Identification Of Electronic Office Equipment Used By Secretaries In Modern Business Offices Implications For Efficiency Of Work Output

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Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM


This work is dedicated to God Almighty for his infinite mercy toward me and my family.


I express my profound gratitude to the most High God, who gave my ability and inspiration to write this work.
My gratitude goes to my academic mentors who has taken it upon themselves to make sure that I archive am aim, especially my supervisor Dr. Mrs. A. n. Nwosu may God bless you all.

My special thanks goes to my parents my brothers and sisters, my spiritual fathers and mentors, friends and well-wishers. I love you all, may the Almighty God bless and reward all of you.

Table Of Content

  • Title page Approval page
  • Dedication page
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of contents
  • List of contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One

  • Introduction
  • 1.0 Background of the study
  • 1.1 statement of the study
  • 1.2 Purpose of the study
  • 1.3 Research question
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Delimitation of the study-
  • 1.6 Scope of the study-

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Review Of Related Literature
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.1 The electronic office equipments used by secretaries
  • 2,1 The importance of the electronic office equipments
  • 2.2 The problems encountered by secretaries in using them
  • 2.3 The ways through which these equipments can increases output
  • 2.4 The advantages of electronic office equipment over manual
  • 2.5 Solutions to the problems associated to the use of these equipment
  • 2.6 Summary of literature reviewed

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Research methodology
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Sources of Data Collection / method of data collection.
  • 3.4 Population and sample size.
  • 3.5 Sampling techniques
  • 3.6 Validity and Reliability of data.
  • 3.7 Methods of data analysis.

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation and analysis of data
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation of data
  • 4.3 Data Analysis
  • 4.4 Test of Hypothesis
  • 4.5 Interpretation of results

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendations
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix I
  • Appendix II

List Of Tables

Table 1 (One)

Table of Electronic office Equipments used by the Respondents

Table 11 (Two)

Availability of the Electronic office Equipment in the organization

Table 111 (Three)

Adequacy of the Electronic office Equipment in the organization

Table iv (Four)

Effects of the inadequacy of these Equipments to the organization

Table v (Five)

Importance of the electronic office equipments

Table vi (Six)

Problems encountered by the secretaries in using the electronic office equipments

Table vii (Seven)

How these equipments can result to an increase in efficiency of work output

Table viii (Eight)

Advantages of electronic office equipments over manually operated office equipments

Table x (Nine)

Suggested solutions by the respondents


The purpose of this study is to examine the electronic office device equipment used by secretaries in modern business organization and its implication for efficiency in work output. The population comprises of the secretaries in imo state secretariat. A total number of 40 questionnaires were distributed and all were returned.

The collected data were analyzed by means of frequency distributions, tables, percentages and ranking methods the researcher identified the various types of equipment that can be used by the secretaries n performing their duties. Most of these modern office equipment were not available over not adequate, for use by the secretary some of the major factors responsible for the inadequacy of these equipments over lack of fund and negative attitude on the side of the executives

Finally, recommendations were made on how to remedy the situation and enhance the efficiency of the secretary, which will result to an increase in work output.

Chapter One


1.0 Background of the study

Electronic office equipment refers to those machines or tools designed for carrying out office functions. Office equipments and machines involved are annually or mechanically used in carrying out secretarial and office functions. They are numerous and are invarous sizes and shapes.

These machines and equipments are self sufficient, by testing they are self propelled and operates with a minimum of human intervention, Ohakwe (2005) the tremendous in office equipments in the last few decades has caved a evolutional changes in both the nature of office work and the role of secretaries. In modern business offices today, them issue of electronic office equipment are mainly in the area of computers and work processors which posed a lot of challenges to secretaries in modern business organizations or offices

The modern business offices are adorned with the use of new machines like computers photocopiers, word processors etc. and if these equipments are skillfully used by secretaries the organizational goals will be achieved. In recent time. The electronic office equipments are described as the way through which manual office equipments are been developed due to some improvement in the information technology industry now it is difficult to locate modern business offices that are still making use of manual equipments

As a result of these rapid technological changes, the modern office equipments have been introduced to achieve the quest for organizational efficiency and increase in work output or productivity

According to Nwosu (1997) writing, sorting, calculating analyzing, ticking and reproduction of document constitute the basic task in any office. Therefore it is often quicker and better to perform these tasks by using machines specially made to simptety their operations. In modern business offices today, a greater success has been achieved through the use of electronic office equipments. The quality and quantity of products, time saving, profitability and effectiveness have helped so much on achieving the efficiency in work output.

Therefore on this information technology era, with great innovations in office equipments, no modern business office or organization can operate effectively in the face of this still competition without the secretary skills in operating these new equipments Ohakwe (2005) as a matter of fact, many organizations and in situations now equipped their offices with these modern office equipments in order to perform their duties and responsibilities more effectively and efficiently.

The installment of these modern office had led to the retraining of the secretaries, in order to get them acquainted acquainted to the new office equipments and procedures of handling these equipments. The ability of secretarial=es to master these new equipments and methods of performing secretarial works or tasks with these equipments will increases their valves to their employers and put them ahead of their competition for job.

1.1 Statement Of The Problem

The world has grown to a stage whereby the modern business offices cannot be able to meet their daidlines and targets with the use of manual office equipment due to changes on the business world. Every sector of the economy and professions are affected by the new electronic equipments because of the modern age and the secretaries are not left out.

The use of computer and internet in the promotion of business communications and activities have become the order of the day. Some of the secretaries who lack the required skills needed in handling these equipments are finding it difficult to cope with this global charges.

There is also non-availability of these office equipments due to financial constraints. These factors constitute the problems to which this study is aimed at finding solutions to

Office technology and innovation have affected the way things are done in the office. This means great transformation in the tasks performed by Secretaries in the modern business offices such as:Communication services, Computer operation, word processing, Database, Excel etc.There is great concern by certain Business standards published in 1998 no long meet the needs of the modern business office. Nwosu (1997) views that within the period of 1990 –1999, the world has witnessed unprecedented innovations especially in computer, telecommunication and micro graphic.

From observation and interaction of the researcher with some of the Secretaries, it was observed that some of the equipment and machines used in producing documents are obsolete and cumbersome and also not able to meet up with the current challenges in the offices with the global Technology of the 21stCentury. Incompetence on the part of Secretarial Education graduates in terms of interview into white collar job. Moreso, from researcher’s interaction with Secretarial Education graduates working in an organization it was found that some of them were not able to operate computer because they were adaptive to the use of typewriter which rendered their service in an organization useless and these made their employerto look for someone who is computer literate and acquainted with the new technologies.

Another problem observed was that Secretaries that is, those that found themselves in the offices line were not able to carry out their duties effectively even to operate computer was difficult instead they hired the services of people from other department to take the course or that particular subject. Browsing on the Internet is part of the new technology or the modern things that is been done in the office today.

A number of office secretaries can not browse except to go to the Café and look for assistance of the operators there. In line with the stated problems, the researcher deemed it necessary to carry out this study in order to know the actual job-tasks the Secretarial in various business offices can perform in modern business offices.

1.3 Purpose Of The Study

The general purpose of this study was to find out the electronic office equipment used by secretaries in modern business offices and its implication for efficiency in work output. Specifically the study sought
The major objective of this study is to

  1. To identity the electronic office equipments that can be used in a modern business offices to achieve efficiency
  2. To ascertain the importance of these office equipments when used in a modern business office
  3. To examine the problems encountered by secretaries in using these electronic office equipments
  4. To determine the ways through which the use of electronic office equipments can result to efficiency in work output.
  5. To find out the advantages of electronic office equipments over manual office equipments
  6. To suggest remedies based on the findings of the study

1.4 `Research Questions

in studying the electronic office equipment used by secretaries on modern business offices, implication for efficiency of work output. The following research questions were generated from the objectives.

  1. What are the electronic office equipment used by secretaries in a modern business offices
  2. What are the importance of the use of electronic office equipments on modern business organization
  3. What are the problems encountered by secretaries in using these electronic office equipments
  4. How can these use of these electronic office equipments result to an increase in efficiency a work output
  5. What are the advantages of electronic office equipments over manual office equipments
  6. What would you suggest as possible ways of solving problems fount out in the course of this study.

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This study will be of immense benefit to some modern business offices, secretaries, lecturers, Departments, Governments and private establishments and future researchers.

The implementation and consider oration of electronic office equipments like computers and so on are the most critical factor in business planning and decision making.

These fats sometimes seems to be taken for granted by some employers of labour in modern business offices.

Therefore this study will help them to make an active policies in favour of these electronic office equipments
This study will help the departments and lecturers to know the advantages of these equipments thereby encouraging them to apply them in their training programme in order to produce qualified and dynamic secretaries

This study will also enable the governments and private sector establishment to understand the implications of these electronic office equipments on their organizational efficiency thereby saving their organizations room failures

The future researchers will have the opportunity of making reterences to the project. As the end of this project; it will cause many business offices, secretaries and lecturers to embrace this refined system that will reconcile the future with the past

1.6 Delimitation

This study is delimited in scope to the electronic office equipments used by secretaries on modern business offices or organization implication for efficiency of work output.

1.7 Scope Of The Study

The scope of this study is the electronic office equipments used by secretaries in a modern business organizations, implication for efficiency of work output.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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