Impact Assessment Of Western Films On Teenagers (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede)

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Impact Assessment Of Western Films On Teenagers (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede)


Abstract


This study examines the impact of western films on teenagers as it affects on federal polytechnic Nekede Students. Much after the independence across African continent, one of the major preoccupations African leaders had to contend with is the restoration of African cultures in their pristine forms which were arguably polluted or collapsed by the colonial masters during their reign. No doubt, teenagers and youth generally, are vital segment of the society who could be instrumental promoting African cultures.

But unfortunately, the mentality and lifestyle of the teenagers in African societies have been grossly affected by exposure to western films to such an extent that rather than promoting African cultures, they have become hardened acolytes and promoters of western cultures.

The study therefore examines this situation with particular reference to Nigeria adopting both qualitative and quantitative research methods and at the end find out that western films exert great impact on the teenagers in Nigerian society thereby creating cultural gap to the native cultures. The study then concludes by prescribing way forward towards the restoration and promotion of African cultures as it affects teenagers with particular reference to Nigerian society.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One:

General Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Delimitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 The impact of films on teenagers
  • 2.3 The impact of western film on teenagers
  • 2.4 Theoretical framework

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Area of the study
  • 3.4 Population of Study
  • 3.5 Research sample and sampling procedure
  • 3.6 Sources of data
  • 3.7 Instrument of Data collection
  • 3.8 Validity and reliability of instrument
  • 3.9 Administration of instrument
  • 3.10 method of data analysis

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation And Analysis

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Analysis of data
  • 4.3 Findings

Chapter Five:

Findings, Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.0 Introduction
  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • 5.3 Suggestions for further study
  • Reference
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Considerations about the effects of films can be traced back to the 1920s. At that time, the earliest coordinated social scientific research or investigation into the impact of these effects began in the Western countries. It was intended at studying the harmful impacts of films on societies.

The development of this medium as a common mass entertainment and information source during the 1950s encountered similar concerns about potential harms, especially in connection with young audiences (Gunter, 1994). Nowadays, many concerns have been raised about the kinds of values and attitudes that may be inculcated by exposure to certain kinds of media contents, especially enculturation and violence in movies (Kubey and Larson, 2005).

The most important concern in the debate about violent film has been whether or not it promotes aggressive behavior among viewers most especially the young ones (Evra 1990). Researchers have also shown that heavy exposure to screen violence can cause problems in other domains of social behavior.

For example, it can make people become both fearful of the world around them and accepting violence in the real life as displayed by others (Ibid). Violence is one of the global concerns today in all segments of the world. Antisocial behavior in human beings is accepted to be associated to a number of physiological, psychological, domestic and cultural aspects.

The learning environments which a child is exposed to are also assumed to contribute to the increase of aggressive behaviors and attitudes as well as his inclinations to customs, values and norms of the society (Berkowitz, 2001).

The media, as one of the specific learning condition is believed to be a potential contributor to the growth of antisocial attitudes and behavior in children and teenagers (Ibid). While social scientists work on determining the major causation of violence, such as social environments, cultural factors, family instruction, and group membership parents, teachers, politicians and school administrators continue to blame the media for increased cultural alienation and attitudinal change among adolescents (Fraser and Staub, 1996).

For instance, school principals, mothers, and young people were surveyed for their perceptions of factors influencing home cultures among youth. The results showed that violent messages in rap music and violence in the movies are perceived as the factor among others, influencing the formative process of the teenagers (Kandakai, Price and Telljohann, 1999). Also and importantly, the question of cultural promotion in the developing world has been hampered by blind acceptance and practice of western cultures by the young ones.

Findings however show that film as a medium of mass communication is one the major contributors. Nowadays, the teenagers in Nigeria and Africa as a whole watch western films with impunity or without caution. This shapes their thoughts, attitudes, associations, behaviors and general ways of life.


1.2 Statement Of Research Problem

The impact of western films on teenagers is wider in scope even more than the ordinary world. Many things happening around can be attributed to it. It was reported that western films have reshaped Nigerian teenagers’ thoughts, attitudes, associations, behaviors and their general ways of life.

The impact of Western films on teenagers have been said to be a serious problem facing Nigerians. Some of these problems are:

  1. Inadequate policy to guard the youths towards Western Films/ Programmes.
  2. There is an erosion of the cultural values.
  3. The imitation of Western cultures especially the American cultures.
  4. The Nigerian youths are faced with brain wash.

Therefore, if the above problems are not been taking care off, it will lead to a total destruction of the Nigerians culture.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The researcher’s objective is to assess the impact of western films on teenagers with an insight to determine its implication to the cultural values of Nigerian youths are:

  1. To show how the contents of Western films affect Nigerian Polytechnic students.
  2. To assess its pervasive impact on the cultural values of Nigerian Polytechnic students.
  3. To know how to isolate ugly Western films that have negative impact on teenagers from Nigeria.
  4. Another objective of this study is to know the efforts of the film censorship Commission in finding a lasting solution to the problem of western film violence on the teenagers.

1.4 Significance Of The Study

  1. The research will help in possible dilution, domination and finally absorption of the African/Nigerian culture which until the present has been characterized with good neighbourliness, respect for elders, virtuousness, community orientation and collectivism.
  2. It will enable the government and policy makers to put adequate measures in place to check the movement of Western films into Nigeria.
  3. It will help remove the idea of imitating Western cultures or ways of life from Nigeria.

The conduct of this research will enable the government to know what role the movie industry can play in the development of a country and therefore, harness the movie industry in the democratic process and development process in general.


1.5 Research Questions

The study answered these pertinent questions in order to fulfill the overall goal.

  1. Do western films shape the attitudes, behaviors and general lifestyles of the teenagers in Nigeria?
  2. Do Nigerian teenagers accept and practice western cultures exposed to through western films at the expense of Nigerian cultures?
  3. At what degree do Nigerian teenagers resist foreign or western cultures exposed to through western films?

1.6 Scope Of The Study

The scope of this is to assess how the Western Films affect the teenagers using Federal Polytechnic Nekede as a case study.

The institution is been noted for a constant influence of Western films on their cultural values. Hence, the need for choosing the institution as a case study commenced.

In the cause of the research, oral interview were consulted on both staff and students of the institution. But the research depends more on the questionnaire which were distributed to students and staffs and were completed and returned. The researcher also consulted some textbooks, Newspapers and journals which provided a lot of information pertaining to the study.


1.7 Limitation Of The Study

The general applicability of the study findings are as follows;

Time is a major factor in data collection and other relevant information for use.

Also physical energy was applied because research work is a tedious work and most a times you get worked up in the process.

The materials that will enable the researchers get the work done must be readily available else, it becomes difficult to carry an effective study. Hence, the materials needed tocarryout an effective research posed another barrier, thus making the researchers to embark on a thorough research to come up with a substantial material, this was another limitation to the study.

Lastly, finance is another problem. You have to subscribe to the internet, browse the web, buy books and journals and put the data together.

Because of these limitations, the researcher had to concentrate in a particular group to narrow down this work.


1.8 Delimitation Of Study

This work was delimited for reasons of feasibility to the study of attitude of youths ranging from ages 16-27. Also it deals with only films and magazines among the multifarious sources of pornographic materials.


1.9 Definition Of Terms

Violence:

The viewing of film that have elements of murder, shooting, assassinating, harassment and assault.

Impact:

Change in attitude and behaviour in individual, as a result of expert to persuasive message carried by the mass media.

Film:

The method of broadcasting still or moving picture by means of electrical waves moving through the air.

Teenager:

A young human being from time of birth to the completion of body development.

Nigerian:

Is a republic in West Africa on Gulf of Guinea gained. It gained its independence from the Britain in 1960; most populous African country (www.thefreedictionary.com/Nigeria).

Students:

A person engaged in study, one who is devoted to learning, a learner, a pupil, a scholar especially one who attends a school, or who seeks knowledge from professional teachers or from books as the students of an academy, a college, or a university.

It could also mean a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution (By Nkeiru Harry 2010).


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation And Suggestions

5.0 Introduction

This chapter discusses the major findings of the study in relation to the stated objective. It also makes conclusion from the findings, recommendations and suggestions for further studies were made.


5.1 Conclusion

It has been established by scholars that no society can develop without proper integration of the culture of the land. Culture itself cannot develop the society except it is promoted by all segments and institutions of the society. In this regard, the role of the teenagers or the youth in general cannot be overemphasized. The teenagers are such a vibrant segment of the society who should rather live by the cultural norms of the society in order to promote and sustain the culture of the land. It is however nagging, that exposure to western films by the Nigerian teenagers has affected their attachment and affiliation to the Nigerian cultures and value system in general.

The situation is so disheartening that it needs the most urgent attention in order to salvage the cultural fabric and make the teenagers vanguards of this cause. Therefore, the Nigerian Films and Video Censors Board (NFVCB) must wake up from its slumber and rise to the occasion. Of course, there are laws guiding the broadcast of foreign contents in general, but observation shows that there is no strict enforcement which led to laxity and the present state of affairs in relation to the importation or influx of western films in the country. In addition, National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) needs to play a vital role in this regard.

The excessive broadcast of western or foreign films in most of Nigerian television channels needs to be seriously checkmated with punitive measures on erring stations. Despite the stipulated percentage of local and foreign contents on Nigerian television channels, there have been violations over the years without any form of severity. Therefore, NBC needs to descend heavily on erring television stations as a way of salvaging the cultural fabric of the Nigerian society. It is of interest to note that parents and guardians equally have greater roles to play.

The unfortunate thing is that most of the parents nowadays encourage their wards to watch western or foreign films with little or no value. They should bear in mind that they are not only doing harm to these younger generation, the society at large is going to suffer adversely from it. Parents should curtail and checkmate their children on the type of western films to be watched on the television or through CDs and DVDs. Parents should equally educate their children on any film watched so as to assist bring out lessons from such film for the betterment of the society at large.

Non-Governmental-Organizations (NGOs), churches and mosques also have immense duties to discharge in this regard. These institutions should put up frequent but massive campaign against western films that are anti-cultural to the Nigerian society. If this campaign and other public enlightenment continue, there may be drastic reduction in its importation as well as reduced level of exposure among the teenagers. Especially, the mosques and the churches, their effects in championing this kind of cause cannot be overemphasized. This is because researches have over the years shown that religious institutions have impacted great influence on humanity especially in the 21st Century. It is also important to note that our Nollywood should play an essential role. It needs to encourage the production of localized contents whereby the cultural norms and values of the Nigerian society are emphasized and widely promoted as against what happens in the Nollywood nowadays whereby, their productions are patterned on the western culture the resultant effect of which is cultural distortion and erosion among Nigerian teenagers.


5.3 Recommendations

The researcher recommends those parents who are not bothered should work hard to assist in youth training by enforcing national laws guiding children.

Bad western films need to be eliminated as results have shown that it has more harmful negative effects on our teenagers than the positive effects. What should be done is that government should declare outright ban on importation of films and materials that are pornographic through any legal means into the country.
The researcher is of the view that campaign against western films should be encouraged to save our cultural values.


5.4 Suggestions For Further Study

A more elaborate research should be undertaken to assess more on the impacts of western on Nigerian teenagers. Perhaps such an elaborate work may yield a different or similar result form the current study.

Such studies should be undertaken in bigger towns or cities in Nigeria as the findings could be of significance to educate youths on the effect of western films and probably curb it. Studies should be conducted on exposure to bad western films on teenagers.


Impact Assessment Of Western Films On Teenagers (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede)


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