Human Resources Management And Student Academic Performance
This study was carried out to examine human resources management and student academic performance in Sapele local government of Delta State as a case study. The study was specifically set to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between human resources and students academic performance, determine whether recruitment and staffing practices influences student academic performance, and find out whether teachers training and development influences student academic performance. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Sapele local government of Delta State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between human resources management and students academic performance. Furthermore, the result of the findings reveals that recruitment and staffing practices influences student academic performance. Therefore, it is recommended that the State Teaching Service Commission and private investors in education should ensure effectiveness and transparency when recruiting teachers into the teaching service in order to absorb the right and qualified teachers in the profession. To mention but few.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
It is a global assertion that education is the solid rock of development. The reason for this is that is expected that the educational system will produce the quality and quantity of human resources required for the economy’s growth using the right mix of inputs.
(Ibukun, 2009) affirmed that no nation or society can rise above the quality of her education. The immeasurable contribution of education in the development process has left a burning desire in every government to increase access to education for all her citizens. (Ibukun, 2003). The direction of education toward national economic growth and development was an important basis for the introduction of the Universal primary Education (UPE) and the recent Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme. The expectation has been that opportunity should be offered to the learners at the lower levels of education in order to avoid wastage of talents.
Education is a very important human activity. It helps any society to fashion and model individuals in order to function well in their environment. According to Boit, Njoki and Chang’ach (2012), the purpose of education is to equip the citizenry to reshape their society and eliminate inequality. In particular, secondary education is an important sector in national and individual development. It plays a vital role in creating a country’s human resource base at a level higher than primary education (Achoka, Odebero, Maiyo and Mualuko, 2007). Provision of quality secondary education is therefore important in generating the opportunities and benefits of social and economic development (Onsumu, Muthaka, Ngware and Kosembei, 2006). One of the indicators of quality of education according to United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2005) is cognitive achievement of learners. Adediwura and Tayo (2007) opined that, academic achievement is designated by test and examination scores or marks assigned by the subject teachers.
The Human Resources (HR) of an organization consist of all staff (teaching, managerial, and technical/support staff) engaged in any of the organization’s activities. It is well-recognized that the human resources of any school are its most valuable asset (Achieng, 2012). Despite the scarcity of resources, there is the need to expand and reform the educational system and ensure its quality in meeting the popular demand. Of the human resources required for the production function of the school system, teachers are the most vital. This is because they play great facilitative role in the teaching – learning process. According to (Adeyemi and Akposheri, 2009), in spite of the advancement in science and technology, the teacher is not yet displaced in the classroom nor has his important role diminished. Teachers seem to have profound influence in the social – cultural development of their society, since they influence many values directly or indirectly to their students. No wonder (Chukwu , 2003), (Famade, 2003), (The National Policy on Education, 2006), (Ibukun, 2009) and (Okebukola, 2010) identified teachers’ quality and dedication as significant predictors of quality of education. The success of any organization is a resultant effect of quantity and quality of its working force. Ibukun as cited in (Adegbemile, 2011) opined that teacher holds the key to nation building. The aspiration of any nation to transform into a greater country can only be possible if there are competent and dedicated teachers to impact the appropriate attitude skills and knowledge.
This is particularly true in learning institutions, where the people required to do the core work of the organization are highly trained individuals. In this study, the focus will be on the teaching staff, with no less regard to the role played by the sub-ordinate staff in ensuring good academic performance of students such as preparing their meals in time, transporting them during academic performance enhancing tours, typing and producing their assessment tests and arranging their laboratories and libraries.
In the United States, a study conducted by Motoko, Akiba, Gerald Letendre and Scribner (2004), revealed that the countries with better teachers’ quality produced higher academic achievement. These analyses provide empirical, cross-national evidence of the importance of investing in teachers’ quality for improving national achievement. Consequently, human resources management in education implies effectively coordinating the activities of staff, students and parents so as to achieve educational aims and objectives (Adeniyi, 2004). The National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) clearly spells out the broad responsibilities of managing schools as employment, promotion, deployment and discipline of teachers among others.
Successive governments in Nigeria have made efforts towards the effective management of human resources in educational institutions. The importance of human resources management has been stated but there is not much information on its relationship with the academic performance of students in secondary schools. For secondary schools to achieve high performance in the public examinations there is the need to recruit qualified teachers, secure modern buildings, adequate facilities and equipment should be provided to enhance teaching and learning while supervision of teaching is carried out for quality control. Other bodies that could influence students’ academic performance are administrators, managers, guidance counselors, Parents Teachers Association (PTA), curriculum specialist, funding agencies, non –teaching staff, inspectors and examination boards (Osagie and Okafor, 2012).
Any organization that does not plan for its human resources will often find that it is meeting neither the personnel requirement nor its over-all goals effectively (Stoner1978). For example, a school may decide to introduce new subjects into its school curriculum. If the school does not make adequate arrangements for the teachers to handle these new subjects, the subjects will remain on the time table without being taught. To further buttress this point, when the federal government launched the 6:3:3:4 system of education, it spent huge financial resources on equipment for technical education. However, the human resources required to operate the equipment were not considered. Consequently, the equipments were left to rot in the rain and many of the equipment were eventually stolen by hoodlums (Osagie and Okafor, 2012).
With regards to the current educational policy, the supervision of instruction is the process of overseeing the work of teachers with the aim of assisting them to solve their instructional problems so that students can benefit maximally from classroom activities (Igwe, 2005). This can be effected with the involvement of the principal or any other official appointed by interacting with teachers and students in the classroom regularly to monitor the teaching and learning process. Nwagwu (2004), argued that the supervisor has the responsibility of monitoring and evaluating all staff activities and programs of their organization. The major reason for this is to ensure dutiful compliance of all staff with established laws and declared goals through quality assurance, maintenance of standards and quality control. This view is in line with the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) which declared that supervision is a device for quality control. The goals of the school can be achieved through the continuous supervision of the teaching staff and the non- teaching staff.
The evaluation of staff is conducted as it determines their performance, in as much as it also determines the academic performance of students. For example, in the study by Akposheri (1994), she found out that there was significant relationship between teachers who were highly rated during evaluation and the academic performance of students. However, Okafor (2006) submitted that in the performance evaluation of staff, care should be exercised to ensure that it is the performance and not the personality of the employees that are evaluated.
Secondary school not only occupies a strategic place in the educational system in Nigeria, it is also the link between the primary and the university levels of education. According to Asikhai (2010), education at secondary school level is supposed to be the bedrock and the foundation towards higher knowledge in tertiary institutions. It is an investment as well as an instrument that can be used to achieve a more rapid economic, social, political, technological, scientific and cultural development in a country. It is rather unfortunate that the secondary schools today are not measuring up to the standard expected of them. There have been public outcry over the persistently poor performance of secondary school students in public examinations (Ibukun, Oyekakin, Akinrotimi, Akinfolarin and Ayandoja, 2012). According to Nwokocha and Amadike (2005), academic performance of students is the yardstick for testing educational quality of a nation. Hence, it is expedient that students in secondary schools in particular maintain a high performance in internal and mostly external examinations.
The problem of downward trend in academic performance of students has often been attributed to a number of factors among which are: the principal’s leadership style, teachers’ quality, home factors, government factors and non-provision of educational resources (human, material, financial and physical resources). However, this study is limited to the provision of human resources and students’ academic performance in secondary school. The availability of educational resources (human and material) is very important because of its role in the attainment of educational objectives. Human resources is a unique educational input necessary for the overall development of skill acquisition and literacy of the students. Human resources within the educational system can be classified into teaching and non-teaching staff (Ekundayo, 2009). Availability of these resources is needful to achieve excellence in the system. However, it has been observed that secondary schools in Lagos State do not have the required number of teachers both in terms of quantity and quality (Ekundayo, Haastrup, Timilehin, Alonge and Hezekiah, 2010). This is evident in high student-teacher ratio in the schools.
A close look at the schools in Nigeria and what goes on there shows that nothing good can come out of most public schools as they do not have facilities and adequate and appropriate human resources to prepare candidates for West African Examination Council (WAEC) examinations (Owoeye and Yara, 2011). Studies on the relationship between availability of human resources and academic performance have shown that human resources enhance academic performance of students. Adedeji (1998), Ayodele (2000), Adewuyi (2002) and Okandeji (2007) had in their various researches submitted that teachers constitute a very significant factor to students’ academic success.
In a similar dimension, Adedeji (1998), Owoeye (2000), Ajayi (2002), Akomolafe (2003, 2005) and Owoeye (2011) also submitted a positive relationship between material resources in schools and students’ academic performance. According to Hallack (1990), the material resources that contribute to students’ academic performance include classrooms, accommodation, libraries, furniture, apparatus and other instructional materials.
It can be inferred from the literature so far that human resources have positive significant relationship with academic performance. This study therefore attempts to analyze the characteristics of human resources in school in terms of qualification, teacher-student ratio and years of teaching experience of teachers as a determinant of students’ academic performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The academic performance of secondary school students across many States in Nigeria is less encouraging. Irrespective of the unrented efforts of government to boost the performance of schools in the State, the cases of low academic performance of secondary school students still persist. Students find it difficult to easily comprehend and perform up to the expectation of stakeholders in accounting subject, mathematics and other quantitative subjects. Perhaps, the problem of poor academic performance of students may be as a result of lack or inadequacy of varying inputs such as employing the services of qualified and willing individuals into the teaching service and ensuring that they are professionally developed in order to adequately impart the necessary knowledge into the students. It is against this premise that the study aimed at examining human resources management and student academic performance.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Generally, this study seek to examine human resources management and student academic performance. Specific objectives are stated below.
- Ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between human resources and students academic performance.
- Determine whether recruitment and staffing practices influences student academic performance.
- Find out whether teachers training and development influences student academic performance.
1.4. Research Questions
- Is there any significant relationship between human resources and students academic performance?
- Does recruitment and staffing practices influences student academic performance?
- Does teachers training and development influences student academic performance?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between human resources management and students academic performance.
- Ha: There is a significant relationship between human resources management and students academic performance.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The importance of this study cannot be over emphasized considering the fact that without adequate human resources, excellent students’ academic performance in chemistry subjects cannot be achieved. The findings of this study will serve as a contribution to existing literature and add knowledge in the subject area. The findings from this study will assist educational administrators as well as school administrator in preventing brain drain in the secondary schools. Also, this study will be of help to the government in the area of teachers’ recruitment and retention. Moreover, the study will go a long way in assisting educational administrators in drawing up a comprehensive human resource policy and programs in the education sector.
In addition, the result of this study will assist educational managers, administrators, and technocrats in the formulation and execution of educational policy towards the attainment of the overall educational goals and objectives.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study boarders on human resources management and student academic performance, specifically the study will ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between human resources and students academic performance, determine whether recruitment and staffing practices influences student academic performance, and find out whether teachers training and development influences student academic performance. However, the respondents of this study will be delimited from some selected teachers and students in secondary schools in Sapele local government of Delta State
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.9 Definitions of Terms
These refer to composition of teachers who conduct instructional activities with students, be the board of government employed or teaching service commission employed. This is with regard to their academic qualifications, adequacy, experience, and staff development.
This is the measure of degree of passing or failing any evaluation test or examination.
1.10 Organizations of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on human resources management and student academic performance in Sapele local government of Delta State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine human resources management and student academic performance in Sapele local government of Delta State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between human resources and students academic performance, determine whether recruitment and staffing practices influences student academic performance, and find out whether teachers training and development influences student academic performance.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Sapele local government of Delta State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- There is a significant relationship between human resources management and students academic performance.
- Recruitment and staffing practices influences student academic performance.
- Teachers training and development influences student academic performance.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- The State Teaching Service Commission and private investors in education should ensure effectiveness and transparency when recruiting teachers into the teaching service in order to absorb the right and qualified teachers in the profession.
- School managers should ensure that teachers are constantly updated by organizing suitable developmental programmes like conferences, workshops, seminars, professional courses, and in-service training to enable them perform their instructional delivery task in a professional manner.
- Effective human resource development policies should not be based on favouritism and lobbying in both recruitment/selection and staffing processes
- That Human resource management should have sound policies in respect of staff transfer and promotion to ensure that justices and fairness prevail in dealing with the staff.
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