a person is removed from the place where he or she was first found, either by convincing that person to leave, by deceiving that person in some manner, or by using some form of coercion, which may include violence (Ibrahim, & Ahmad, 2020).

However, political actors and stakeholders in society are politicizing life-threatening situations; as a result, it does not matter how the government pretends about this subject; banditry and kidnapping have a significant impact on the national security and the growth of the country.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Crime thrives in contexts where there’s little deterrence. In most of Nigeria’s rural communities, there are many opportunities for criminal activity. For one thing, some of these communities are located in remote areas where there is little or no government presence. More importantly, households and schools are in some cases separated by and interspersed with forest areas. This renders them vulnerable to banditry. This situation is made worse by the absence of effective community policing mechanisms capable of addressing the hinterlands’ peculiar security challenges.

In effect, the incidence and prevalence of rural banditry and abduction of school children in northwest Nigeria raises a fundamental question about the government’s ability to govern effectively. The state security machinery has so far failed to tackle the scourge of banditry and kidnapping. This failure stems from a lack of political will and operational challenges. Essentially, the prevailing socio-existential conditions in northwestern Nigeria have complicated the security and national development. However it against this backdrop that this study seeks to examine the implication of banditry and abduction on national development.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine the impact of banditry and terrorism on the socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council.

Other aims of this study are:

  1. To ascertain the prevalence of banditry and terrorism operations in Abuja municipal area council.
  2. To determine the extent at which banditry and terrorism affects the socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council.
  3. To examine the causes of banditry and terrorism in Nigeria.
  4. To determine the implications of banditry and terrorism on socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. What extent of the the prevalence of banditry and terrorism operations in Abuja municipal area council?
  2. What is the extent at which banditry and terrorism affects the socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council?
  3. What are the causes of banditry and terrorism in Nigeria?
  4. What are the implications of banditry and terrorism on socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will validate this study:

Ho: Banditry and terrorism has no negative impact on socio-economic development in Nigeria.

Ha: Banditry and terrorism has a negative impact on socio-economic development in Nigeria.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will enable Public security agents in Nigeria on the need to be exposed (by way of periodic training) to the globally tenable best practices and know-how of counter-banditry to boost their operational efficiency in combating violent crimes in general and armed robbery in particular.it will heighten the awareness of government on the need to come up with credible and implementable policies to curb the incessant attacks on common man and improve their livelihood. It will hamper the criminal justice system of Nigeria on the need to be re-positioned and revitalized through progressive reforms to enable it acquire the integrity and competences to sanction crime aright.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the impact of banditry and terrorism on the socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council. Specifically, this study focuses on determining the extent at which banditry and terrorism affects the socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council, determining the implications of banditry on socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council and examining the causes of banditry and terrorism in Nigeria. The respondents for this study will be obtained from resident of Gwagwa area of Abuja.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Banditry:

Banditry is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws typically involving the threat or use of violence. A person who engages in banditry is known as a bandit and primarily commits crimes such as extortion, robbery, and murder, either as an individual or in groups.

Terrorism:

The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a Government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of banditry and terrorism on the socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the impact of banditry and terrorism on the socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council. The study is was specifically set to ascertain the prevalence of banditry and terrorism operations in Abuja municipal area council, determine the extent at which banditry and terrorism affects the socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council, examine the causes of banditry and terrorism in Nigeria, determine the implications of banditry and terrorism on socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are resident of Gwagwa area of Abuja.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The extent of the prevalence of banditry and terrorism operations in Abuja municipal area council is high.
  2. The extent at which banditry and terrorism affects the socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council is high.
  3. The causes of banditry and terrorism in Nigeria includes: unemployment and poverty, lack of education, huge gaps between the government and the people, biasedly fighting against corruption, religious antagonism, tribalism.
  4. The implications of banditry and terrorism on socio-economic development of Abuja municipal area council includes: disruption of education standard, destruction of infrastructures, disruption of business innovations and activities, destruction of man power resources and development, has a negative effect on agricultural activities.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Considering the spread of banditry in Nigeria, federal government should play a central role in developing anew collaborative policy framework rather than always allowing the states alone to deal with the crime.
  2. Foreign governments should also participate in the war on banditry and terrorism inNigeria because the activity is a transnational crime usually involving movement out of the country.
  3. The law enforcement agents including the Nigerian Army should be properly equipped with good firing power and communication gadgets. They should retrain their intelligence unit; empower the Nigerian Army with efficient military hardware to ensure effective land patrol. Henceforth, the government should set-up a well-equipped/Effective anti-kidnapping agencies in order to over-power the perpetrators of kidnapping. It is believed that this would assist in stemming the tide of kidnapping in Nigeria.
  4. Non-governmental organisations should also be part of the war on banditry and terrorism in Nigeria and neighbouring states, through awareness creation programmes.

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