Impact Of Banditry And Terrorism On Food, Security And Environment

Project and Seminar Material for Criminology And Security Studies

Impact Of Banditry And Terrorism On Food, Security And Environment


Abstract


Banditry and terrorism have remained the most prevailing recourse conflict in Benue State especially in Benue state. Social and economic factors continue to inflame violent conflicts. The study objectives were narrowed down to investigating the cause of Fulani herdsmen and farmers conflict and the effect on food security. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collections were used. The respondents were drawn using purposive, multi stage and snowball sampling methods in the four selected Villages. Information was elicited using structured questionnaire. The quantitative data collected were subjected to both descriptive (frequency count and percentage) and inferential (T. test) statistical analysis while the qualitative data were analysed in a thematic form. The study concludes that crop farmers and cattle herders’ conflict instigate a loss of livelihoods to both groups and contributes to low agricultural output production. Therefore, it is in the interest of the State to address the genuine needs of the cattle herders for availability of grazing land, resolve the recurring conflicts in the agricultural sector that provides employment to reasonable portion of the country’s population. The study finally recommends that farmers should adopt intensive cultivation by using improved seeds and farm inputs.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Interpretation of Result

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • 5.4 Recommendation for Further Studies
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Herdsmen, banditry and kidnapping has been major problem since the Nigeria returned to civil rule in 1999 after 16 years of persistent military dictatorship Peace has remained elusive in the country. It is expected that democratic governance would give rise to political stability, national cohesion and ethno-religious tolerance, but these have not been achieved. Instead of peace and national cohesion, insurgency has remained an abiding feature of state society relations. Insurgency has posed serious security challenges for the nation as it affects foreign as well as indigenous investments, thereby hampering economic growth and leaving the country to face escalating unemployment, loss of lives and properties. This and other social maladies present a negative image on the country and undermine the national security. No country weather developed and developing can thrive economically, socially and politically in an environment of insecurity. That is why the issue of insurgencies as a threat to national security and development should be given serious attention (Okoroafor and Ukpabi, 2016).

Violent conflict and crisis in Nigeria, like other parts of the world, have created a rift in human relations, caused serious threat to food security, among many other effects (Basil, 2018). Crisis is inevitable as long as we live together, especially in a multi- ethnic, cultural and religious community like Nigeria. However, violence leaves us with various forms of retardation and underdevelopment resulting from the destruction of lives, farmland and property. The menaces of violent crisis conflict have been on the increase in some most Nigerian cities in the last two decades (Adisa, 2011a). Most of these conflicts are generally regarded as ethno-religious bigotry and antagonism.

According to Adisa (2011b), the conflicts in most part of Nigeria especially the Fulani herdsmen and farmers clash are largely uncalled for. Farmers can no longer farm peacefully because of Fulani herdsmen. These Fulani herdsmen and farmers clash have pitched Christians and Muslims against each other. The conflict has had devastating effects on inter-group relationships especially in Nasarawa Egor in Nasarawa State and Agatu L.G.A of Benue State. Apart from the loss of lives, farmlands, food produce and property, it has profound influence on residential relationships, leading to new trends in the polarization of communities. This is evident in a physical manifestation of mono religious areas in Nasarawa and Benue States, with Christians and Muslims living in dominant religious clusters (Ofem and Bassey, 2014).

Over the last decade, reporting of farmer-herder violence has increased exponentially. Violence between Fulani herdsmen and farmers is one of Nigeria’s most persistent security problems and has left thousands of people dead in recent decades. The largest spike in reporting, occurring between 2013 and 2014, may be as a result of an increased number of incidents, increased awareness on the issue, or both. It may likewise be attributed to the 2014 presidential elections and the increased Boko Haram activity during this period. In any case, the increasing number of articles covering this issue signifies the growing urgency of this crisis (Blench, 2010). The prevalence of crises in the country has become a major concern for the well-meaning Nigerians considering the impact on the peace, security as well as the economy of the nation. Destruction of lives and properties has almost become an everyday affair. These happenings have created a fearful atmosphere that discourages investors both domestic and foreign. By and large the economy of the nation is threatened. In explaining the political situation in the country; three terms need to be clarified. They include: crises, crises and violence. A crisis is the aftermath of crises and violence.
Agricultural and development experts are unanimous in their predictions that the gains recorded in the agricultural sector of the economy, especially in the area of food production, may suffer a serious setback as a result of the negative effects of terrorist activities on farmers in Benue and neighboring states. Already, seven out of the 23 local governments in Benue state, namely Guma, Gwer-West, Agatu, Logo, Kwande and the Northern part of Makurdi mostly affected by the rampaging herdsmen have tale of heavy calamity to tell. The effects of the sustained Fulani war in the affected localities have led to farmers’ reluctance to go back to their farms even as the current farming season is far gone. In Benue state, for example, women from Guma and Gwer west local governments have stayed away from farms for fear of being killed or raped by the murderers. Several retaliation attacks have continued to occur, which had led to heavy loss human lives and properties recorded on both sides. For example, current intake may be adequate, but food insecurity may still be experienced because of concern over future intake. Alternatively, intake may be inadequate, but only temporarily to protect supplies and prevent future food insecurity (Wolfe and Frongillo, 2001).

Every farming system has a boundary which separates it from the larger system that makes up the environment. Conflicts and violent clashes between farmers and nomadic cattle herders have been a common feature of economic livelihood in West Africa (Tonah, 2006). The boundary represents the limits in the larger system. Farmers regularly compete with nomadic herders for farmland, pastures, water, trees and the use of rangeland in general (Akpaki, 2002). There have been violent clashes between nomadic herdsmen and farmers in several parts of Nigeria for several years. The clashes are occasioned by the destruction of agricultural farms of the farmers by the cattle of the nomadic herdsmen. The upsurge and incessant resource conflicts witnessed as a result of boundary dispute in the tropics have resulted in loss of lives, properties and environmental degradation as also witnessed in some developed countries (Niemella, Young, Alard, Askasibar, Henle, Johnson, Kuttila, Larsson, Matouch, Nowicki, Paiva, Portoghesi, Smulders, Stevenson, Tartes & Watt, 2005). Naturally, nomadic herdsmen by their nature are migrants who leave their traditional abode in search of greener pasture for their flocks. In most cases, their movement is caused by the absence of good and veritable land for their flock to feed on. The environmental degradation is perceived to be contributing enormously to the deterioration in ecosystem services to the environment of various communities. In the recent times, Nigeria has witnessed series of violent communal clashes arising from the activities of the nomadic herdsmen who move about on a daily basis with their cattle in search of water and green pastures.
They are on the streets in most of the cities and could also be found operating in the remotest villages in various states of the country. These nomads who are essentially Fulani tribesmen were originally found in small make-shift communities scattered across the northern fringes of Nigeria and other countries in West Africa. Nzeh, (2015) maintained that in their culture, tradition and occupation, nomadic herdsmen have not remained a migrant race who does not own lands nor have any permanent abode. To him, they cared less about land ownership because they are always on the move. This practice which has been established as a culture by the Nomads had before now been observed with the highest ethical standards whereby the herded animals were prevented from grazing on crops. The fact still remains that these nomadic herdsmen care less about land ownership because they are always on the move. The nomads used to embark on seasonal migrations from the North to the South but this movement has become an all season‘s affair. The reason has been that overgrazing in the far north has given way to desertification and the normal alternating wet and dry seasons have metamorphosed into some unusual weather conditions now known as climate change. Ofem and Inyang (2014) revealed that a symbiotic relationship existed before now between the nomads and the farmers in every new community they stopped over to take a rest. The residents of host communities usually farmers derived free organic manure from cow dung and protein from the beef and dairy products, while the nomads relied on the farm produce for food. In Nigeria, most herdsmen do not own land but graze their livestock in host communities (Awogbade, 1987). While a few have adopted the more sedentary type of animal husbandry, the increasing crises between farmers and nomadic herdsmen presupposes that grazing is a major means of animal rearing in Nigeria. The sedentary type of animal husbandry also proves to be more expensive, difficult to manage and inefficient for the rapid growing market of an ever increasing Nigerian population. However, over the years, the presence of the nomads and their cattle has provoked violent clashes in several communities across the country. Some farmers practicing mixed farming revealed that this animals have in one way or another affected their farming, likewise sedentary pastoralists were in one way or the other affected by farmers (Nformi, Mary-Juliet, Engwali, & Nji, 2014).

“Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”(FAO. 2002).

This new emphasis on consumption, the demand side and the issues of access by vulnerable people to food, is most closely identified with the seminal study by Amartya Sen. Eschewing the use of the concept of food security, he focuses on the entitlements of individuals and households.

The international community has accepted these increasingly broad statements of common goals and implied responsibilities. But its practical response has been to focus on narrower, simpler objectives around which to organize international and national public action. The declared primary objective in international development policy discourse is increasingly the reduction and elimination of poverty. The 1996 WFS exemplified this direction of policy by making the primary objective of international action on food security halving of the number of hungry or undernourished people by 2015.

Essentially, food security can be described as a phenomenon relating to individuals. It is the nutritional status of the individual household member that is the ultimate focus, and the risk of that adequate status not being achieved or becoming undermined. The latter risk describes the vulnerability of individuals in this context.

As the definitions reviewed above imply, vulnerability may occur both as a chronic and transitory phenomenon. Useful working definitions are described below.

Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Household food security is the application of this concept to the family level, with individuals within households as the focus of concern (FAO. 2002). It is against this background that this study attempts to examine the overall impact of banditry and terrorism on food security and environment.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Before now, the herdsmen have been known to wreak havoc in certain communities in Nigeria, but now, the rate at which they commit these crimes has increased exponentially. According to statistics provided by the Institute for Economics and Peace, 1,229 people were killed in 2014, up from 63 in 2013 and Benue State seems to be the hardest hit in recent times. Barely five days to the end of Governor Gabriel Suswam’s administration in May 2015, over 100 farmers and their family members were reportedly massacred in villages and refugee camps located in the Ukura, Per, Gafa and Tse-Gusa local government areas of the state. According to reports, in July 2015, suspected herdsmen attacked Adeke, a community on the outskirts of the state capital, Makurdi. Last December, six persons were killed at Idele village in the Oju local government area. A reprisal attack by youths in the community saw three Fulani herdsmen killed and beheaded. Food security is essential and fundamental to any society or nation. In fact, food security is the driving force of any nation in the world. Nations not only plan for production, but heavily invest in agricultural sector to boost food production and by extension, secure the citizens from hunger and subsequent malnutrition. However, more often than not, insecurity as constituted by the Fulani herdsmen in almost all part of Nigeria have to a large extent tempered with tens of thousands of people whom major activities is farming (crop production and animal husbandry).The extended violence ongoing in the affected areas of the country has forced large scale farmers to abandon their farming activities in search for their dear lives.

Fulani herdsmen conflict have no doubt had negative impact on lives and property, food security and educational development in Nigeria. Though, there is the shortage of quantitative evaluation in Nigeria of the catastrophic attacks, available statistic has it that between June, 2015 to December, 2016 human rights watch in 2017, reported a total death of 65 persons in more than 24 attacks. Fulani herdsmen attack apart from the loss of life has also led to the destruction of cultivable farmland and valuable properties worth seven billions of naira.

The above scenario has a dismal consequence for suitable and educational development in the regions of attack in particular and Nigeria in general. In the regions where the Fulani herdsmen conflict is passing through and the property destroyed potentially and in real terms, drag their economic fortune back by several steps. Besides the property destroyed, economic life in those regions is automatically grounded to a stop as people are no longer free to go about their farming, economic and educational activities for fear of being killed. Having become worse several thousands of people have moved (periodically or seasonally) swiftly to other parts of Nigeria. The overall implication for sustainable development is that the farming, economic and educational activities are fast deteriorating. The murderous campaign and vicious onslaughts on individuals and institutions provide highly unfavorable business environment for internal and foreign investment, which is a major factor in the achievement of sustainable development ( Damba, 2007).

Conflict is a great predicament in a human society, and most times, it is predictable. In fact, history indicates that conflict is an on-going process in human relations and may occur within and among groups and communities. In the case of Nigeria, the frequent occurrence of the Fulani herdsmen conflict has left adverse effects on food security and socio-economic development of the people (Damba, 2007). In the course of these conflicts, farmers have at certain times, taken up weapons to counter the attacks from the Fulani herdsmen, claiming to do so in self-defense. Another major problem posed by Fulani herdsmen conflict is that farming activities in some parts of Nigeria has been put to a halt. Farmers within these areas find it difficult and also life threatening to go to their farms as well as get enough food crops to the market thereby, increasing price of commodity in the market. The government has spent huge amount of money on the renovation of buildings, and infrastructures that has been destroyed by these religious conflicts. Also, huge amount of funds from the country’s budget has been spent on the compensation of families who have lost their loved ones to the Fulani herdsmen conflict. Also, huge amount of money is being spent on the acquisition weapons, ammunitions in other to equip the military to handle the situation on ground. All these have affected Nigeria’s economy. For fear of Fulani herdsmen people can no longer go to farms and walk at night.

This has disrupted the peaceful coexistence of the Hausa people and other indigenes of various communities in the country. All these have formed the basis for the problem stated in this study, and this research work focuses on the effects of Fulani herdsmen conflict on food security.

The quest for protection and preservation of secured economic sources of livelihood appears to be the bane for continued conflict between herdsmen and farmers in different places. In West Africa, conflicts between farmers and nomadic cattle herders have been a common feature of economic activities for ages (Tonah, 2006). The Northern region of Ghana has recently experienced increased clashes between the two groups over access to land resources (Olaniyan, Francis & Okeke-Uzodike, 2015). The struggle for the use of agricultural land for planting and grazing is becoming fiercer and increasingly widespread in Nigeria, largely due to intensification of production activities that are necessitated by rising human population (Fasona & Omojola, 2005).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of banditry and terrorism on foodsecurity and environment. The overall purpose of the study is to analyze the effect of banditry and terrorism on food security in the country.

Specifically, the objectives of the study include to;

  1. Assess the causes of the banditry and terrorism in the middle belt.
  2. Evaluate the effect of banditry and terrorism on food security in Nigeria

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions are formulated to guide this research:

  1. What are the causes of banditry and terrorismon food security in Nigeria?
  2. What is the effect of banditry and terrorism on food security in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1 There is no significant difference between farmers and Fulani perception of the causes of banditry and terrorism in Nigeria.
  • HO2 There is no significant difference between farmers and Fulani perception of the effects (social and economic) of banditry and terrorism clashes in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study is basically produced to fulfill an academic requirement. Accordingly, it is our earnest expectation that the findings that will be made by this study and the recommendations drawn there-from would be an eye opener to the government of the country at all levels. This study will also be important to the security operatives of the country as the results gotten here will assist them draw up a plan to restrain the peril of herdsmen and farmers conflict in the country, the stud will also be useful to researchers who wishes to carry out further studies (as a reference point) and also intend to consequently contribute meaningfully to the improvement of the social, economic and political conditions in this country. After completing this work, the government federal, state and local and other organizations can make use of the research in policy formulation and decision making processes. Finally, the study will be of higher importance to reporters, teachers, academia’s student and the general public as it will add to the line of already existing literature.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study remains a research on banditry and terrorism on food security in Nigeria: case study of Benue state. Therefore the scope of this project is limited to Benue state. The time period analyzed was a year 2018, because the year opened up a major conflict in Benue state. As the folks slept the New Year’s Eve and woke up to an unexpected tragedy of the herdsmen’s attack that kicked the New Year for them. This affected the food production output for the year. Nevertheless, it is hoped that it would go a long way to encourage more meaningful development efforts on issues relating to the effect of Fulani herdsmen conflict on food security and also the ongoing conflict between herdsmen and farmers affect food security in the country.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of my research, some factors limited my scope of the study.

Time Constraints:

Time constraint alludes to the impediments on the beginning and end of a project. There is a deadline attached to this study. Therefore, the time available to study the research problem change over time as it is obliged by the deadline of the study.

Sample Bias:

While in a quest of both primary and secondary research, a series of challenges were experienced as a result of restricted access to the appropriate type and geographic scope of participants.

Response and Willingness:

When researching topics that deal with peoples’ personal life and privacy, the victims of such cases are most of the time not willing to open up and don’t feel comfortable talking about their past as it may trigger their mental trauma.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Terrorism:

This is an illegitimate means of attempting to effect political change by the indiscriminate use of violence. Also it is the use of violence to achieve political objectives.

Boko Haram:

The term Boko Haram is a derivation of Hausa world ―Boko meaning ―Animist western or otherwise non-Islamic education, while Haram is a word with Arabic origin that figuratively means ―sin but literally, forbidden‘. In order words, Boko Harm means ―western education is forbidden or is a sin (Wkipedia, Boko Haram, 29/10/2016:1) Boko Haram is very controversial Nigeria militant Islamic group that seeks for the imposition of sharia law in the entire northern states of Nigeria. The name officially of the group is jama‘atu Alis-sunna Lidda‘awth wal jihad, which in Arabic translated to people committed to the propagation of the teaching of prophet and jihad literally therefore, thegroup means ―Association of sunnis for the propagation of Islam and for Holy war.

Insurgence:

This is defined as a political battle waged among a cooperative or acquiescence populace in order for a group of outsiders to take over (or at least undermine) the government of a nation.

Menace:

Menace means a possible danger, a threat, or an act of threatening. It also means something that threatens to cause evil, harm, injury etc. This also means the show of an intention to inflict evil, an indication of a probable evil or catastrophe to come.

Economy:

This refers to the wealth and resources of a country, especially in terms of production and consumption of goods and service. It is also the state of a country or region in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services and the supply of money.

Security:

Security can be defined to mean ― the total sum of action and measures, including legislative and operational procedures, adopted to ensure peace, stability and the general wellbeing of a nation and its citizens (Shinikaiye, 2004:2).

Sect:

Sect can be seen as a body of persons distinguished by pecularities of faith and practice form other bodies adhering to the same general system. Specially, the adherents collectively of a particular creed or confession, a domination or older form of faith or believe (Britanic world language dictionary).

Peace:

Peace is generally defined as the absence of war, conflict, anxiety, suffering and violence and absolute peaceful co-existence. However, peace connotes more than a mere absence of war hostilities because an absence of conflict is inevitable. Therefore, peace could be defined as a political condition that ensure justice and social stability through formal or informal institutions, practices and norms (Howard, 1987).

Domestic Terrorism:

Domestic Terrorism is the commission of terrorist attacks in a state by forces inside or originating from the state, as opposed to terrorist attacks by forces external to the state. In other words, domestic terrorism is a terrorist act practice in one‘s own country against her own people (online dictionary).

Violence:

Violence is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the international use of physical force of power, threatened or actual against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injuries, death psychological harm, mal development or deprivation. (Wikipedia, WHO).


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding it is broken down as follows:

  • Chapter one kicks off with the introduction, which consists of the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research hypothesis, scope and significance of the study.
  • Chapter two begins with the conceptual framework on which the study is based, the theoretical literatures and also the empirical literature and thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design, the population of the state used as a case study, the sample size and the sampling techniques used, the data collected, data analysis and the limitations of the method used.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis, interpretation and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary of the Work

This study titled impact of banditry and terrorism on food, security and environmentin Nigeria as conducted in three local government areas (that is, Ajili, Gugulin, Beti A, and Beti B) in Benue State was set to assess the causes of the farmer Fulani herdsmen conflict in the middle belt and evaluate the effect of the farmer Fulani herdsmen conflict on food security in the study area. A total of 100 structured questionnaires were administered and 80 were retrieved. In-depth interview were used to support quantitative data.

The study revealedthat the major causes of banditry and terrorism in Nigeria are destruction of crops, harassment of nomads by host youths, disregard for traditional authority, stray cattle, sexual harassment of women by nomads and Indiscriminate bush burning and theft of cattle. This result agrees with the findings of Okereke (2012) and Bello (2013) who listed the causes of the conflict to include theft of cattle, destruction of crops, rape of women, and indiscriminate bush burning. The study also revealed that the major social effect of the Fulani herdsmen conflict are loss of human life, sexual harassment of human life, acquiring of weapons/arms, reduction in quality of social relationship, reduction of social support and high cases of rape. The major economic effect of the Fulani herdsmen conflict are reduction in output and income of farmers/nomads, loss of produce in storage, displacement of farmers, scarcity of agricultural products, loss of house and properties and infrastructural damages. The result agrees with the findings of Nweze (2005) and Bello (2013).

Findings on hypotheses testing revealed in hypothesis 1 that there is a positive effect existing between farmers and Fulani herdsmen clashes on food production in Nigeria. This implies that the farmers and Fulani perception of the causes of Fulani – Herdsmen and farmers clashes in Nigeria were almost the same. The finding agreed with the conclusion of Nweze (2005) who concluded that the farmers’ and Fulani’s’ perception of the causes of Fulani – Herdsmen and farmers clashes in Nigeria are similar. Also finding on hypothesis 2 and 3 revealed that significant differences existed between farmers and Fulani perception of the social effects and economic effects of Fulani – Herdsmen and farmers clashes in Nigeria. The finding agreed with the findings of Ofuoke and Isife (2009) who concluded that significant differences existed between farmers and Fulani perception of the social effects and economic effects of Fulani – Herdsmen and farmers’ clashes in Nigeria.


5.2 Conclusion

It is clear that crop farmers and cattle herder’s conflicts in Benue state centered on the cattle owners and crop farmers. The population of both crop farmers and Cattle herders is rapidly increasing but land remains fixed. These causes are seen in terms of competition on land and cattle trespass.

Periodical struggle for scarce resources has degenerated into violent conflicts in benue state between crop farmers and cattle herders. These conflicts have become more intense and destructive. Since most of the cattle herders do not own or possess the rights to land, they therefore depend absolutely on open land to feed their cattle.

Government policies on agriculture, especially the all-year fadama farming, are threats to cattle herders’ access to pasture. However, additional farms acquired and encroachments of traditional cattle routes have drastically reduced the grazing space for the livestock to access pasture areas and water points. Furthermore, the use of police and courts to resolve conflicts between cattle herders and crop farmers by government has been ineffective. This has contributed to the frequency of the clashes. All these have instigate insecurity that have encouraged the conflicting parties to take responsibility for their own security and to defend themselves, which is a threat to the sustainability of the federation. Therefore, it is in the interest of the State to end the land encroachment and take concrete steps to address the genuine needs of cattle herders for availability of grazing land, resolve the re-occurring conflicts in the agricultural sector, which currently provides employment to large population of country.


5.3 Recommendation

The findings showed that the destruction of crops, harassment of nomads by host youths, disregard for traditional authority, stray cattle, sexual harassment of women by nomads as the major causes of the conflicts. The study, therefore, recommends that Benue state and the country in general should formulate a policy that will reclaim the encroached cattle routes and create more. In addition, water points and open farm land for grazing by the cattle should be separated from that of farmers so as to avoid friction. As loss of properties and lives were revealed as the highest consequences.

The study recommends that the religious leaders, traditional leaders, farmers/cattle herders‟ associations should make more efforts in preaching the implications of the conflict on the people and the community in general. All stakeholders can only operate optimally while carrying out their economic activities in a peaceful environment. This will result in the expansion of cropped area and motivate higher cropping intensity and problem free environment. This breeds economic sustainability of land resources use and empowers the farming communities to take responsibility for their own development plan.


5.4 Recommendation for further study

More studies should be carried out on the effect of banditry and terrorism on economic growth of Nigeria
Also a study on the socioeconomic impact of banditry and terrorism.


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Frequently Asked Questions


What is food terrorism and how can we prevent it?

Food terrorism is an act or threat of deliberate contamination of food for human consumption with chemical, biological or radio nuclear agents for the purpose of causing injury or death to civilian populations and/or disrupting social, economic or political stability. 

How vulnerable is America’s agriculture to terrorism?

Agriculture-related products comprise nearly 10 percent of all U.S. exports, amounting to nearly $68 billion in 2006. 2 Terrorists consider America’s agriculture and food production tempting targets. They have noticed that its food supply is among the most vulnerable and least protected of all potential targets of attack.

What is bioterrorism targeting processed foods?

Targeting processed foods during the processing, manufacturing, storage, transport, distribution or service of such foods (this is called terrorism targeting processed foods.) This type of bioterrorism is directed toward livestock and crops.

What is agricultural bioterrorism?

Targeting livestock and crops during production, harvesting, storage or transport (this is called agricultural bioterrorism or agroterrorism.) Targeting processed foods during the processing, manufacturing, storage, transport, distribution or service of such foods (this is called terrorism targeting processed foods.) 

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