The Impact Of Administrative Reforms An Organizational Efficiency In Public Service (An Overview)
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This project is dedicated with love of God Almighty for without him, there will be no Genesis of this work. And to my Dear Husband Mr. Prince Izuchukwu Olejeme and my parents Mr. and Mrs Hillary Nwosu for their move and support throughout the period of my education. May the good God keep them to eat the fruit of their labour in Jesus Name.
I want to use this medium once more to testify to the glory, honour, power, love, guidance, blessings and mercies of the ever living God who has shown his favour particularly to my dear Husband Mr. Prince Izuchukwu Olejeme and and my family.
My special thanks goes to my supervisor Mrs. Ugorji N.V, Mr. Zulu and many others for their adequate encouragement and wonderful assistance.
I am truly indebted to my parents Mr/Mrs Hillary Nwosu for making me what I am today. I am praying to Almighry God to reward and bless everybody abundantly, Amen.
The research work focuses on the impact of administrative reforms on organizational efficiency in public service, an overview.
The research work is a combination of primary and secondary data. The primary data is collected from respondents through questionnaires while the secondary data deals basically on the ideas of previous researchers and writers on the subject.
However, the research work is divided into five chapters. In chapter one, the researcher discussed the introductory aspect of the research work, problems researching for, the objectives of study, the research questions, etc. while chapter two deals with review of related literature to the search work, chapter three is all about research methodology adopted for the research work.
Chapter four is about the presentation and analysis of the data, the statistical method used in simple percentage and the result were presented in tabular form. The hypothesis was tested and the result interpreted.
In chapter five which is the last deals with the summary, conclusion and recommendations that will help to enhance administrative reforms in public service.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of contents
- 1.0 Introduction
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Statement of hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope of the study
- 1.8 Limitation of the study
- 1.9 Definition of terms
- 2.0 Literature review
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Conceptual clarification of administration
- 2.3 Administrative reform in Nigeria
- 2.4 Impact of administrative reforms
- 3.0 Research design and methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research design
- 3.3 Sources/methods of data collection
- 3.4 Population and sample size
- 3.5 Sampling technique
- 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
- 3.7 Method of data analysis.
- 4.0 Presentation and analysis of data
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Presentation of data
- 4.3 Analysis of data
- 4.4 Test of hypothesis
- 4.5 Interpretation of results.
- 5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendation
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary of findings
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendations
1.1 Background Of The Study
Over the years, the government has come to occupy significant position as an instrument of change not only in the developed countries but more importantly in the developing nations.
It has also been observed that the traditional regulatory function of government has multiplied in size and greatly broadened scope. It is expected to achieve such general economic aims such as full employment of satisfactory rate of growth, stable prices and health balance of payment. It provides comprehensive social service and is hitherto expected to promote the fullness possible development of public service and individual human potential.
To a large extent, the government cannot perform these numerous task without a good administrative reform in public service.
The effectiveness of the government, institutions, ministries and parastatals depends on the efficiency and competence of a good administrative reform in the organization or nation.
An administrative reform is a deliberate attempt to change both the structure procedures of public bureaucracy that is, the institutional aspect and the attitude and behaviour of the public bureaucrats in order to promote organizational effectiveness and attain national development goals.
According to Obasi (1983:3), He viewed administrative reform as a purposeful or goal-oriented change made in order to improve the skill, standard of performance and level of productivity of members in an organization.
Caiden (1970:65) also sees the reform of public bureaucracy as the artificial inducement of administrative transformation against resistance:according to him, administrative reform contains three inter-related properties namely:
- Moral purpose: That is the sense of the need to improve on the present situation of things.
- Artificial transformation: This means the departure from the existing arrangements.
- Administrative resistance: Because it is assumed that there would be opposition against change.
From the foregoing, it is obvious that an administrative reform is different from mere-re-organization or normal administrative improvement measures in-terms of scope of modus operandi and its implication. A reform is therefore expected to be a deliberate goal oriented and comprehensive change exercise designed to improve the institution and the attitudinal aspect of the public bureaucracy.
According to Jelowick (1982) He sees administrative reform as consisting of six parts.
- Definition of the objectives, aims and area of reforms.
- Collection of the maximum amount of information of the area to be reformed.
- Critical analysis and appreciation of the situation
- Drafting project of alternative solutions
- Choice of a solution
- Observation of the results of the reform.
In other word, administrative reforms are carried out in order to address the problems militating against effective and efficient service delivery by the public bureaucracy. Such problems as pointed out may have to do with structure and procedures as well as the value attitudes orientation of the personnel in public organizations.
1.2 Statement Of Problems
Despite the important function, the public service performed in implementation of policy in Nigeria, administrative reform which had deduced as a change agent of administration pathology of the public bureaucrat in the organization has been fought with several pitfalls. The problems are as follows:
- In-appropriateness and ineffectiveness in the public service as a result of excess red-types of government officials.
- Wide spread of corruption in the public service which had given Kudos to impropriation of in application of public funds.
- Attitude of formulatic impersonality in view of maintaining the organizational status quo which had bad effect in meeting contingence needs in the organization.
- d) The existence of in-cooperation relationship between the public service and the executive class which is characterized by the spirit of animosity and jealousy.
- Ethnic locality competes and precedence over loyalty to the state or nation.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The general objective of this research is based on the impact of administrative reforms on organizational efficiency in public service.
Before discussing the major objectives of administrative reform, it is necessary to point out that administrative reform is a symbol of the dynamics of any society. Also the need for administrative reform may vary from one policy or government to another and may depend on the nature of the political economy as well as the level of development attained by the country.
The fundamental objectives of administrative reform are as follows:
- To improve the performance of the public administrative system and then make it more efficient in delivery of public service.
- To make the public bureaucracy more responsive to the changing needs of the society.
- To develop the capacity of bureaucratic structure to such extent that would facilitate the efficient implementation of government policies and programmes.
- To increase the performance, qualification, job satisfaction and welfare of the organizational personnel
- To respond to threats and criticism from the environment.
1.4 Research Questions
Certain questions are very relevant as it concerns the impact of administrative reform an organizational efficiency in public service, as answers to this questions will help to enhance administrative reform in public organizations for instance:
- Does administrative reform play any positive impact in organizational efficiency?
- Does wide spread of corruption in the public service leads to in appropriation and in-effectiveness in an organization?
- Does tribalism and ethnic loyalty has any impact to play towards the progress of public service?
1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis
- Hi: Administrative reform plays positive impact on organizational efficiency in public service.
Ho: Administrative reform does not play positive impact on organization efficiency in public service.
- Hi: Tribalism and ethnic loyality has a positive impact towards the progress of the public service.
Ho: Tribalism and ethnic loyality has no impact towards the progress of the public service.
On the other hand, the students of public administration will benefit from this research because it will help them to understand the administrative work and bureaucratic effectiveness in government sector. Equally, administrators, civil servants and the general public will benefit from this study as it will improve the general understanding of the system and provide solution to the problem of administrative reform and bureaucratic effectiveness.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
The scope of the study is meant to examine the impact of administrative reform on organizational efficiency in public service an overview. As an in-road for achieving effectiveness and efficiency in government organization usually in Nigeria.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
Drawing credence from this research work, the research is faced with some constraints from such factors as finance, lack of cooperation from some members of staff who attempt of keep back relevant information as a result of non-challant attitude of some staff of public bureaucrats.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
It refers to the deliberate attempt to change both the structure and procedure of public bureaucracy that is the institutional impact and the attitude and behaviour of the public bureaucrats in order to promote organizational effectiveness and attain national developmental goals.
The word bureaucracy is often associated with inefficiency, delay and under the table arrangement, or yet these are the things which bureaucracy aims to correct. Bureaucracy according to Weber is defined as formal, rational, organization social structure involving clearly defined patterns of activity in every series of action is fundamentally related.
This is a complex organization comprising permanent officials appointed in a civil capacity to assist the political executives in the formulation, implementation, coordination and monitoring of government policies in ministries in which government functions and responsibilities are carried out.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
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You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.