Human Resource Management And The Growth Of Hospitality Establishment In Selected Hotels In Awka, Anambra State.

Project and Seminar Material for Human Resource Management (HRM)

Human Resource Management And The Growth Of Hospitality Establishment In Selected Hotels In Awka, Anambra State.


Abstract


This study was carried out on human resource management and the growth of hospitality establishment in selected hotels in Awka, Anambra State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of employees of some selected hotels in Awka, Anambra State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The hypotheses was tested using Chi-square Statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that human resource management promotes organizational commitment in the hospitality industry. The study reveals that human resource management promotes efficiency in the hospitality industry. The study reveals that human resource management promotes productivity in the hospitality industry. Furthermore, human resource management enhances the financial performance of hospitality organizations. Therefore, it is recommended that human resources planning should be very thorough. Recruitment, selection and placement should be based on qualification, performance and competence respectively. Training and development programmes should be well designed and implemented to reflect manpower needs of the industry. Competent trainers should always be employed and such programmes should be a regular practice. And retirees should adequately protected under effective social security schemes. Gratuities and pensions should be effectively administered so that retired staffs will not suffer after being disengaged from work. To mention but few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The greatest asset of any organization is its human resources that ensure that achievement of the company’s goal and objective. (Source: Human resource Article 2012). It is unfortunate that most company’s organization have neglected the development and management of their chief asset which is human resource (human resource Article 2012). According to Susan, (2012), human Resource Management is the function within an organization that focused on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. It is also a strategic and comprehensive approach of managing people and the work place culture and environment (Susan, 2012). Effective Human resource management enables employees to contribute effectively and productivity to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives (Susan, 2012). Human resource management is administrative activities associated with human resources planning, recruitment, selection, orientation, training, appraisal, motivation and also a functions within an organization that focuses on people (Wikipedia, 2012). According to Wikipedia, Human resources is the set of individuals who make up the work force of an organization. Human resource management encompassed activities designed to provide for and co-ordinates, all human element within the organization. This will ensure its stable continuity and achievement. The human personnel element represents one of the company’s largest investments. Susan,(2012). Consequently, organization should prioritize the development of the human element to maximize talents, skills and ability which will automatically reflects on the company’s profit. It pre-supposes that we do need people in order to firm a business which that no business can exist entirely without people. Even a computer auto-mental machine factory has to employ some people, though a conventional plant with similar capacity might require more people. There arises the need for proper planning of these people employed otherwise known as “Manpower planning” (Source: eHow contributing writer). Most organization does not have plans for the development of their members of staff. Once those people are recruited, the companies do not orientate them, neither do they train them to acquire other modern skills or improve upon their talents and educational qualifications they came in with. Companies under study need to equip their labour force which will boost quality product and profit making of their organization. Human resource development makes sure that manpower planning in an organization is not static but an ongoing process source Human resource Article (2009). It focuses on raising productivity through improved quality, efficiency, cost reduction and enabling customers concentrate on their core business activities. According to Wikipedia 2012, Human resource is also known as human capital for utilization, harnessing, development and direction of a nation’s objective. It is also all about the formation of values and attitude. Therefore, human resources development is a universal norms and not a view concept. There is no industry, firm, organization, business enterprises, nation etc. that can boost a political, economic and social stability, quality product and profitability without adequate human resources in place. In recent years, it has been noted that good number of business establishment are having poor performance as a result of lack of effective and efficient human resources. Business is full of uncertainty and the understanding of labour contribution or human resources development is vital for management especially in the areas of boosting organizational productivity and as well its profitability. The challenges of lack of skilled labour, heavy competition among firms, technological problems, low productivity and to mention but a few leads to a high rate of poor performance and poor product implementation while placing a serious limitation on product expansion and increase in productivity. Human resources in the hospitality sector require not just a human touch and “service with a smile” but also yearn for individuals who are multi skilled, cross-trained, forward looking in terms of perspective and mind set, and embody strategic creative and systematic thinking. To encourage tourists to choose a specific hotel, the hoteliers must meet or exceed the guests’ expectations of service quality (Nankervis & Deborah, 2005). In any organization, the best fit of human resource practices for attracting, maintaining and developing a workforce are very essential. In hotel industry, the perceptions about human resource practices are generally negative. The human resource practices in hotel industries include many issues like career development, worldwide career, cultural adoption, 24/7 work environment, shifts in work, managing safety, maintaining cordial relationship, balancing work load and conflict resolution. In current hotel industries, the skill shortages and general attitude changes urge the human resource department to make stronger retention strategies for employees. Keep and Mayhew (1999) in their review of the skills issue in the hotel industry suggest that the industry has a number of personnel problems, including: Generally low wages, unless skill shortages act to counter this (e.g. chefs), Unsocial hours and shift patterns are not family friendly, Overrepresentation of women and ethnic minorities in low-level operative positions with better paid, higher status and more skilled jobs filled by men, pointing to undeveloped equal opportunities policies in the sector, Poor or non – existent career structures and the use of casualized seasonal employment, Over reliance on informal recruitment methods, Lack of evidence of good practice personnel/HRM practices, Little or no trade union presence, High levels of labour turnover and difficulties in recruitment and retention of employees. Recognizing this reality of poor employment practices, Riley et al. (2000) argue that economics is the key determining factor for HRM policies and practices in tourism and hospitality. Of course, this point is likely to be true for any industry, but as Riley et al. point out that it carries a particular resonance in tourism and hospitality, due to the nature of the sector. This is not to say that organizations and managers in the industry are not well aware of new managerial thinking on HRM. However, they also find themselves wrestling with “traditional problems”, which are underpinned by fundamental labour economic imperatives. Whatever may be the reason for poor practices, Richard and Johnson (2001) are among the many who argue that human resource management strategies impact on an organisation’s overall effectiveness, and that the effective utilisation of human resources can give an organisation with competitive advantage. Duncan (2005) suggests that there are eight main areas of challenge and concern in the global hospitality industry and that the most important of these concerns people and employment. However, Lucas and Deery (2004) note that the hospitality industry is interest to a relatively small number of mainstream human resource academics when compared with other industries. Even though many effective human resource practices are written in the policy documents, the execution of those practices and the satisfaction of employees are questionable in the current scenario. Mostly the foreign studies concluded that the written policies and practices of human resources were not effectively executed. The importance of human resource management in business success is inevitable in any organization. So it is imperative for any organization to evaluate and make improvements in their practices to excel in their business. But human resource managers in the hospitality industry are experiencing rapid changes due to the inundation of information technology and ever increasing globalization (Heung, 2008).


1.2 Statement of Problem

The industry is plagued by many challenges that have hindered effectiveness and efficiency. One of these is inability of management in hospitality business to carry out effective and efficient human resources management. Be it as it may, the hospitality industry requires good reception, courtesy etc

However, these are lacking due to poor human resource management. The core of the problems facing hospitality industry can be traced to poor recruitment exercise based on unprofessional procedure of hiring workers e.g recruitment based on god-fatherism, nepotism, ethnicity, poor remuneration of workers promote high rate of labour turnover. The industry is therefore not attractive to highly qualified workers due to inadequate motivational incentives. Some of the hotels see no need for training and manpower development despite the fact that most of their workers have low level of education, semi-illiterate and poor skill in hospitality business. Lack of good industrial relations is something that always transfers aggression from workers to customers.The general attendant effect of poor human resource management leads to low patronage, low sales, when the sale volume is low there will be decline in sales revenue and consequently this will lead to business failure in the hospitality industry.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The aim of this study is basically to help manager finds out the best way of using human resources management in the hospitality industry for effective and efficient performance.

  1. Ascertain whether human resource management promote organizational commitment in the hospitality industry.
  2. To find out if human resource management promote efficiency in the hospitality industry.
  3. Ascertain whether human resource management promote productivity in the hospitality industry.
  4. Ascertain whether human resource management enhance financial performance of hospitality organizations.

1.4. Research Questions

  1. Does human resource management promote organizational commitment in the hospitality industry?
  2. Does human resource management promote efficiency in the hospitality industry?
  3. Does human resource management promote productivity in the hospitality industry?
  4. Does human resource management enhance financial performance of hospitality organizations?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

H0: There is no significant relationship between human resource management and the growth of hospitality industry.

Ha: There is a significant relationship between human resource management and the growth of hospitality industry.


1.6 Significance of the Study

At the end of the study, the thesis had specifically explained and tackled the impacts of human resource management the hotel industry, how human capital management can directly and indirectly affect staff performance and take effect on hotel profit maximization. The thesis is expected to be of great use to managers, CEOs, directors, supervisors in providing a guide to them on how useful the human resource department is to the hotel industry.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study dwells on human resource management and the growth of hospitality establishment . The aim of this study is basically to help manager finds out the best way of using human resources management in the hospitality industry for productivity and efficiency.

However, the study will be limited on some selected hotels in Awka, Anambra State.


1.8 Limitation Of The Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definitions of Terms

Management:

The process of or practice of managing

Hotel:

An establishment that provides accommodation and other services for paying guests.

Capital:

Knowledge, awareness, and proficiency.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the study of human resource management and the growth of hospitality establishment using some selected hotels in Awka, Anambra State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on human resource management and the growth of hospitality establishment using some selected hotels in Awka, Anambra State as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain whether human resource management promote organizational commitment in the hospitality industry, find out if human resource management promote efficiency in the hospitality industry, ascertain whether human resource management promote productivity in the hospitality industry, and Ascertain whether human resource management enhance financial performance of hospitality organizations.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staffs of some selected hotelsin Awka, Anambra State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Human resource management promotes organizational commitment in the hospitality industry.
  2. Human resource management promotes efficiency in the hospitality industry.
  3. Human resource management promotes productivity in the hospitality industry.
  4. Human resource management enhances financial performance of hospitality organizations.

5.4: Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Human resources planning should be very thorough. Recruitment, selection and placement should be based on qualification, performance and competence respectively.
  2. Training and development programmes should be well designed and implemented to reflect manpower needs of the industry. Competent trainers should always be employed and such programmes should be a regular practice.
  3. Compensations should be motivating and inspiring to staffs. This calls for adequate salaries and fringe benefits that should be regularly reviewed upwards to keep step with rising cost of living. Promotions and conversions should be regular and prompt. There should be no delays in paying their entitlements.
  4. Retirees should adequately protected under effective social security schemes. Gratuities and pensions should be effectively administered so that retired staffs will not suffer after being disengaged from work.

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