ICT In Entrepreneurship: A Tool For Enhancement Of Transaction Management For Small Scale Business

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ICT In Entrepreneurship: A Tool For Enhancement Of Transaction Management For Small Scale Business


The purpose of the study was ICT in entrepreneurship: a tool for enhancement of transaction management for small scale business. Three research questions were posed to identify the utilization of ICT to create enabling business environment, boosting production of goods and services through ICT, utilization of ICT in staff training and barriers to utilization of ICT in enterprises. Four null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance and were used to guide the study. The design used for the study was descriptive survey and the instrument was structured questionnaire. The population of the study was all the 1251 registered entrepreneurs of medium and large scale enterprises in the private sector, from which the respondents, consisting of 723 were drawn. Mean and standard deviation were used in analyzing the data collected and the criterion mean of 2.5 was used to judge the responses as to whether they were high or low. Four null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance were upheld. Findings of the study showed that the utilization of ICT to create enabling business environment were accepted and enhancing marketing of goods and services through ICT. ICT such as web-based lesson, cyber guide and telecommuting projects for staff training were often utilized while the utilization of virtual classroom and personalized courses are minimal. The major barriers for utilization of ICT were customers incompetence in using the technology, limited number of competent staff, and taxation of internet sales. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which include that private enterprises should organize onthe-job training and offer opportunities for in-service training to their staff to make them more competent on the use of ICT, educational institutions should incorporate digital courses in all levels of education to develop ICT compliance workers at the points of employment, entrepreneurs in the South-East should develop digital networks to promote digital economy and network of ideas.

Table of Content

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Entrepreneurship stirs up ideas that could enhance enterprises. This perhaps informed why entrepreneurship is fundamental to generating new ideas and developing new business opportunities (Shanghai, 2001). Ayeduso in Osuala (2004) stated that while the word entrepreneur describes the person or the actor, entrepreneurship talks about the actions, efforts, abilities, skills, processes or sometimes the business unit itself. Following the same opinion, Inegbenebor (2006) said that entrepreneurship is about learning the skills needed to assume the risk of establishing a business. It is about developing strategies and executing them with all the vigour, persistence and passion needed. According to him, preparing for entrepreneurship focuses on attitude and skill formation for the identification of economic opportunities, feasibility analysis, business planning and making arrangements for the sustenance and growth of the enterprise. Similarly, the Small and Medium Enterprise Development Agency (SMEDA, 2004) stated that entrepreneurship develops when a person organizes and manages a commercial undertaking. SMEDA also noted that entrepreneurship combines strong character of diligence, innovativeness, readiness to take risk, ability to sense opportunity, ability to mobilize human and material resources, being goal-oriented and focused, preserving and dogged for growth and excellence. Entrepreneurship is certainly critical in economic transformation. Entrepreneurship, according to Ray, Adams and McMilliam (1990) is being able to discover innovations that can enhance marketing of goods and services, create enabling business environment, staff training and deal with barriers to growth.

To define enterprise, Hyper Dictionary (2009) stated that enterprise is a purposeful or industrious undertaking, readiness to embark on bold new ventures and an organization created for business ventures. In Nigeria, as in other countries, many variables have been applied by agencies in the classification of enterprises. Eneh (2005) recognizes micro, small, medium and large scale enterprises. His classifications includes the size of employees, the amount of capital investment, annual sales turnover, total assets or a combination of these to classify enterprises. Medium scale enterprises are those with over 50 million Naira but not more than 200 million Naira or 101 to 300 workers. Obitayo in Eziama (2003) asserted that small-scale enterprises possess a total investment of between one hundred thousand and two million naira. Similarly,Osuala (1993) viewed a small-scale enterprise as any manufacturing or serving industry with a capital investment not exceeding N150,000 in machinery and equipments and employing not more than fifty workers. Again Inegbenebor (2006) stated that micro or cottage industries are those with one and ten workers, small scale industries with eleven and hundred workers, medium scale enterprises with one hundred and one and three hundred workers while large scale enterprises are with three hundred and one workers and above. Eneh (2005) said that most enterprise jobs are in the service and manufacturing sectors. They include soap makers, bakers, furniture makers, leather makers, printers, welders, vehicle repair and maintenance, electrical services, fashion designers, hotels, banks, textiles, plastic and pharmaceutical enterprises.

Emphasizing on the importance of enterprises, Eneh (2005) stated that it is indisputable that enterprises hold the key to national economic development because they create jobs, wealth, alleviate poverty, promote equity, social security, encourage the culture of self–help and self– reliance. He added that they promote enterprises, productivity, provide opportunities for careers and skills development as well as rural and community development. Similarly, World Bank International Finance Corporation Report in United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, 2007) maintained that enterprises are important because on the average, enterprises comprise over 95 percent of the economy, the contributions of the enterprise to employment and the countries’ gross domestic product (GDP) are by no means trivial. UNDP still reported that close to 140 million enterprises in 130 countries employed 65 percent of the total labour force. Enterprises are the frame work for economic growth and innovation. Moreover, Ike (2004) noted that enterprises respond positively to social and free markets, creativity, innovation, promotion of individual and group initiative, self-reliance and above all self fulfillment.

As affirmed by Ecorys (2007) whether enterprises be multinational, large or not, the nature and the growing importance of the competitive advantage afforded by new technology, together with trade, capital liberalization and growing pressures of competition are forcing enterprises to exploit both technological knowledge and markets on an international scale. Entrepreneurship gives rise to innovations. Nagy (2003) pointed out that investment in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and use, can affect innovation. ICT according to UNDP (2001), refers to the full rang of electronic technologies and techniques usedto manage information and knowledge. In this study the term ICT is not referring to all the media currently available but more restrictedly to the recent computer technologies, internet, computer and cell phones.

ICT has a great role to play to enhance entrepreneurship. Bartelsman and Hinloopen (2002) pointed out that the use of ICT could have several impacts on productivity. It might help more productive enterprises gain market share. The use of ICT may help enterprises expand their product range, customize the services offered or respond better to client demand and to innovate. Moreover ICT may help reduce inefficiency in the use of capital and labour by reducing inventories. All these effects might lead to higher productivity. Investment in ICT might also have benefits going beyond those accruing to investors in ICT. Bartelsman and Hinloopen (2002) further stated that the diffusion of ICT may help establish networks, which produce greater benefits which is spillover effects, the more customers or enterprises are connected to the network. The spread of ICT may reduce transaction costs which could lead to a more efficient matching of supply and demand and enabling the growth of new markets. Increased use of ICT 4 may also lead to greater efficiency in the creation of knowledge. Where such spillovers exist, they raise overall multifactor production (MFP) growth.

Furthermore, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 2000) pointed out that much is being done to improve the environmental performance of industry through policies which induce reductions in general burden of taxation, and cost of essential services. Comparatively, smaller enterprises, tends to be less aware than larger firms of environmental externalities and of the legislation that governs their activities. Besides, these smaller enterprises have fewer resources to invest in environmental improvements and management tools that could make their operations more sustainable. According to them, enterprises can fill market niches in the development and sale of environmental goods and services. It becomes a formidable challenge to involve the full range of enterprises in working towards sustainable solutions. This is where the ICT advances come in to provide the means for governments and other stakeholders to reach, inform and influence enterprises.

Existing literature has proven that ICT, if well used for training has potential to aid materials to be presented in multiple media for multichannel learning. It motivates and engages learners in the learning process, brings abstract concepts to life and enhances critical thinking as well as other higher levels of cognitive skills and processes. ICT in training provides opportunities for learners to practice basic skills on their own time and at their own pace while allowing them to use the information acquired to solve problems within their environment. Access is thus provided to world-wide information resources for instructors and learners alike, a platform for large scale information interchanges and research development beyond geographical boundaries,(Haddad and Draxler 2001).

Furthermore, Love and Irani (2001) said that enterprises could often experience barriers through lack of human technological resources needed for ICT and e-commerce. Especially when enterprises have to focus on day-to-day operations and lack the time and extra resources necessary to understand the benefits of new technologies. Even if they are aware of the potential benefits of adopting ICT, they would still require know-how or qualified personnel to enhance entrepreneurial operations. They claimed that enterprises may also lack managerial understanding and skills for e-business. Successful integration of e-business requires many enterprises to restructure their business processes, to change organizational structures and toredefine their core competence and positions in value chain. The professional advice of Information Technology (IT) and e-business consultants could help them but enterprises may not easily have ready access to them because of their relatively high costs.

As pointed out by Agbonifoh (2006) e-commerce is an on-line buying and selling of goods and services via the computer without leaving the comfort of their homes or offices. Ebusiness is used to describe businesses run on the internet or utilizing internet technologies to improve the productivity or profitability of a business. This function of e-business is referred to as e-commerce and the terms are used interchangeably. Also, the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA 2005) said that IT is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software application and computer hardware. It deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and securely retrieve information. When computer and communication technologies are combined, the result is information technology.

As aptly pointed by UNDP (2007) ICT enhance enterprises efficiency, reduce costs and broadens market reach both locally and globally. The uses of ICT are increasingly transforming modern business by enabling the rapid, reliable and efficient change of large amounts of information. Access to and the use of ICT by enterprises will lead to greater job creation, increase public revenue and a general rise in the standard of living. Furthermore, ICT offers enormous opportunities to reduce social and economic inequalities, particularly those related to income generation, poverty reduction, education, health, environment and gender equality and thus helps to achieve broader development goals.

Panos (2010) stated that ICT – based knowledge and products contribute directly to wealth creation. Through this knowledge entrepreneurs use ICTs in a number of ways by substituting phone calls for travel, which saves time and money and using ICTs to obtain information on prices for their own produce and purchases. Duncombe and Heeks (1999) opined that ICTs have done the most to reduce costs, increase income and reduce uncertainty and risk. Phones support the current reality of informal information systems, they can help extend social and business networks. They clearly substitute for journeys and in some cases for brokers, traders and other business intermediaries.

Donner (2006) said that the internet remains a great place to gather information about competitors, find new products, communicate with customers via e-mail, order supplies, advertise and to conduct a myriad of other formal business process. These functions are spreading now to the developing world as a range of factors such as multilingual websites, increasingly reliable connectivity, revised e-commerce regulations, and a growing density of users make internet – enabled businesses more realistic. In these various ways ICTs can enhance entrepreneurship unlike typewriter used in business which can perform limited tasks to improve business efficiency.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

In the past entrepreneurs use obsolete but cheaper technologies such as typewriter and cyclostyling machines which are now filled with disadvantages in the present day of information and communication technology. These has negative implications for boosting of entrepreneurial skills. For example, with the use to this technologies error correction, communication, document scanning and formatting are not possible. However with the advent of ICT it has been found that entrepreneurial skills are facilitated. ICT has great potentials in enhancing skills of entrepreneurs. It has facilitated training through on-line learning and helped in the area of enhanced business environment. To scan, organize and store documents are possible with computer but not with the old technologies used in business by entrepreneurs. According to Chris (2012) the growth of personal computer and computer networks continues to impact businesses both large and medium. Through computer and internet connection entrepreneurs can perform administrative tasks like paying your business bills on your computer, as well as marketing your business online, e-mail and instant messaging allow for easy communication. Moreover Uchegbu (2002) pointed out that the introduction and use of internet has caused an important revolution in communication and that is capable of improving the way we communicate, study, contract and transact business. This progress in business in noted as a result of progress in the ability to link up computers. Despite these obvious advantages opinions from the background of this study still show that entrepreneurs are not yet taping the benefits of ICT in enhancing their skills. These are however opinions and there is need to verify the authenticity of the opinions. It is therefore the problem of this study to verify the extent of utilization of ICT to enhance entrepreneurship in South-East, Nigeria.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is ICT in entrepreneurship: a tool for enhancement of transaction management for small scale business.

Specific objectives include to:

  1. Determine the extent to which entrepreneurs of medium and large scale enterprises utilize ICT to create enabling business environment.
  2. Find out the extent to which entrepreneurs of medium and large scale enterprises utilize ICT in enhancing marketing of goods and services.
  3. Determine the extent to which entrepreneurs of medium and large scale enterprises utilize ICT in staff training.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. To what extent do entrepreneurs of medium and large scale enterprises utilize ICT to create enabling business environment.
  2. To what extent do entrepreneurs of medium and large scale enterprises utilize ICT in enhancing marketing of goods and services.
  3. To what extent do entrepreneurs of medium and large scale enterprise utilize ICT in staff training?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  1. There is no significant difference in the mean rating of entrepreneurs of medium and large scale enterprises on the extent to which ICT are being utilized to create enabling business environment.
  2. There is no significant difference in the mean rating of entrepreneurs of medium and large scale enterprises on the extent to which ICTs are utilize in enhancing marketing of goods and services.
  3. There is no significant difference in the mean rating of entrepreneurs of medium and large scale enterprises on the extent of utilizing ICT in staff training.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is of great significance to private enterprises because the finding would provide data that would make managers to became producers and creators in high value areas of knowledge economy. The managers would be drivers and not consumers in the global digital economy. It would expose the staff to new ways of working in the enterprise. Government would understand the need to be proactive in exploiting ICT for enterprise development. The government and international funding agencies would be interested in general development of ICT in higher institutions. Educational institution would also find that the study would benefit them in that it would expose the challenge of globalization and information age for the transformation of the academic system from traditional role of teaching, learning, research and development methodology, to ICT application which is the latest revolution changing all aspects of human endeavour. The study will enable adult education administration fill the gap of ICT knowledge in the society through continuing and life long education. The findings of this study will have significant effect on the way people live, work and play in the society. Finally, future researchers would also benefit by identifying further areas to explore in ICT.

1.7 Scope of the Study

Scope of the Study The focus of the study is on utilization of information and communication technology to enhance entrepreneurship in South-East, Nigeria. This study covers the registered private enterprises in South-East, Nigeria. The study focused on utilization of ICT to create enabling business environment, enhancing marketing of goods and services through ICT, utilization of ICT in staff training and barriers to utilization of ICT. The researcher did not cover other areas o of ICT utilization since the researcher believes that such areas can be carried out by future researchers.

1.8 Limitations of the Study

This study was constrained by some factors. Firstly, the time frame allocated for the completion of this study was not enough for the researcher to extensively carry out research based on the theme of this research work. On the other hand, the research participants were not willing to participate in responding to the administered questionnaire of this study. Also, the required materials like journals and articles needed for the proper completion of this study were not readily available online and offline. All these constraint put together, ultimately determined the extent to which the researcher was able to go in this study.

1.9 Definition of Terms


The creation or extraction of economic value.[1][2][3] With this definition, entrepreneurship is viewed as change, generally entailing risk beyond what is normally encountered in starting a business, which may include other values than simply economic ones.


An individual who creates and/or invests in one or more businesses, bearing most of the risks and enjoying most of the rewards.[4]The process of setting up a business is known as entrepreneurship. The entrepreneur is commonly seen as an innovator, a source of new ideas, goods, services, and business/or procedures.

More narrow definitions have described entrepreneurship as the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often similar to a small business, or as the “capacity and willingness to develop, organize and manage a business venture along with any of its risks to make a profit.” The people who create these businesses are often referred to as entrepreneurs.[6][7] While definitions of entrepreneurship typically focus on the launching and running of businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching a start-up, a significant proportion of start-up businesses have to close due to “lack of funding, bad business decisions, government policies, an economic crisis, lack of market demand, or a combination of all of these.


A relationship between two parties regulating the provision of paid labour services. Usually based on a contract, one party, the employer, which might be a corporation, a not-for-profit organization, a co-operative, or any other entity, pays the other, the employee, in return for carrying out assigned work.[1] Employees work in return for wages, which can be paid on the basis of an hourly rate, by piecework or an annual salary, depending on the type of work an employee does, the prevailing conditions of the sector and the bargaining power between the parties. Employees in some sectors may receive gratuities, bonus payments or stock options. In some types of employment, employees may receive benefits in addition to payment. Benefits may include health insurance, housing, disability insurance. Employment is typically governed by employment laws, organisation or legal contracts.

Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs):

Businesses whose personnel and revenue numbers fall below certain limits. The abbreviation “SME” is used by international organizations such as the World Bank, the European Union, the United Nations, and the World Trade Organization (WTO).

In any given national economy, SMEs sometimes outnumber large companies by a wide margin and also employ many more people. For example, Australian SMEs makeup 98% of all Australian businesses, produce one-third of the total GDP (gross domestic product) and employ 4.7 million people. In Chile, in the commercial year 2014, 98.5% of the firms were classified as SMEs.[3] In Tunisia, the self-employed workers alone account for about 28% of the total non-farm employment, and firms with fewer than 100 employees account for about 62% of total employment The United States’ SMEs generate half of all U.S. jobs, but only 40% of GDP.

Developing countries tend to have a larger share of small and medium-sized enterprises. SMEs are also responsible for driving innovation and competition in many economic sectors. Although they create more new jobs than large firms, SMEs also suffer the majority of job destruction/contraction.

1.10 Organisations of the Study

This research work is categorized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), background to the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms.
  2. Chapter two encompasses the conceptual review theoretical review and empirical reviews on which the study is based.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The results demonstrate that business owners in the South-East Zone heavily rely on ICT to foster a favourable business climate. These conditions include training employees in e-commerce, lowering the cost of website upkeep, increasing the country’s computer and internet penetration, lowering the cost of computers, offering business skill education, and enacting advantageous tax laws. This finding could be explained by managers realising that without the adoption of ICT, no business can thrive sufficiently in this modern era. The study’s conclusions concur with those of Fiorian (2005), who found that an economic environment that places a premium on innovation, new and improved technology, and human resources has taken centre stage. The outcome is consistent with OECD (2004) findings that successful businesses require a positive business environment in order to grow and utilise ICT. According to the OECD, an enabling environment includes a clear independent rule of law for all enterprises, straightforward and approachable corporate regulations, and equal and stable legal treatment for domestic and international transactions.This result further agrees with World Bank (2005) which noted that public policy together with ICT are the tool by which the government can help to create enabling business environment.

The findings reveal that entrepreneurs of medium and large scale enterprises utilize ICT to a high extent in enhancing marketing of goods and services. Specifically advertising products and services on the internet, using internet for receiving or sending messages, typing and storing information in the computer, advertising employment opportunities in the internet and using satellite conference to share knowledge on new methods of production have enhanced marketing of goods and services. This could be attributed to the fact that managers in the South-East Zone have come to realize that with the use of ICT the scope of their market will be widened. This affords them the opportunity to do business beyond their local environment and internationally, thereby enhancing the cost effectiveness in the marketing of goods and services, due to large scale production. The result of this study lends credence to the findings of One World South Asia (2007) that ICT can provide new and more efficient method of production, bringing unattainable market within reach of the poor and improving delivery of government services. The finding is well corroborated to those of Efiendioglu (2001) and Krugman (1994) that technology creation, adaptation and innovation are important but technology diffusion and use may be even more important for developing countries. New technologies such as information and communication and their application in traditional agricultural, manufacturing and services activities can revolutionize production processes and business methods, increasing both productivity and competitiveness. This result also supports the study of OECD (2003) that ICT can help make markets more efficient by improving economic management and distribution. It is worth investing in it because the economy will grow and resource use will become more economical. ICT adds value by allowing users to operate within faster, larger, and more interactive networks. The result further corroborates with the study of Hallberg and Bond (2002) that the two most important ingredients in enhancing marketing of goods and services are access to finance and to new technologies.

The findings evidenced that entrepreneurs of medium and large scale enterprises utilize ICT often in staff training. The findings of this study indicates that entrepreneurs use web-based lessons, cyber guides, multimedia presentations and telecommuting project often in staff training. This is because these means of training are internet and computer based and are easily accessible to managers and staff. The result agrees with the study of UNESCO (2002) that ICT has the potential to transform the nature of education, where and how learning takes place and the roles of students and teachers in the learning process. In continuation UNESCO noted that ICT can provide powerful tools to help learners access vast knowledge resources, collaborate with others, consult experts, share knowledge and solve complex problems. The result also strongly aligns with the study of Haddad and Draxler (2002) that ICT can contribute to effective learning through expanding access, promoting efficiency, improving the quality of learning, enhancing the quality of teaching and improving the management system. On the contrary the result also shows that virtual classroom and personalized course are minimally used in staff training by managers. This is because they require more technical skills and more resources which may not be at the disposal of the managers. Supporting this result is Jide (2003) that the level of IT literacy is still abysmally low when it comes to utilization of ICT that require high technical skills.

5.2 Conclusion

The conclusions are drawn from the findings of the study. Entrepreneurs of medium and large scale enterprises agree that ICT is utilized to create enabling business environment. Results of the study emphasized that ICT have boosted production of goods and services in enterprises. From the study it is clear that ICT are not fully utilized in staff training by entrepreneurs of enterprises. The result of the study evidenced many barriers that prevent the utilization of ICT in business in South-East Zone, Nigeria.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings the following recommendations are made:

  1. Entrepreneurs should organize on-the-job training and offer opportunities for in-service training to their staff to make them more competent in the use of ICT.
  2. Educational institutions should incorporate digital courses in all levels of education to develop ICT compliance workers at the points of employment.
  3. Entrepreneurs in the South-East should develop digital networks to promote digital economy and network of ideas.
  4. The government should reduce the tax of internet sales to promote the purchase of internet resources by entrepreneurs.
  5. Government should subsidize the cost of internet sales to reduce the burden of lack of fund on entrepreneurs.
  6. The internet providers should build in soft wares that will facilitate delivery of goods through the internet.
  7. The government in their capacity should provide steady electric power supply to enable the entrepreneurs utilize ICT in business.

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