The Use Of ICT In The Administration Of Higher Institution

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The Use Of ICT In The Administration Of Higher Institution


Abstract


This study seeks to investigate the use ICTs in the administration of higher institution. The study adopted Adaptive Structuration Theory (AST) of mass communication. The research methodology used in this research is the survey research of which questionnaires were administered to 80 respondents in Delta State University, Abraka. The research shown that after realizing the levels ICT for administration, it is therefore imperative for the University authorities to train administrators and provide more ICT facilities with the required ICT facilities like computers, computer software, internet facilities and reliable databases to effectively use ICT at all levels, and constant supply of power as when needed for administration. Administrators must be undertaken to engender commitment to e-registration initiative and support for new ICT skills acquisition for effective implementation of online registration.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Today, many schools in Nigeria are faced with the developmental challenges of the use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in terms of e-teaching and e-learning processes. In 2007, the Federal Ministry of Education created its ICT department and has since been collaborating with several government agencies and other stakeholders in the private sector to initiate ICT driven projects and programmes to affect all levels of education sector in Nigeria (Osakwe, 2012). Like every issue of development in the country, all universities in Nigeria are struggling to access the technology as a measure to ascertain academic excellent through teaching and learning.

In an attempt to globalize the educational sector, leaders of the South – South States in Nigeria namely Bayelsa, Rivers, Akwa-Ibom, Cross-River, Edo and Delta (BRACED) are viewing education and human capacity development as critical to the overall development of the schools, the development of strategies for the enforcement of ICT driven programmes has become imperative. In this age of information explosion, one’s skill in processing and distribution of data using computer hardware and software, telecommunications, and digital electronics will largely determine one’s value in the work force. Computer literacy will likely have such impact on career opportunities in the future just as the ordinary or conventional literacy had in the past. Cheung and Huang (2005) emphasized the use of ICT as an effective teaching tool in university education as many university teachers now publish their course materials via the internet. They suggested that it is insufficient for only university to use ICT for good job combination leaving out the students’ ability to do same. Educational technologists have cited may reasons as to why an education system based on ICT can more effectively result in positive pedagogic outcomes than one based only on conventional techniques (Balanskat, Blainire and Kefala, 2006; Means et al, 1993; Roblyer and Edwards, 2000; Than, 2006 and Ting, 2005).

According to Osakwe (2012), acquisition, deployment and management of information technology resources and services for teaching depend on electricity. Studies have shown that poorly maintained equipment and poor network infrastructure are prominent obstacles to the integration of ICT tools in teaching. Poor technical equipment would make negative impact on teacher’s desire to integrate ICT tools in teaching all other subjects. Technological and science laboratories are run using electricity. Computers cannot operate without electricity even if all the equipment required are present. A number of teachers today have never use computers in their lives and they are terribly shy when they are confronted with this new technology and the terminology associated with using them. Some schools do not have them provided for their teachers and some teachers may not be economically buoyant to buy one for themselves. At the tertiary-level of education, Okhiria (2007) noted that National Universities Commission (NUC) in Nigeria has prescribed that there should be at least one computer to every four students and one PC to every two lecturers below the grade of lecturer I, one PC per senior lecturer and one notebook per reader/ professor. NUC has gone further to establish e-learning platforms fitted with twenty smart boards in twelve Federal universities for the promotion of the use of ICT in teaching and learning. Majority of the Nigerian universities have not achieved this recommended system ratio for their faculties, though some have made giant or notable strides in campus wide area networking and e-learning course deliveries.

Institutions like Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) and University of Nigeria, Nsukka boast of its best- developed ICT system in the country with a personal VSAT access to the internet and a campus wide intranet services. University of Jos which is blazing the trail for content development and e-learning in addition to the campus networking, (Liverpool et al, 2009). Very few of Public higher institutions in the country are capable of meeting the ICT needs of their staff and students. The question now is what happens to the rest institutions? Many university lecturers and students have to go to commercial cyber cafés in town before they have access to a computer that is internet connected or at best buy private models with which they are able to connect to the internet. The private universities seem to be better off since majority of them like Covenant University (CU), Afe Babalola University, American University of Nigeria (AAUN), etc have 24-hour internet connectivity in their campuses but the population of lecturers and students compared to public universities are few. At AAUN for instance, each student is provided a laptop with the cost factored into the fee structure. That of course will not be within the reach of many students.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

This digital divide between universities in the global North and South is deemed to be a result of differences in affordability, availability and accessibility of ICTs (AAU 2009). In scenarios where there has been some research output on the state of ICT use in the African context, this has been dominated by research from South Africa, Nigeria and Botswana in that order (Chiafie 2011). A summation of all the research output in this area reveals that only 9 % of it is done by African institutions (ibid).

Despite the rhetoric on this digital divide, Africa still lacks consolidated documentation of the ICT situation in the continent (Farrell and Shafika 2007). As a result, attempts by different stakeholders including donor agencies, the private sector, governments and civil societies to carry out surveys on the use of ICT are usually thwarted by the lack of crucial information or reliable data (ibid).

There are significant bodies of research relating to the obstacles of ICT integration in teaching and learning in the developed countries such as US and UK, but in the developing countries like Nigeria, especially at the university level, such publications are few and scanty in scope, if they exit at all. Whereas such publications are valuable information sources for countries which would like to improve and make a success on ICT tools integration in teaching and learning. The decision to make foray in this regard is therefore, apt and lessons learned can serve as useful guidelines for universities within the areas covered and the rest of the nation.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective this study is to examine the use of ICT in the administration of higher institution. Specifically, the objective of this study are:

  1. To evaluate the problems hindering lecturers and students from using ICT in your university
  2. To examine the challenges associated with the use of ICT by lecturers and students in Nigeria Universities.
  3. To determine the use of ICT among lecturers and students enhance the quality teaching/learning in universities in BRACED States in Nigeria?

1.4 Research Questions

Three research questions were put forward namely:

  1. What are the problems hindering lecturers and students from using ICT in your university?
  2. What are the challenges associated with the use of ICT by lecturers and students in Nigeria Universities?
  3. How can the use of ICT among lecturers and students enhance the quality teaching
    /learning in universities in BRACED States in Nigeria?

1.5 Significance of the Study

There are significant bodies of research relating to the obstacles of ICT integration in teaching and learning in the developed countries such as US and UK, but in the developing countries like Nigeria, especially at the university level, such publications are few and scanty in scope, if they exit at all. Whereas such publications are valuable information sources for countries which would like to improve and make a success on ICT tools integration in teaching and learning. The decision to make foray in this regard is therefore, apt and lessons learned can serve as useful guidelines for universities within the areas covered and the rest of the nation.


1.6 Scope / Limitation of the Study

Owing to limited resources viz time and finances, the study is confined to a single faculty i.e. Delta State University, Abraka. It would have required a longer time to study the whole university and this also could have had a big financial implication. Narrowing the scope of the study was therefore a practical consideration. Secondly, the term “ICTs” has been used in its narrow sense to denote the use of computers and the internet. Even though there is more to ICT than the use of the latter two, the research does not, in any way, investigate how other forms of ICTs are used at the school. Lastly, the participants comprise of regular undergraduate students and fulltime lecturers only.

This research project had a number of limitations. At the outset, data collection during field work was ill-timed. The researcher travelled to Abraka to collect data at a time when students were pre-occupied with mid-semester assessment tests. It was not so easy to get students who, on their own volition, wanted to participate in the project as respondents. This, in part, informed the decision to use purposive sampling where only those who were deemed to have the information were approached through gate-openers. They also had to volunteer as volunteers are considered to have a huge advantage over non-volunteers (Kvale & Brinkmann 2008). On the other hand, faculty was busy marking students’ scripts and supervising the assessment tests and those who volunteered were mainly accessed through heads of different departments and through a special request from the faculty dean.


Chapter Five


Conclusions and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The integration of information and communications technology in administration is considered as a medium in which a variety of approaches and pedagogical philosophies may be implemented. However, ICT as a teaching aid is more complicated in that it demands more specific skills from the teachers. Moreover, teachers are faced with some challenges and barriers that prevent them to employ ICT in the classroom or develop supporting materials through ICT. This study concluded that die high school teachers are familiar -with ICT and ICT usage; however, this does not necessarily mean that they integrate ICT into the curriculum. In addition, insufficient technical supports at schools and little access to Internet and ICT prevent teachers to use ICT in the classroom. Shortage of class time and time needed to learn using ICT were reported as two other key barriers for teachers to integrate ICT into the curriculum.
In order to integrate ICT into die curriculum, on the one hand, teacher training institutions should provide appropriate and sufficient support for the teachers. On the other hand, teachers should be aware of what is happening in the classroom and what changes are occurring. Therefore, possible effective uses ICT can be applied in teaching and learning, which will eventually lead to the improvement of educational programs,
Findings revealed that the gap is high and the solutions proffered include funding, provision of facilities and technical expertise, among others

Development of new broadband communication services and convergence of telecommunication with computers have created numerous possibilities to use a variety of new technology tools for teaching and learning system. The integration of computers and communications offers unprecedented opportunities to the education systems with its capacity to integrate, enhance and interact with each other over a wide geographic distance in a meaningful way to achieve the learning objectives. The growth of these communication and computer systems, their ease of use, the power and diversity of information transfer allow teachers and students to have access to a world beyond the classroom. It has the potential to transform the nature and process of the learning environment and envision a new learning culture. Interactivity, flexibility and convenience have become the order of the day in the ICT supported environment. ICT opens up opportunities for learning because it enables learners to access, extend, transform and share ideas and information in multi-modal communication styles and format. It helps the learner to share learning resources and spaces, promote learner centered and collaborative learning principles and enhance critical thinking, creative thinking and problem solving skills.

ICT can play a significant role in equalizing opportunities for marginalized groups and communities. But the paradox is that for those groups that are unable to cross the technology divide, ICT is yet another means to further marginalize them. Education has a major role to play in resolving this problem. Thus, unless ICT becomes part of both the delivery and content of education, the disadvantage will deepen and development will suffer.

But the failure to use ICT is itself a result of the digital and knowledge divides that exist, and their causes are deeply embedded in the complex historical and socio-cultural context of the country. Fortunately, with the Vision 2030 goals, the Kenyan government has begun to implement strategies that will address these paradoxes.

Internet traffic is increasing as more people become Internet users and existing users send greater amounts of data. If the volume of traffic increases faster than the capacity of the network increases, congestion will occur, similar to the congestion that occurs when too many cars attempt to use a highway. To avoid congestion, researchers have developed technologies, such as Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM), that transfer more bits per second across an optical fiber. The speed of routers and other packet-handling equipment must also increase to accommodate growth. In the short term, researchers are developing faster electronic processors; in the long term, new technologies will be required.


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Frequently Asked Questions


What is the role of ICT in library management and administration?

Library System Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays a vital role in supporting powerful, efficient management and administration in education sector. It is specified that technology can be used right from student administration to various resource administration in an education institution (Christiana Maki 2008).

Does ICT have an impact on Administrative Services in Nigeria universities?

The positive effects of ICT on administrative services in education institutions are numerous. of the in situations. There is therefore the need to examine the use of ICT in administrative activities in Nigeria higher education. This study is undertaken to determine the impacts of ICT on administrative services in Nigeria universities.

How is ICT used in higher education?

ICT use in higher education: 155 Online Learning Materials and Technologies Used Online learning materials refer to electronic media used in teaching and learning for both f2f and distance education at the University of Botswana.

What is the status of ICT in universities of Africa?

The paper explained that the status of technology in universities of Africa is generally low due to lack of proper communication on ICT policy structures, lack of infrastructure, and lack of accessibility of available technology for lecturers and students in universities. 

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