Identification Of Difficult Teaching Topics In Integrated Science In Junior Secondary Schools

Integrated Science Education Project and Seminar Material

Identification Of Difficult Teaching Topics In Integrated Science In Junior Secondary Schools


Abstract


Identification of difficult teaching topics in integrated science and the causes of their difficulty were carried out in the research. Questionnaire was used to elicit the require information and the results obtained analysed using mean and percentages. Results of the analysis showed that while some topics were difficult to the teachers. Other were easy. The causes of the difficulty as indicated were also found out. Finally, recommendation were made bared on the research findings.


Table of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of Study
  • 1.4 Significance of the Study
  • 1.5 Scope of the Study
  • 1.6 Research Questions
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Nature and Structure of Integrated Science
  • 2.2 Qualified Integrated Science Teachers
  • 2.3 Facilities and Equipment
  • 2.4 Area of Difficulties Topics in Integrated Science
  • 2.5 Causes of these Difficult Teaching Topics
  • 2.6 Teaching Methods
  • 2.7 Approach to the Teaching of Integrated Sciences

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Design of the Study
  • 3.2 Area of Study
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • 3.5 Instrumentation
  • 3.6 Validation and Reliability
  • 3.7 Administration of Instruments
  • 3.8 Methods of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Analysis and Discussion

  • 4.1 Research Question One
  • 4.2 Findings of some difficult Teaching Topic in
  • Integrated Science by Teachers
  • 4.3 Analysis of the Results

Chapter Five

5.0 Findings, Summary and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Findings
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • 5.4 Area of Further Research
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Science and technology are concepts in national development which remain indelible in the mind of African and third world leaders according to Ochu and Ekezie (1974).

In Nigeria science was introduced into secondary school system as far back as (1880).

It was first taught as general science and later speared into physics, chemistry and biology. With the introduction of the core science subject, the general science came to be seen as the science subject which was suitable for the less able and it was recommended to the least science oriented and for those who do not intend to pursue science. Syllabus was therefore devised to contain basic elements of biology, chemistry and physics, which should be taught primarily to pupils in the low secondary school classes. (Anani 1977).

Although attempts were made to raise the status of general science with the introduction of a double credit O/level, yet people still questioned the rationale of mere putting together subjects. There was in the early sixties a new wave of thought about science in school rather than open into professional restricting under the conditions of normal classroom culture.

There is a hesitancy on the part of both school teachers to try out innovations in classroom teaching. Activities are rarely included in the classroom deliberation and laboratory programme are seldom organized as an opportunity of exploration. Agarkara (1998), stated that teachers learn very little from experience in the classroom on that capacity of mastering science and new technology logics. Since Iloputaife and Eze (1994) has tried to propose the following tasks.

Lip dating and improving the qualify of science teaching integrating scientific education and human features, developing a comprehensive approach for science curricula. Focus has been put on teachers processes so as to promote the teachers understanding of scientific method and rationality but the reality of lack of resources in most countries has impeded them adjusting both the contents of their curriculum and textbooks in consequence, and the training of their integrated science teachers which often remains of very poor quality. The curriculum is inter disciplinary and it is supposed to provide the teachers to see the concept and the pedagogical principles which unify the separate subject matter thus harmonizing the knowledge derived from the integrated.

The course is supposed to provide the teachers with a broad view of science which enlightens his interactions with his environment of this mental manipulative and social skills unesco – unicef (1971).

Essentially, integrated science is designed to develop interest in the teaching that his is encourage to pursue further student in science discipline.

Secondary school was to lay a solid foundation in the learners early study of science for further studied.

A significant proportion of Nigeria J.S.S integrated science. Teachers do not achieve as well as they should in integrated science examination, Iloputaife and Eze, (1994).


1.2 Statement of Problems

Based on the background of the study. Here, one or two problems are shown.

First, some teachers have the problems of finding some topics difficult to teach in integrated science. This was also confirmed by research evidence in Nigeria, Desai (1994) indicates low integrated science attainments of teachers. The condition was amplified by the alarming low number of qualified teachers in integrated science area irrespective of the crucial role of integrated science Neera (1996).

Second, as a result, there are some problems in the implementation of the curriculum Olarewaju (1987), besides achievement has been shown to be very low and unimpressive Okebukola and Jegede, (1999). These might negate the philosophy behind the introduction of the integrated science core curriculum as J.S.S leave. Also Jegede (1999) and Akueailo (1998) undependably in their studied tend to show that the teaching of integrated science in Nigerian secondary school are inadequate.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose oft his study is to identify the difficult teaching topics in J.S. integrated science curriculum.

  1. In the relation to teachings area of specialization
  2. In relation to teachers qualification
  3. In relation to availability of instructional materials in Enugu urban area Enugu State.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The identification of these difficult teaching topics in integrated science will enlighten the teachers as well as government and expose them to the area they specialized on. Being aware of these, difficult topics school authority, the government and even the science teachers association of Nigeria will be of great help in planning in-service course for the teachers in those areas of science. This also brings to light the need of equipping higher institutions and universities preparing integrated science teachers with adequate training needed for planning and execution of integrated science in our secondary schools.

The exposure of these difficulty topics will motivate the integrated science authors and publishers to give a details attention on these different area in their write up.


1.5 Scope of Study

The study was restricted to identification of difficult teaching topics in junior secondary schools in Enugu urban area Enugu State.


1.6 Research Questions

The following research questions are proposed.

  1. What topics do the teachers find difficult in teaching J.S.S integrated science?
  2. Why do teachers have difficulty in teaching those identified topics in integrated science?
  3. How can the difficulty in teaching those topics be remedied?
  4. What influence has experience on the identification of topics as difficult?
  5. What effects of qualification on finding a teaching topics difficult?
  6. What effect has sex on findings a teaching topics difficult?
  7. What is the effect of area of specialization in identification of a topics as difficult?
  8. What in your opinion are the possible remedies the difficulty experienced?

1.7 Limitation of the Study

Due to limited time, financial constraints and logistics the study was limited to secondary schools in Enugu urban area Enugu State. This study was also limited to a sample of teachers in junior secondary school in due sampled schools within the Enguu urban area in Enugu State.


Chapter Five


5.0 Findings, Summary and Recommendation

5.1 Findings

From the computation above it was found that the following topics, machines chemical symbols and formula, simple quantitative aspects of kinetic theory, energy conversion, are total (23%) were found to be difficult to the teachers. Therefore the following topics matter-solid, liquid, gases and their characteristics energy , work and force, physical measurements, man and space solar system and stars, climate and season, environmental sanitation, ecology, burning and rusting, wild life conservation, environmental pollution, child care immunization, nervous system and sense organs, action of enzymes on food, metals and non metal total scores (59%) were adjudged easy to the respondents while the rest topics living things, structure and their characteristics, health and hygiene, vertebrates and invertebrates, growth and reproduction, locomotion, skeleton and excretion, total score (18%) were found to be very easy.

The research went further to trace the causes of difficulty teaching in integrated science. From the response of sixty teachers interviewed as shown in chapter 4, table 2, it was found out that the causes of this difficulty include inadequate facilities and unequipped laboratories as 100% of the respondents pointed these out. Influence of area of specialization and inadequate number of science teachers were also included as 83.3% of respondents affirmed. Furthermore, effect of years of experience school curriculum and scarcity of relevant text book were also found inclusive as 80% of respondents affirmed. Influence of qualification was found to be one of the cause of the problem as 70% of respondents concurred to this. However, the influence of sex was completely rules out by all respondents.
It is clear that inadequate facilities, unequipped laboratories, area of specialization, inadequate number of science teachers, years of experience, not regarding the subject as an integral part of secondary curriculum and scarcity of relevant text book are causes of difficulty in teaching integrated science in secondary schools while influence of sex was completely ruled out.


5.2 Summary

The teachers listed out the following remedies as they opinion were sought.

The teachers should be encourage and given incentives and motivation, also employment of teachers based on strictly on the area specialization. Infusion of school exclusion will also help remedies the difficulty, and encouraging in-service training by the teachers.

Mover over, the educational board of authority have to employ specialist in science area, and equipment of school laboratories and libraries with relevant equipment should be provide.

Further more, government should provide audiovisual aid and teaching materials to various secondary schools to make teaching effective. Also screening of teachers certificates is very important in secondary school to it will help to know the qualified teachers. Teachers also encourage government to train graduate in these field.
Again, government should pay teachers well and on time.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the finding of the study, the researcher made the following recommendation.

  1. More science teachers should be trained for the teaching of integrated science.
  2. The government and other agencies involved in the management of secondary schools should provide enough teaching equipment. These equipment can be improvised if teaching are motivated byway of incentive and payment of their salaries.
  3. Professional trained integrated science teachers should teach the subject since they know the subject practically equally have the skills and also in a position to apply the modern teaching techniques.
  4. Curriculum planners should allocate enough time for teaching integrated science.
  5. Proper supervision should be carried out with the aims of plugging all the loopholes that might hinder teaching of integrated science.
  6. Appropriate and adequate instructional materials should be used in teaching any topic in integrated science.

5.4 Area of Further Research

The following suggestions are made fir further research work.

  1. The study should be carried out in different junior secondary school in other states using different level of teachers to utilized in this project.
  2. Other method integrated science should be compared with lecture method apart from laboratory method.
  3. The study of this nature should be carried out in other science subjects such as physics, chemistry etc.
    The adequate of examination questions should investigated to find out actual causes of difficulty topics in integrated science.

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