The Impact Of Accounting Records In Small And Medium Scale Industry (Case Study Of Mr. Bigg’s And Uncle Joe’s Bakery)
An expansive wisdom is bought by experience learning teaching more in one year then experience in twenty. Rogar Ascharm. Furthermore, it is impossible for a man to learn. On this note I state that a great number of people go suddenly and with force into business without having a sound knowledge of what business is all about what it takes to rim or manage a business. One cannot be said to have committed an offence nor made a mistake to ascertain them. It is a daily practice to set up small and medium scale firms in every nooks and ceramics of Nigeria, but sample though worthy questioning. How many actually stand with the test of time many business levers commenced business with huge sums of money (Capital) have experienced a mistiness running down of the business the predicament has been attributed to many factors.
The study critically worked into the accounting systems and management problems in separation in both small and medium scale industries (a case study of Mr. Bigg’s and Uncle Joe’s bread) Enugu state I have found out if records actually existed, the problems encounter in keeping them and effects they have on the entire business organization. Questionnaires and personal interviews were used by the researcher in obtaining the necessary factors. The main findings at the end of this research reveals that improper accounting and poor management techniques played a vital role in the failure of most business firms. Based on the major findings the research made the following recommendation; Proper planning and control Use of good accounting techniques Application of sound credit policy, Sound wage and salary policy, Improved inventory management, Reduction of operating cost experience, -Striving to improve sales.
1.1 Background of the Study
A basic reality of modern economic life is the inter dependence of the business. There is no doubt whatever that the small scale and medium companies constitute the real fabric of a of nation’s economy. And to say that the present and future economic advancement of this our great country Nigeria lies in the growth of Small – to- Medium Scale enterprises (SME) is not an overstatement. This opinion was uphold during the economic conference in Lagos in 1989 at the instance of three bodies namely the Nigeria Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), the National Association of Small-Scale Industries (NASSI) and the Friedrich Albert Foundation. In other words, SMEs constitute a vital engine to economic growth and development.
However, the environment in which this sector operates in Nigeria is both challenging and rewarding. It I s challenging because it is fraught with the changes of risk arising from having, in the first place to invest money in a business and the problems of managing it in the country’s recessed economy.
Nevertheless, there is smiling countenance of success, should the SMEs be given dynamic leadership and properly managed in the present economically recessive climate in the country and with the aid of the various package of incentives given by government (Federal State and Local) to this group of business. Past record of different countries that are regarded to be developed revealed that industrial revaluation had been the main cause for their economic survival. The financial capacity, the said developed countries has come mainly from bad rock for any meaningful industrial development and for the acquisition of this trial and technological power. There are slow growth in industrial development and lag in rural development. it is often suggested that small scale and medium enterprises (SME) would help promote rural development, as well as general urban employment.
Nit is however remarkable to note that inspit of this high hope, little success has been achieved in Nigeria.
There is no doubt that the survival of entrepreneur in the present Nigeria economy depend solely on his initiation drive including quick adaptation to the environment. The question of age of buy, buy, buy, sell, sell is now a thing of history in the country (Nigeria). Therefore, sole proprietor must appreciate the fact and advance to study the economy and develop interest in and any manufacturing or agricultural sector nop matter how small or medium for the present and future survival of Nigeria
In order to sustain the growth and survival of the small scale industrial deemed it necessary to establish institutions that would provide the back-up extension.
Hence the establishment of industrial development centers (IDCS). They were established to give direct grass root support service including counseling on project identification and selection machinery, serving, conducting market studies and preparation of feasibility studies.
Hence this project titled “ the impact of Accounting Records in Small and Medium Enterprises in Enugu State. A case of study of Uncle Joe’s Bakery and Mr. Bigg’s is to demonstrate the importance of financial record keeping and good management of SMEs to ensure that every bit of Naira and kobo of the industry is used judiciously so that the aim and objectives of the business is achieved (ie maximizing profit and minimizing loss).
1.2 Statement of Problem
It is new a common knowledge that the Nigeria economy presently and past years experienced drastic failure or setback as regard small and medium scale enterprises. There is no authentic or systematic information concerning the organization where as the business owners or managers could embark on meaningful decisions. On the regard opinions or decision could not be taken based on the present facts and figures on the business financial stand. This position could result to non growth of business and fall in the capital structure of the organization.
This problems and others not mentioned here confronting the small and medium scale enterprises has attracted numerous sympathy. It is also on record that the number of survivors from this problem seen not to have gloomy days a head. Very many people have apportioned the blame on improper or insufficient accounting record keeping or maintenance in conjunction with managerial problems. the aforementioned facts are not only known factors which may hinds the progress of any business. Accounting to management other variables include finance, state of economy, effective communication between managers and other employees experience and devotion to duty and of course satisfactory accounting system. For the purpose of this study, it is assumed that all the variables above listed exist in consonance with business.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The study oblige that we search deeply into accounting record keeping system of small and medium scale enterprise (SMEs) in Enugu State Mr. Bigg’s and Uncle Joe’s Bakery, to find out the method of keeping records problems associated in doing so, and whether the system is enough for the business. Furthermore, the study will determine the study the scope of which poor mgt has brought a set back to the progress and expansion of the organization. The study will also emphasis reason why SMEs should keep sufficient records and want to be involved greatly in the country’s industrial change. The study also will intend to marshal out a simple be effective system of accounting for both small and medium scale industries. Based on the result gotten from the study appropriate recommendations will be made regarding proper books of accounts necessary to be kept by SMEs for the purpose of profit maximization, management adequacy including high growth.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research question shall guide the study;
- What are the major roles of Accounting Records in the development of medium and small scale industries
- What are the major impacts of Accounting Records in small and medium scale industries.
- What are the problems confronting small and medium scale industries in keeping proper accounting records.
- What are the strategies for improving the keeping of Accounting records for productivity and business success in medium &small scale Indus.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study would benefit both businessmen and farmer because it will enable them to know that possible causes of industrial development and reasons for mortality of small and medium enterprises. This study will further did aid business owners and managers of SMEs by way of training good accounting records.
People who intends to invest their wealth in small scale or medium scale business should know the like hood of harm that will befall them for not keeping a proper and sufficient books and therefore should on their utmost interest guard against them.
Finally, it is considered that this study would be of importance to the planning authorities as it will avail them all the relevant information required in the formation of economic policies.
1.6 Scope and Limitation.
This study capital the impact of accounting record in small and medium scale enterprises in
Enugu State “a case study of Mr. Bigg’s and Uncle Joe’s Bakery” could have been extended to cover Enugu State as a whole and beyond and of problems of business establishment but considering the huge financial involvement, the project writer is compelled to limit the scope of stuidy to only the impact of accounting records in small and medium size industries Mr. Bigg’s and Uncl e Joe’s Bakery.
Generally, Enugu State is designed as a city dominated by evil servants compared with place like Aba, Onitoha, Nnewi which are termed commercial towns or industrial cities. Based on this limitation, the study was only executed on bakery industries and few selected small and medium scale establishment. A field study using questionnaires and schedules of interview on the accounting system and the organization pattern in SMEs was chosen. This will help to fulfill the aims and objective of the study vis –a-vis finding out the types of exists and the problems maintained by SMEs of any exists and the problems they face of keeping such records.
There was pretest of the questionnaires among the business owners. Another pretest was carried out on the employers in the employment of Mr. Bigg’s and Uncle Joe’s Bakery and other employees in similar industries in Enugu metropolis who exhibited a clear understanding of the questionnaires. The question curtained in the questionnaire. Acted as a basic guide for the interviews with the owners of these firms and some cases the accounting officers.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The following terms has been used in the study accounting: Accounting may be defined as a process by which data relating to the economic activities of an organization are recorded, measured and communicated to interest parties for analysis and interpretation.
This can be said to be the process of classifying and recording the actual transactions of an entity in monetary terms in accordance with established concept, principles, accounting standard and legal possible of the effect transactions over the period and at the year end.
This is said to be that part of management accounting which establishment budgets and standard costs and actual cost of operation department or product and the analysis of various, profitability or social use of funds. Testimonial
Nweze (2000) writing on “Quantitative approach to management accounting defined cost as a measurement in monetary terms of the amount of resources useful for some purpose”
Discussion, Conclusions and Recomendations
This chapter focuses on the discussion, conclusions and recommendations that can be drawn from the discussion of findings presented in chapter four. The study investigated the relationship between the quality of record keeping and performance in small business enterprises.
5.1 Summary of Findings
This section focuses on the discussion of results. It highlights the implications of the findings and where appropriate, relates them to the existing literature. The section is organized according to the research questions of the study which were,
- Is record keeping available in small business enterprisesin Enugu state?
- Is there a relationship between record keeping and performance of small business enterprises?
- Are there Challenges Faced By small business enterprises in Enugu state?
5.1.1 Findings on the Record Keeping Availability in Small Business Enterprises in Enugu State
Many small business enterprises have poor quality of record keeping: they neither maintain the original documentation of their business activities (type of records) nor practice adequate and updated record keeping. This leaves the implementation of quality record keeping to a small number of the small business enterprises.
These findings are in agreement with empirical studies of Chen & Reinikka (1999), PSF ed. (2000), Sejjaaka (1996) and Wabwire (1996) in Uganda and PAN (1997), Stover (1997) and Syracuse (1994) elsewhere in developing countries: they concluded that there is poor quality of record keeping in small business enterprises.
The majority of employees said that record keeping is available in small business enterprises in Enugu state.
5.1.2 Findings on the Challenges Faced by Small Business Enterprises in Enugu State
From the findings in table 6 it is evident that Small businesses face more problems in raising finance. Indeed, a critical look at the values of the correlations in Finding from table 6 implied thatpoor educational background, as majorities are un-educated.
Some sources had a stronger and significant effect on some indicators of quality record keeping and performance of small business. Mulurge (2001) Entrepreneurs lack information about modern technologies and training opportunities which concerns them while others did not even have a significant effect, Stock levels are monitored through written records or by use of computer and the business experiences low sales due to slow moving goods. Gibson and Wallsschutzky (1992).
5.1.3 Findings on the Relationship Between Record Keeping and Performance of Small Business Enterprises
The quality of record keeping influences the performance in the SBEs. These findings are in conformity with Mulurge (2001) who argued that keeping of quality records is critical in determining the long-term survival of a business. In same consonance are various empirical studies: Flusche et al., (1996) and Stover (1997) that confirm that businesses that fail to maintain quality record keeping place their long term success and continuity in grave doubt. The findings of Elkan (1998a), Fasci and Valdez (1996), Liedholm and Mead (1993) and Tulip and Bitekerezo (1993) show that SBEs that stagnate at start-up size expose themselves to disadvantages of long-term liability. The FASB (1980) also asserts that financial performance and position assessment can be based on quality financial reporting.
Furthermore, the concept that quality records would prompt the closure of the business due to losses is in agreement with Gibson (1992), Gibson and Wallsschutzky (1992), McMahon (1998) who argue that many small business enterprises do not focus on record keeping as a tool for good performance but only as an assessment for future profit impediment
The following are the conclusions drawn from the findings in accordance with the objectives of the study.
The study examined the relationship between the quality of record keeping and performance of small business enterprises. The findings depicted that quality of record keeping existent in many SBEs positively influenced the overall performance of a business. Record keeping in the small business enterprises is characterized by inadequate and un-updated records. In some SBEs, there was complete absence of record keeping thus they (SBEs) based performance assessment on mental records.
Furthermore, the Challenges faced by small scale businesses where Poor Infrastructure, Financial Problems, Improper business Feasibility, Lack of Managerial Knowledge, Poor Educational Background or Lack of Education, Out-Dated Technology, Poor Marketing Strategy and Increasing Competition.
Hence, there is a relationship between the quality of record keeping and performance in the small business enterprises. Firms that do not keep proper records on the business activities are unlikely to take corrective action on their performance that may be detrimental to the long-term liability of the firm.
The following are the recommendations made in accordance with the previously reached conclusions.
Small business owner-managers should develop competencies to enhance the quality of record keeping, with specific focus on type, adequacy and updated-ness of records. It is through such records that the danger signals of poor performance can easily be detected to lead to corrective action being promptly taken, hence promoting the long-term liability of the business.
In order to promote a conducive business in the country, there is need to consult all stake holders so as to come up with an acceptable policy which boosts growth and development in the country and also promotes high spirit of small business enterprises.
The government should review the existing small scale businesses policies so as to ensure that it is appropriate to the nature and growth of small business enterprises in Uganda.
Policy makers and other stakeholders need to encourage small scale businesses to upgrade their productive assets. This can be done by enhancing the availability of the production equipment and spares in the local market and through the provision of technical services at favorable rates.
Small scale businesses need to have access to market at low transaction costs hence increasing efficiency and sales and to technical information and knowledge through networking.
It is recommended that governments at local and state levels take the necessary action to build and maintain the infrastructure. Corruption also affects many facets of the businesses environment in Uganda, therefore anti-corruption measures, such as clear regulatory structure governing public safety, infrastructure, and fiscal accountability, with actions, laws, and enforcements instituted by government, should be supported by every citizen, which will reduce the potential for bribery. For small businesses to succeed, it is essential to have a stable, enabling environment, a corruption-free society, and a supportive government.
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