The Impact Of Accounting Information On The Decision Making Process Of The Organization

Project and Seminar Material for Accountancy / Accounting

The Impact Of Accounting Information On The Decision Making Process Of The Organization


Abstract


In the market economy, the way in which company is managed and developed is extremely important, because every wrong or misleading decision comes at a high price. Therefore each decision that management brings should be based on precise, qualitative, timely and unambiguous information. In order to serve its purpose, after information are collected they are processed, classified and stored within the company.

For effective and efficient information processing it is necessary to have an integrated set of components, called an information system. Undoubtedly, significant role in information processing for effective decision making, belongs to accounting information system. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to analyze the impact of accounting information on the decision making process of the organization.

In conclusion, the failure of firms may not be due to non- generation of accounting information but they will be used effectively, efficiently and appropriately utilized in the accounting information generated in an organisation. The researcher recommended, among others, that efforts should be made at employing professional staff with transparent honest ways of performance and also, due punishment should be given to fraudulent staff.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Objective Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Scope And Limitation Of The Study
  • 1.7 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.8 Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Nature And Objectives Of Accounting Information
  • 2.3 The Value Of Information
  • 2.4 Characteristics Of Accounting Information
  • 2.5 Users Of Accounting Information

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Source Of Data
  • 3.3 Area Of The Study
  • 3.4 Population Of The Study
  • 3.5 Sample size / Sampling Techniques
  • 3.6 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

At independence, Nigeria joined the committee of nation with the hope for a better tomorrow. We were able to feed ourselves and were of course almost self-sufficient. Subsequently our hopes seemed unattainable. We seem to be going deeper and deeper into the woods. The consensus is that it has been bad for Nigeria. Due to the adverse economic condition prevailing in the country many businesses have closed, shops and even financial institutions are being declared distressed at alarming rate.

Businesses that are yet to be submerged or that want to stay afloat employ all kind of strategies. Some increase price, adopt promotional tools, engage in aggressive marketing etc. whereas others goes for an odd combination of activities and even undergo different kind of small business to survive. Any business or individual that wants to survive must make the right decision. The era of mile of thumb is gone; employing it is a sure way to fail absurdly. The price of any conceivable item from garri and bread to radio and book not to mention petrol has been soaring in geometric proportions over the year.

The economy is truly in distress. These compounds and complicates intricate are the problem of the organization vis-à-vis effective planning and decision making processes. Other factors such as stagflation, taxation, economic and political problem are the major problem which affects information and decision making. The future orientation is what most company and bank get from making accounting decision .the computation and interpretation of analytical ratios from financial statement enable bank to determine their operation trends and provide a basis for management decision making. Other users of financial analysis are used in making financial decision and achieving the goal of sustainability determines compliance with regulatory requirements.

Financial analysis is an investment that has positive return in the future on how decision will be made, how to manage the finances to achieve the strategic goals of the institution through decision making. Many people think that accounting as a highly technical field which can be understood only by professional accountants actually nearly everyone practices accounting in one form or the other. In modern times, management require a wide variety of information to successfully accomplish its aim and objectives. This information is mainly determined by the element of uncertainty about the future and lack of knowledge about the present.

Some of these decisions are of strategic importance having a large impact on the business, others are routine operating decision. Therefore accounting information is based on laws and regulations governing the handling of accounting report contained in the financial reports of organisation. Making the right decision depends on the possession of appropriate, accurate and up to date information provided and presented in a meaningful way. This study set out to examine the contribution of sound accounting system in providing the management with financial and other information basis for dealing with decision problems that arises from their organisational operations.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Basically, the nature of manufacturing business compels it to carry out a great deal of book-keeping records based on accounting principles and information provided with the perpetual increase in the number of consumer of manufactured products, it has become necessary to devise a systematic mean in handling the resultant book-keeping and accounting activities. A lot criticism has always been made about the service of the organisation, consumers complain of low quality product while employers complain of lack of promotion inadequate salaries, lack of training etc.

Furthermore, the major challenge facing every financial institution\ business, organisation of today is market relevance. On-going fundamental at changes in the global politics, economy and emerging competitions particularly challenges proper and adequate contemporal accounting information for management decision making.

The company itself tries to coordinate all these challenge effectively and efficiently so as to minimize any anticipated and unanticipated pitfalls. If a sound and effective accounting system is applied property by the manufacturing organisation, the difference will be clear. Improper attention to the accounting system and handling of accounting information has given birth to the under mentioned problems.

  • Poor planning
  • Result to poor decision making
  • Poor organisation and control of business activities and unsatisfactory service to its customers.
  • Poor decision making in administrative activities of the organisation.

1.3 Objective Of The Study

The objectives of the study are as follows;

  1. To determine whether there has been problem in generating and utilizing accounting information necessary for management decision making.
  2. To ascertain the extent in which accounting information generated by accounts departments has contributed in decision making process.
  3. To ascertain the extent accounting information has effectively performed or fulfils the basic roles of cost minimization, proper allocation of scare resource and improvement in the production.

1.4 Research Question

  1. Are there problem in generating and utilizing accounting information necessary for management decision making process?
  2. To what extent does accounting information generated by accounts department contributed in decision in making process?
  3. To what extent does accounting information has improved effectively performed or fulfil the basic roles of cost minimization, proper allocation of scare resource and improvement in the production?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Number One
  • Ho There are problem in generating and utilizing accounting information necessary for management decision making.
  • H1 There are no problems in generating and utilizing accounting information necessary for management decision making.
Number Two
  • Ho Accounting information generated by accounts department has not contributed in decision making process.
  • H1 Accounting information generated by accounts department has contributed in decision process.
Number Three
  • Ho Accounting information has not improved effectively performed or fulfil the basic roles of cost minimization, proper allocation of scare resource and improvement in the production.
  • H1 Accounting information has improved effectively performed or fulfil the basic roles of cost minimization, proper allocation of scare resource and improvement in the production.

1.6 Scope And Limitation Of The Study

The research cannot treat all aspect and kind of accounting information because the field is simply too wide. So only those relevant to these studies were dealt with as per need- ratio analysis, cost-volume- profit analysis, absorption and marginal costing, the contribution margin standard costing and variance analysis, linear program. The availability of correct and up to data is not easy, even when available; one still encounters wholly unnecessary bottlenecks due to our socio –cultural background vice versa disclosure of information and bureaucracy. So this constituted an impediment to this research work.

Financial and time constraints were seriously encountered by the researcher. Computational procedures of various accounting information or tools are outside the scope of the work. However, those deemed necessary may be treated. It is impossible to cover all the companies, firms and other business outfits in Nigeria As a sample of the two companies in Enugu state were scheduled and inferences made from these.

Though deliberate effort is being made, to have a work wile study with sufficient validity and reliability. This work should not be viewed as a final solution to impact of accounting information on decision making process. There are limitations on resources for reference purposes especially responses on collection of data, many respondents give bias responses probably because of job protection, officer’s name and ima reluctance, unnecessary fear of legal implication and so forth.


1.7 Significance Of The Study

This research study will help to maximise the beneficial impact of accounting information on the decision making process of an organization. This boosts the profitability of the organization as well as ensuring its continuity as a business entity.

It will help in the efficient allocation of scare resources that have alternative being use as well as increase productivity thereby uplifting the standard of living. It will review the improvement in the organization or company handling the accounting information and show equally the ways through which improvement could be accomplished.

In fact, all interested groups like shareholders, employers, investors, creditors, government etc will benefit immensely. This project will equally serve as a reference to student who may be interested to embark on a research of this nature.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

Effectiveness:

The total or actual interest paid or earned in a year, expressed as a percentage of the principal amount at the beginning of the period.

Efficiency:

A measurement of the ability of an organization to produce and distribute its product. In accounting terms it is qualified by a communism of the standard hours allowed for a given level of production and actual hour taken.

Accounting Information:

This is a system designed to obtain the financial position of an organization as at the end of the period.

Information:

Is a processed data used in obtaining detailed data about a particular person, thing or place.

Leverages:

They are used by companies of its limited assets to guarantee substantial loans to finance its business.

Financial Information:

This is information summarized by a company’s activities over the last and loss account, the cash flow statement etc.

Analysis:

In standard costing and budgetary control, analysis of various in order to seek their causes. The total profit of various is analysed into sub –variance indicating the major reasons for budged figures.

Debt:

A sum owned by one person or organization to a person showing that the debt to be required to be settled within one accounting period.

Ratio:

To put company’s performance in accounting ratio to evaluate a company and financial stability.

Decision Making:

This is the end of deciding between alternative courses of action. Running of a business, accounting information and techniques are used to facilitate decision models such as discounted cash flow.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The objectives of the firm differ from one organization to another. Based on the statement of the problem stated in chapter one, the research concluded that the application of accounting information makes the difference between failed banks, enterprises, corporate bodies on one side and the successful one on the other side. For the improvement in the application of accounting information to be sustained, adequate understanding of the difficulty in the application of accounting information is very essential. If this is applied as at when due failure in business both private and public sectors will be highly minimized.

Accounting information on decision making process has helped in the proper allocation of resource such as material, money, machinery and man. In conclusion, the failure of firms may not be due to non- generation of accounting information but they will be used effectively, efficiently and appropriately utilized in the accounting information generated in an organisation.


5.2 Recommendations

Accounting information is very essential to the users’ for their development, especially when it extends to decision making. In view of the above the following recommendations were deemed necessary.

  1. Efforts should be made at employing professional staff with transparent honest ways of performance and also, due punishment should be given to fraudulent staff.
  2. Seminar/ training should be given to staff of accounting department to enable them specialize more on the field of accounting.
  3. The stakeholder, investors and other user should be meeting at interval so as to assist the management in the achievement of the organization goals.
  4. Use of modern devices like computer should be introduced to the staff to enhance efficiency and effectiveness in decision making.
  5. Special panel or auditor should be introduced to ensure the accuracy of the accounting information so that the user should not be deceived.
  6. The accounting information generated should be readily available for decision making. The qualities of accounting information which include timeliness, clarity, relevance and accessibility of the information should be a guild in providing accounting information
  7. Finally accounting information should be seen as an important tool for decision making process in an organisation and more encouragement should be given to staff in the performance of their duties. This will enhance efficiency and effectiveness of the accounting information in the manufacturing firms.

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