Identification Of Difficult Teaching And Learning Topics In Senior Secondary School Curricula In Nigeria (A Case Study Of SS3 Curricula Of Chemistry, Physics And English Language)

Project and Seminar Material for English Language

Identification Of Difficult Teaching And Learning Topics In Senior Secondary School Curricula In Nigeria (A Case Study Of SS3 Curricula Of Chemistry, Physics And English Language)


 Abstract


This research work was conducted to identify difficult topics in teaching and learning topic in senior secondary schools curricula in Enugu urban of Enugu state, Nigeria. (A case study of SS3 curricula of chemistry, physics and English language). Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. A survey design was adopted for the study. A sample of 16 teachers in the subject areas and 200 students were drawn from the 16 senior secondary schools of SS3 in the Enugu South and Enugu North Local Government Areas. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data and the data collected were analyzed using percentages, mean deviation and t-test for hypothesis. The finding of the study showed that, most of the teachers did not cover those areas when they were students, which made them to shy away from teaching those difficult topics in physics, chemistry and English language. The following recommendations were made:

The teachers should attend workshops, seminars and conferences. Resource personnel should be used to teach difficult topics, and they should be provided with adequate instructional materials for the teaching and learning of the difficult topics. The strategies identified by the study should also be used to stimulate the teaching and learning of physics, chemistry and English language and other science subjects in senior secondary schools.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

According to Horny (2000), the word “Identification is defined as the process of showing, providing or recognizing who or what somebody or something is”.

Therefore, the identification of difficult teaching and learning topics in SS3 physics, chemistry and English language curricula in Nigeria can be seen as the process of showing or providing or recognizing the difficult topics in teaching and learning physics, chemistry and English language in SS3 curricula in Nigeria.

But, in order to identify the difficult teaching and learning topics in SS3 physics, chemistry and English language curricula, we have to look into how the definitions of the word curriculum have been offered by different educationists.

Curriculum, according Hosford (2005) in Badmus (2006), is a set of experiences planned to influence learners towards the goal of an organization. However, Lawis and Niel (2002) cited in Akanybon (2007) define curriculum as a set of intentions about opportunities for engagement of person to be educated with other persons and with things (all bearers of information, process, techniques and values) in certain arrangement of time and space.

On the other hand, Tanner and Tanner (2000) in Akangbon (2007) see curriculum as the cumulative tradition of organized knowledge, modes of thought, a planned learning environment, cognitive/affective content and process, an instructional plan, instructional outcomes and a technological system of production.

Therefore, the content of the curriculum and the methods employed to present the content have to be determined by the nature of the society and the nature of the learner.

Chemistry is one of the three main branches of pure sciences, the other two being biology and physics. Chemistry deals with the composition, properties and uses of matter. It probes into the principles governing the changes that matter undergoes. So, it is not, of course, for those who teach chemistry in schools to concern themselves directly with the economic future of the nations for which they work. But it remains a fact that students want to do useful things and that they will profit from being shown how they can contribute to a dynamic part of their country’s industry. This provides an added reason for teaching chemistry in school.

The teaching and learning of chemistry, on the other hand, is not a simple job for those who teach the subject and learners. The fact that some terms in chemistry cannot be observed or be related to the physical activities, makes the teaching and learning of some topics in chemistry very difficult for teachers and students. In other words, the teaching and learning of some topics in chemistry involves mathematical expression and critical thinking.

Physics is the science concerned with the study of physical objects and substances and of natural forces such as light, heat and measurement. As physics is based on exact measurements, every such measurement requires two things; first a member or quantity, and secondly a unit. All branches of it deal inevitably with difficulties whose solution, are often envisaged to benefit humanity. Unfortunately, some students in SS3 hardly register the subject in the SSCE examinations because they find some of its topics very difficult to understand. Many reasons, according to Charles and Chester (2001), might be broadly deduced for students’ poor performance in physics and these included:

Psychological factors like confidence, cognitive styled decisiveness, ideational fluency, intellectual ability attitude, curiosity and so on.

English language is the central subject from the post primary school level because it is the medium of instruction for all other subjects. It is therefore, the servicing subject for all other subjects. According to Anibueze (2007), there are many problem teachers and students encounter in course of teaching and learning English language. Such problems are classified as:

  1. The problem in Equivocation: it refers to the problem students and teachers encounter when they read meaning of words, sentences and passages.
  2. The problem in elocution: it refers to the problems students envisage in their practice of oral delivery or in usage of the English language.
  3. The problems in transliteration: This is a problem that comes up because of the interference of the mother tongue
  4. The problem in expression: This is a problem in which people do not falls in a way or takes a process other people will understand and do not show their ideas, opinions, talks, feelings and information very clearly. And others.

Anibueze (2007) says that, there are factors militating against the effective teaching and learning of English language and other subjects. Such factors are:-

  1. There are the problems of poor development of listening and speaking skill. Teachers have no recorded utterance in Standard English for the teaching of the language. There is no teacher’s model reading for students to listen to in the classroom. No radio or television set has been brought into the class for students are urged to listen to each other in English but most often, they listen to all sorts of corrupt English or English full of errors. Some student’s most often, code-switch or code-mix when using the language. Sometime they pick nonsense varieties of English from home video, radio, television programmers and films, many of what they listen to is awful.
  2. In speaking-skills their spoken English is influenced by their native speech habit and their linguistic community. In other words, their mother-tongue interferes in their spoken words. They have the psychologist problems too.
  3. Students are taught without teaching aids or instructional materials. In the library, there are some antiquated materials that are not in any way related to the contemporary issues, syllabuses or scheme of work, which makes teaching and learning difficult.

The efficient use of different methods in the course of teaching helps, in no small measure, in the involvement of the three domains (cognitive, affective and psychomotor), which invariably will lead to the realization of chemistry, physics and English language teaching and learning objectives. Students and teachers also maintained that the topics are difficult because, instructional materials for teaching and learning of the topics are short in supply and the available ones are not properly in use for the teaching and learning of the difficult topics.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In most of our senior secondary school certificate examination, there is always a mass failure in chemistry, physics and English language curricula, both students and teachers of chemistry, physics and English language complain of their difficult in getting on with the subjects. Most problems in teaching and learning of chemistry, physics and English language are:

  1. Poor performance of students in senior secondary school certificate examinations in physics, chemistry and English language
  2. Low enrolment of students in physics and chemistry in senior secondary school certificate examination
  3. Lack of qualitative and quantitative instructional material for teaching chemistry, physics and English language.
  4. Lack of qualified teachers to handle chemistry, physics and English language at senior secondary school level.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To identify the concepts which are considered most difficult by the students and the teachers.
  2. To ascertain the relationship between qualification of a teacher and the subject teaching
  3. To determine the level of difficulty of the subject in secondary school curriculum

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

  1. H0: There is no level of difficulty of the subject in secondary school curriculum
    H1: There is level of difficulty of the subject in secondary school curriculum
  2. H02: There is no significant difference between the mean response of qualified teachers and learners in their perception of difficult topics in senior secondary school III chemistry, physics and English language
    H2: There is significant difference between the mean response of qualified teachers and learners in their perception of difficult topics in senior secondary school III chemistry, physics and English language

1.5 Significance of the Study

The identification of the topics that teachers find difficult to teach in the senior secondary chemistry, physics and English language curricula in Nigeria and the probable solutions to the problem will go a long way in solving the problem of ineffective teaching of all aspects of chemistry, physics and English language and improve on the students performance in internal and external examinations like WAEC, NECO, JAMB etc. in addition, the study would be significance for:

  1. The findings could form the focus for organizing workshops, use of resource persons to teach some difficult topics.
  2. It will also help the teachers who did not cover those areas when they were students to stop shying away from teaching difficult topics in chemistry, physics and English language.

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers identification of difficult teaching and learning topics in senior secondary school curricula in Nigeria. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational Privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Identification:

Identification is a psychological process whereby the subject assimilates an aspect, property, or attribute of the other and is transformed wholly or partially by the model that other provides. It is by means of a series of identifications that the personality is constituted and specified

Difficulty:

A situation that is difficult or dangerous.

Teaching:

The objective is typically accomplished through either an informal or formal approach to learning, including a course of study and lesson plan that teaches skills, knowledge or thinking skills. Different ways to teach are often referred to as pedagogy

Learning:

Learning is the process of acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and some machines; there is also evidence for some kind of learning in some plants

Curricula:

The subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain identification of difficult teaching and learning topics in senior secondary school curricula in Nigeria

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of identification of difficult teaching and learning topics in senior secondary school curricula in Nigeria


5.2 Summary

This study was on identification of difficult teaching and learning topics in senior secondary school curricula in Nigeria. Three objectives were raised which included: To identify the concepts which are considered most difficult by the students and the teachers, to ascertain the relationship between qualification of a teacher and the subject teaching, to determine the level of difficulty of the subject in secondary school curriculum. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Enugu urban of Enugu State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up principals, vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

It is not being suggested here that chemistry can be made simple by avoiding teaching difficult concepts or topics! Indeed, trivializing the chemistry to be taught is likely to be perceived by the learner as a devaluation of the important of the subject. The key lies in seeing chemistry from the point of view of the students’ learner. Such learner approach each topic with all kinds of ideas already stored in the long-term memory. New material will link on to previous ideas and this can cause confusion and misunderstanding. It is Vital for the teacher to know what the learner already know and how they came to acquire such knowledge. Many students came to class with wrong ideas, confused ideas or even a complete lack of background knowledge. Learning experience need to be offered to prepare students to grasp new materials by clarifying or correcting previously held concept or by providing fundamental instruction on such concepts. It is important to take into account the way the learner gains knowledge and to present materials in such a way that is consistent with the pattern of human learning. Attitude and motivation are both important aspect for the learning process. Success in learning, positive attitude to learning and motivation to learn are linked. The two major factors influencing attitude towards a subject are teachers’ quality and curriculum quality. The process of learning should for the development of link between ‘’Islands’’ of knowledge. The teacher must link concepts so that the learner can make a coherent whole of the ideas. This allows the development in the learning of simple but meaningful concepts.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the finding of the present study, the following recommendations are considered.

  1. The Secondary School Chemistry Curriculum should be renewed by NUT, STAN and NUC respectively without further delay. It should allow the use of students’ alternative conceptions for bridging exercise “step by step to lead the student to correct explanation starting from what they already believed.
  2. Concept test for formative assessments should be developed for many classes (levels) in chemistry. If such a test used difficult conceptions as distracters (wrong answers) and if it is used as a pre-test and post-test for the same class, the resulting data are potentially useful for research
  3. Maps of chain of conceptual growth should be developed in chemistry by collecting a research and data on how conceptions evolved overtime and students should be led through it in a semester. The result would be a kind of atlas of students’ concept growth

Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to Any of the Account Below

Access Bank PlcAcc No: 0811003731
Samphina Academy
Current Account
Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)
FOR GHANIAN STUDENTS
Make Payment of 120 GHS to 0553978005 | Douglas Cloud Osabutey | MTN MoMo

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Identification Of Difficult Teaching And Learning Topics In Senior Secondary School Curricula In Nigeria (A Case Study Of SS3 Curricula Of Chemistry, Physics And English Language)

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.