The Impact Of Poverty Reduction Programme In Rural Communities In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Owerri Municipal, Imo State)
This project is an effort to study the impact of poverty reduction or alleviation programmes on rural communities in Nigeria. It is a comprehensive text for students of public administration and all the policy makers who have interest in evaluating Government programmes. From the chapter two of this project, it reviews some past public programmes of past administration towards enhancing the living standard of the populace.
The aim of this is basically to show the reader the effect of Government towards reducing poor living standard of the people and what can be done to reduce the rate of poverty in Nigeria.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Certification page
- Table of contents
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the study
- 1.6 Scope of the study
- 1.7 Limitations of the study
- 1.8 Definition of the terms
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Objectives of Poverty Reduction Programmes in Nigeria.
- 2.3 Some of the past Poverty Reduction Programmes in Nigeria.
- 2.4 Constraints in Poverty reduction Policies and programmes in Nigeria.
- 2.5 The impact of Poverty Reduction Policies and Programmes of President Olusegun effort an appraisal
- 2.6 Features of Poverty Allocation Programmes In Nigeria.
- 2.7 Problems of Poverty Management techniques in Nigeria.
- 2.8 Lack of involvement of beneficiaries in project evaluation.
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research design
- 3.3 Sources/ method of data collection
- 3.4 Population and sample size
- 3.5 Sample techniques
- 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
- 3.7 Method of data analysis
4.0 Presentation and analysis of data
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Presentation of data
- 4.3 Analysis of data
- 4.4 Interpretation of results
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary of findings
- 5.3 Conclusions
- 5.4 Recommendations
1.1 Background Of The Study
Everyone now acknowledges the fact that poverty is a global phenomenon threatening the survival of humanity, with more than one billion people living in a state of abject poverty. Now it is generally accepted that dangers posed by poverty must be addressed and reduced in the short run and eliminated in the long-run (UNN: 2005.30). Consequently, they have come out with such term like “Poverty Alleviation”, poverty Eradication. All these have been a policy, I intended to programmes on rural community in Nigeria, which have adopted over the years by successive Nigeria Government aimed at lacking the problems of poverty in the country. Before stepping into this, I will to examine hoe poverty is measured.
Poverty can be conceptualized and measured in different ways. The conventional approach focuses on the quantifiable poverty line based solely on consumption and expenditure pattern (World Bank 2006). While the Poverty line is an important measure of poverty in a country over time poverty goes beyond income level. It comprises access to health care and education, respect, status, isolation within communities and feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness. Poverty is meet-dimensionally and many of its dimensions are often hidden.
(Revelation 2005, Moser 2005). Secondly, the United Nation Development Programmes (UNDP), Uses the human development index (HDI) to measure human progress or retrogression. This is done by utilization data Purchasing Power Party (PPP) or real GBP per-capital adjustment for the local of diving. As of 2004, the UNDO ranked MIFEN 146 country in its HDI. This shows that the level of poverty is high in the country (UNDP 2005:3). However, poverty in Nigeria can be viewed from the dimensions, Urban-rural individual poverty.
Urban poverty deals with the aggregation of the poor as social forms of urban poverty is evident in such term as slims, ghettos, or shanty town, these firms described certain area of the city by its stage of physical deteriorate and are occupied by individuals experiencing various rounds of social deprivation that include level of unemployment and inadequate, social welfare services.
In addition to these policy and programmes, reduction of poverty calls for the provision of conducive environment for heavy investment. These include goods and accessible road network, simple and affordable transportation, low and medium housing for the populace portable water supply, agricultural and industrial development.
In a quest to achieve these, the Nigerian Government had in the past and present constituted policies, programmes and bodies to see to a speedy result. These Poverty Reduction Policies and Programmes include operation feed the Nation(OFN in 1976), Green Revolution of 1978, Structural Adjustment Programmes ( SAP 1980’s), Directorate for Food, Road and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI 1988), National Directorate of Employment (NDE) better life and family support programme education for all by the year 2000, the economic advancement programme which is the brain child of former President, Olusegun Obasanjo in his regime, electricity by the year 2010 and other self help programmes like KEKE NAPEPE, needs seven point agenda, micro finance schemes etc.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Problem of the study boil down to what constitutes the policies and programmes in rural communities in Nigeria. Just like the cause of poverty, the problems bedevil Poverty reduction policies and programmes on rural communities in Nigeria reference to Owerri Municipal of Imo State are many and dimensional.
First, Poverty Reduction Programmes (PRP) in Nigeria communities suffers from inadequate co-operation. There is known umbrella Organization that co-ordinates the activities of PRP’s in the country. This is the main reason why some PRP get themselves involve in the duplication of function and that is caused by poor co-operation.
Secondly, problem confronting PRP in the rural communities is inadequate fund given the wide spread nature of the poverty in the country it would have been expected that adequate consummate amount of money have been released for care by PRN such as NDE, to combat via mass employment creation. Meanwhile, what Government most often make available to PRP is not enough to enable them take the magnitude of Poverty in the country.
Thirdly, there is also lack of comprehensive policy framework of poverty reduction. This is supposed to articulate ways by which various manifestation of poverty can be effective and efficiently tackled so as to ensure sustainable growth and development in the country.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of Poverty Reduction Policies and Programmes on rural communities in Nigeria with a view to suggest strategies that will promote the standard of living of the rural dwellers.
The specified objectives are:
- To identify the impact of poverty reduction policies and programmes on rural communities in Owerri Municipal.
- To identify the remote course of rural poverty especially in rural areas.
- To examine Government efforts in curbing Poverty in Nigeria in general.
- To examine the areas in which poverty reduction policies and programmes have improved the lives of Owerri Municipal people.
- To make suggestions and recommendation towards policies on Poverty reduction.
1.4 Research Questions
- Does Poverty affect every Nigeria?
- Is every average Nigerian suffering poverty?
- What are the negative effects of poverty to rural communities?
- What are the ways forward to Poverty reduction in rural communities?
- Does Nigeria Programmes bring effective change to the rural communities in the term of reducing poverty to its minimal level?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
The significant of the study has to do or reflects both in the theoretically and practical importance of the study.
Theoretically, the study will serve as information for other researchers who are interested in carrying out research on the areas of poverty reduction on the rural communities in Nigeria. Past Government has engaged in the past time of glorifying poverty reduction on the pages of newspapers and news conference but has failed to deliver. The earliest poverty reduction policies and programmes were the 1972, Gen. Yakubu Gowon’s national acceleration. Food production programme and the Nigeria Agricultural and Co-operative Bank entirely devoted to finding agriculture. The (NAPPP) turned out to be a colossal waste and nothing was achieved.
Then operation feed the Nation came to limelight by military initiation. Gen. Olusegun Obasanjo which expanded to go to the rural area to teach the peasant farmers how to farm. The scheme only success was in creating awareness of food storage and the need to tackle the problem.
Apart from all the policies been initiated by past military and civilian government, my question goes in this way. “Would this measure by President Yar’Adua be any different”? “Would there be seen at least for the poor masses”? The previous measure all started like today’s own and now the ruling of President Goodluck Ebele Johnathan. The better life for rural women, the family support programme, fuel subsidy etc and the people’s bank were particularly interesting because they were all directed for the betterment of the poor masses.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This research work is on the effect on poverty reduction programme of Federal Government on rural communities in Owerri Municipal. There are poverty in Nigeria that affect the rural communities in Nigeria but due to the requirement for the award of National Diploma in Public Administration the researcher will base its work on rural communities in Owerri Municipal.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
In the course of carrying research on this work, the researcher encountered various limitations ranging from economic underdevelopment on Owerri Municipal, low productivity of the people in communities in Owerri Municipal, inadequate commitment to programme.
Implementation in Owerri Municipal, also the researcher uncounted difficulties while, carrying out its survey through the sharing questionnaires. So many interviewers were reluctant to answer the question given to them; it took researcher time to convince them.
1.8 Definitions Of Terms
Some of the terms are used in this research study are:
The state of being poor, abject poverty and lacking and interior.
The Administration of the material resources of an individual community or country, the state these resources.
In flouring, abounding wealthy.
This is the act of lessen pain or distress for the poor mass in country.
Something that limits the range of a person’s action or freedom.
5.0 Summary, Recommendation And Conclusions
Poverty is a multi-variety phenomenon in which income standard of living, health, housing, education and marital status and all relevant to its identification and employment, occupational, wage level, demographic factors and a number of other variables is the social framework all play role in its generations. There are different kinds of poverty, there is poverty the poor; these are made of largely of urban refuses from the traditional subsistence of the economy. There is poverty of unemployment’s, poverty may be due to lack of objectives, opportunities, and poverty may also be due to the use of outdated and traditional technique of production. However, this is relevant to the poverty of the rural sector. This is the main theme in this work
5.2 Summary Of The Findings
This theory best explain the situation of poverty in Owerri municipal because each part reinforces the others and so maintain the system as a whole. The work was based on the impact of poverty reduction, policies and programmes on rural communities in Nigeria particularly references to Owerri municipal, activities of these rural communities. The researcher was concerned with interviewing a random sample if 180 people. One hundred females and so males, also talking about the entire population of Owerri municipal, there are 28,988 people as put by 2008 census. The population is made up of various ages, status, positions and occupational groups.
However, the research was centered on the people within the age-bracket of 20-39 and their population is about 3,492. The procedure used by the researcher word to ensure that the largest population is fully represented; the questionnaire was distributed to the corresponding number of respondents in each of the structure of the largest villages. Data have ensured reliability descriptive method of using table analysis and percentage was used. However, in the cause of carrying out this research, a lot of constraints were encountered example finance, death of relevant literature etc. Based on the socio-demographic variable of the respondents in considering their age groups 86 or 48% has the highest number in age. By this, we can understand that rural-urban migration affects people within the age category of 20-39 mostly, leaving the aged behind in the village. Again, the researcher also indicates that there are less males, more females. The number of people who are married in Owerri municipal out-numbered the single and divorced. Tables 4.2 prove farming as their chief or major occupation of Owerri people, and this goes a long way in affecting their educational attainment objectively. Table 4.3 shows that illiteracy is the major cause of poverty in Owerri municipal. The Federal Government effort to build schools that will be affordable to the people has not been successful because majority of the respondent indicated that they could not go to school due to lack of money. The finding in table 4.4 shows that the effort of poverty reduction policies and programmes in Owerri municipal affected their income, type of housing individuals and numbers of persons in one room, types of food eaten etc. while in table 4.5, it tries to show that the government’s effort have not been fruitful.
Fourthly, table 4.6 shows that 75 or 42% of respondents, which also happens to be the majority agreed their witnessed the governments efforts but that none of these poverty reduction policies and programmes have proved the lives of the poor masses. Based on selfish interest of people in power, they diverted the money in their various purse thereby making the rich richer and leaving the poor poorer.
This studying in path has shown that poverty has an impact on the rural people. There are major hindrances to reducing and eliminating poverty in Owerri municipal and this has been identified to be the dominant culture role.
Poverty as a feedback system (vicious circle of poverty) best explain the situation of poverty in Owerri municipal under the theory, each part reinforces the others and so maintains the system as a whole and that the various circumstances of the poor combine to maintain them in poverty.
The concept of rural poverty is generally not qualified at least not adequately so. This is because low income in agriculture is also associated with other factors such as small farming, low education, low or poor medical facilities. Although, there is no firm definition of rural poverty in Nigeria, there is general awareness of its presence.
It is to note that any recommendation of prescriptive remedies for eliminating or minimizing poverty has to corporate the known and identifiable cause of poverty. Therefore, based on the finding of this study, the following recommendations have become very imperative in order to ensure a change and to see that the poor are raided above the poverty line.
The role of education in building the capital of any nation cannot be over stressed. Therefore, government should ensure that the educational inequality between the rich and the poor and even the urban and rural areas is closed in this regard. They should find the schools in ht rural areas very well, so that by so doing, the children of the poor can benefit.
Moreover, there should be cottage industries to provide employment to farmers and their families during the handling and implementation of such project should not be in the hands of the raised urban bourgeois’s who cream of the benefits of this projects at the expanse of the poor. Rather, the “igwe” paramount rulers and such like in proposed towns and communities, who are aware of the problems of their people, should be entrusted with this project.
There should be a promulgation of law prohibiting Nigerians from dumping the country’s money in Swiss bank and other foreign banks. Any one that goes contrary should be made to face the law and such account frozen. This mass poverty in Nigeria is traceable to the gross corruption of the past Nigeria leaders. Cases about where some bank, such large some of money can sustain the entire population.
The researcher is therefore, of the recommendation or view that if the policy makers will head to this point suggested. Most rural families will be lifted above the poverty line while mass poverty will drastically be reduced in Nigeria.
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