Impact Of Accounting Standards And Financial Reporting (A Survey Of Listed Banks)

Project and Seminar Material for Accountancy / Accounting

Impact Of Accounting Standards And Financial Reporting (A Survey Of Listed Banks)


Abstract


The study examines the impact of accounting standard on financial reporting on Nigerian financial institutions. The broad objective of the study is to ascertain if there is relationship between accounting standards and the content and presentation of financial statements and also to find out if financial reporting information has a positive impact on the effective management of Nigeria banks. The local standards do not cover all the aspects of financial reporting encountered by prepare of financial statements. The random sampling technique was used in selecting a sample size of l4 banks out of all banks quoted on the Nigeria Stock Exchange as at third quarter of 2015. The survey design was adopted in this study and a total number of 50 questionnaires were administered but 47 copies were returned completely. The t-statistics was adopted in carrying out the analysis of data. From the analysis of data collected, the result reveals that there is a positive relationship between accounting standards, its contents and presentation of financial statement in the banking sector. It is concluded that accounting standards have improved Nigerian banks on how they can prepare financial statement and presents it in line with the Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA) 2004 and other relevant accounting standards (IAS and SAS). Based on these findings, some recommendations among others were made that proper accounting standards be put in place by the relevant accounting standard setting bodies so as to ensure the preparation of high quality financial report or statement in the Nigeria banking sector.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Section 335(l) of the Companies and Allied Matters Act CAMA 1990 as amended stipulates that the preparation of financial statement, shall comply with the accounting standards’ issued from time to time by the Nigeria Accounting Standard Board.

Financial statements are described as the end product of accounting transactions or economic events aimed at providing qualitative and quantitative financial information to evaluate and predict the performance of an organization to permit informed judgment and decision making, (Illaboya, 2005).

In Nigeria, the standard setting body was the Nigeria Accounting Standard Board (NASB) which is presently referred to as the Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRCN) which was passed into law On 18 May 2011 and was signed into law on 20 July 2011. The financial reporting council of Nigeria like all standard setting bodies in the world is independent of the profession of accounting. The council identifies areas where a measure of uniformity is required so as to bridge the variation in reporting practices and ensure a high level of uniformity which is panacea to corporate compatibility.

The need for an accounting standard setting body in Nigeria became urgent when the Nigeria enterprise promotion decree was promulgated to transfer ownership of companies to Nigerians. Foreigners exploited the lack of uniform accounting procedures in valuing their equities in companies affected by the decree. Those companies, whose parents were resident outside Nigeria, followed the dictate of their parents. At the end of it all, there were as many accounting practices reflected in the account as there were companies in Nigeria (Nnadi, 2007).

Whenever an auditor challenged a company on the appropriateness of its accounting practices, management was usually quick to as the auditor to produce the law prohibiting such practice. The Nigeria accounting standard board presently known as the financial reporting council of Nigeria was therefore established in order to ensure that these conditions did not persist, (Nnadi, 2007).

The Nigeria accounting standard board (NASB) presently referred to as Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRCN) has been the body responsible for establishing standards of accounting and reporting in the Nigeria business enterprises. The board help to ensure that the published financial statements are uniform in content and format and communicate precisely what they purport to convey. These standards are in effect rules governing the preparation of financial statements. Accounting standards issued by the board are essential because they lead to efficient allocation of resources in the economy such that more successful companies are better able to raise capital to finance their operations than the less successful one.

The development of new accounting standards involves a long process usually referred to as “due process”. The due process ensures that all interested parties get the chance to make some contributions towards the proposed standards. The process begins with the selection of an area of accounting to be standardized. An accounting problem must be sufficiently significant in terms of its effect on the financial statements. If problems do not create significant difficulties, the cost of the due process may be justifiable. Any individual or organization can write to the financial reporting council (FRC) to suggest an issue for standardization (Nnadi, 2007).

Accounting standard is a statement issued by the appropriate standard setting body locally or internationally on a specific area or topic in financial accounting, the acceptance and application of which is mandatory for prepares and users of financial statement, (Igben, 2004).

Accounting standards are issued at the international level by the International Accounting Standard Committee (IASC) while they are issued in Nigeria by the financial reporting council of Nigeria. The standards issued by the (IASB) are known as international accounting standard (IAS) while those issued by the (FRCN) are known as statement of accounting standard presently know as International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS). Both IAS/IFRS are applicable except that if an IAS is inconsistent with an SAS, the IAS/IFRS would be inapplicable to the extent of the inconsistency. This implies that on any matter on which an IAS and an SAS make conflicting pronouncements, the SAS shall supersede the IAS in Nigeria (Igben, 2004).


1.2 Statement of Problem

Our national accounting standard (SAS) is partly based old IAS, some of which have since been amended or withdrawn by IASB. Furthermore, the local standards do not cover all the aspects of financial reporting encountered by prepare of financial statements. We think it is fair to admit that our standards are partly out of date and are not sufficiently comprehensive to form a basis for the preparation of high quality financial statements.


1.3 Research Questions

In order to achieve the objective, the following research questions are asked:

  1. Is there any relationship between accounting standard and the content and presentation of financial statement?
  2. Does financial reporting information has a positive impact on the effective management of Nigeria banks?
  3. Does the neglect of financial reporting information have effect on the banking activities?

1.4 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to find out the impact of accounting standards on financial reporting in Nigerian banks. The sub-objectives are to;

  1. Ascertain if there is relationship between accounting standard and the content and presentation of financial statements,
  2. Find out if financial reporting information has a positive impact on the effective management of Nigeria banks,
  3. Determine if neglect of financial reporting information have effect on the banking activities.

1.5 Statement of hypothesis

The following hypotheses are formulated in null (HO) and alternative (HI) forms.

Hypothesis One
  • HO: There is no positive relationship between accounting standard and the content and presentation of financial statements.
  • HI: There is a positive relationship between accounting standard and the content and presentation of financial statements.
Hypothesis Two
  • Ho: Financial reporting information has a negative impact on the effective management of Nigerian banks.
  • HI: Financial reporting information has a positive impact on the effective management of Nigeria banks.
Hypothesis Three
  • Ho: Neglect of financial reporting information will not have any effect on the banking activities.
  • HI: Neglect of financial reporting information will have effect on the banking activities.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be relevant to the following parties:

Business Organization:

Every business organization uses financial statement to communicate information about its performance, resources and obligation and interested parties. The report, are prepared in such away to meet different needs of the parties.

Bank Managers:

It is expected that at the end of the research work solutions would be provided to the problems and recommendations on the content and presentation of financial statement and the influence of standards on financial statement in the Nigeria banking sector.

Shareholders:

It will give more enlightenment to shareholders on the impact of accounting standards on their financial reporting and presentation.

Researchers:

It will serve as a reference point for the future researchers’ interest.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study attempts to access and evaluate the impact of accounting standards on financial statements in the Nigeria banking sector. The study covers the Statement of Accounting Standard (SAS), the Nigeria Accounting Standard Board (NASB) now referred to as Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRCN), the relevant International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS). The study is concentrated in Benin City, Edo State. The study is strictly within the time frame of 5 years (2011 to 2015). However, a sample size of 14 banks was used for effective result.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The following are the limitations encountered during the course of this project.

  1. Finance: lack of adequate and sufficient finance in terms of the cost of collecting data, and processing the required information hindered the smooth conduct of this project.
  2. Inability to obtain necessary information due to administrative bottleneck, couples with the fact that some information were considered as confidential those do not encourage sound research.

1.9 Definition of Terms

1. Accounting:

Is a principle that guides and standardizes accounting practices.

2. Financial Statement:

Is a formal record of the financial activities and position of a business, person or other entity.

3. Financial Position:

It is another name for balance sheet and it reports an entity’s assets, liabilities and the difference in their total.

4. Financial Reporting:

This is the process of producing statements that disclose an organization’s financial status to management, investors and the government.

5. Comparability:

The condition of related objects.

6. Reliability:

The quality of being reliable, dependable or trustworthy.

7. Transaction:

The act of conducting or caring out business negotiations, plans.

8. Management:

The judicious use of means to accomplish an end.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is presented in five (5) chapters in accordance with the standard presentation of research work.
Chapter one contains the introduction which include; background of the study, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of study, research questions, significance of study, scope of study and overview of the study. Chapter two deals with review of related literature. Chapter three dwelt on research methodology which include; brief description of the study area, research design, sources of data, population of the study, sample size and sampling technique, instrument of data collection, validity of instrument, reliability of instrument and method of data presentation and analysis. Chapter four consists of data presentation and analysis while chapter five is the summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the effect of accounting standards on the quality of financial reporting in Nigeria.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of accounting standard and quality financial reporting in Nigeria.


5.2 Summary

The research work was carried out with the objective of unraveling the benefits Nigerian companies stand to achieve by the adoption and implementation of the International Financial Reporting Standards in preparing and reporting its financial statements. To this effect, two hypotheses were assumed and tested, so that it can be accepted or rejected at the end of the research work when it will be analyzed using questionnaire to obtain data from chartered accountants, auditors, managers, investors in Jos North Local Government of Plateau State.

The outcome of the study revealed the following:

  1. The adoption will increase the level of confidence of global investors and investment analysts in the financial statements of companies in Nigeria.
  2. The adoption of IFRS is an effective tool for enhancing the uniformity and comparability of financial statements of companies in Nigeria.
  3. The companies that have adopted IFRS will be able to generate more funds from foreign sources.
  4. There are still challenges militating against the successful adoption and implementation of IFRS but government has put adequate measures in place to address these issues.
  5. The adoption and implementation of IFRS will increase the FDI inflow in Nigeria.

5.2 Conclusion

In this study, attempts were made to assess the relevance of IFRS in the preparation and presentation of financial statements in Nigeria. Based on the findings, it was concluded that adoption of IFRS is a right step in the right direction which actually has been more relevant in the preparation and presentation of financial statements in the Nigerian. Although, there are many issues and challenges facing implementation, the benefits outweigh the challenge. With adoption, Nigerian Companies will produce more credible financial statements that will not only be informed but also provide a basis for better interpretation. This invariably will boost investors’ confidence and attract cross border financial transactions which is the basis for economic growth.


5.4 Recommendations

Abstracting from the above mentioned, the research makes the following recommendation to ensure a successful adoption and implementation of IFRS in Nigeria.

  1. Government and the regulators should ensure that there is availability of training facilities and materials for Professional Accountants on the concept of IFRS and issues relating to its implementation conversion
  2. Compliance with IFRS timetable should be mandatory and failure should be marched with appropriate sanctions.
  3. Government should release more fund to FRC to educate all stakeholders with special reference to the academic, staff and accounting students who will uphold the future of IFRS in the country and developing a plan to help properly equip the company for upcoming changes
  4. Professional accounting bodies in Nigeria should made IFRS training a part of MCPE at a reduce cost.
  5. While monitoring the IFRS implementation timetable, the government, the Central bank of Nigeria and other regulatory bodies should ensure that ethical environment and corporate transparency are observed.

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