Household Waste Management Practices

Project and Seminar Material for Geology

Household Waste Management Practices


In Nigeria and particularly in Zaria city of Kaduna state, open dumping is still the most common household waste disposal method/practice. This type of practice is un hygienic and environmentally unfriendly. This research is aimed at effective household waste management practices in the study area. The research found that there are some other types of management or disposal method in practice in the study area, these include the use of packing and burning, dumping in pits outside the house and dumping in streets by residents, wheel barrows.

Also included are scavengers, Ministry of Environment and private organizations that are involved in household waste. Data for the study include the use of observations, questionnaire administration and oral interviews in data gathering and analysis. The research, recommends that the state government should provide household waste management equipment and vehicles, generators on loan for waste management authorities. Waste management such as the construction of sanitary land fills, purchase of incinerators for recycling plants, encourage waste to wealth practices as this would actually reduce the amount of waste that would be physically available in the study area.


Table Of Content

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Certification
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background of the Problem
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Aim
  • 1.4 Objective
  • 1.5 Justification
  • 1.6 Study Area

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Studies of Households Solid Waste Generator
  • 2.3 Waste Generation and Disposal
  • 2.4 Studies of the Composition Household Solid Waste
  • 2.5 Studies of Factors Affecting Solid Waste Management and Disposal

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 The Reconnaissance Survey
  • 3.3 Selection of House Hold and Respondents
  • 3.4 Design of Questionnaire
  • 3.5 Statistical Analysis and Result
  • 3.6 Problem of Data Collection

Chapter Four

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Socio Demographic Profile of Respondents
  • 4.3 Household Waste Generation and Management
  • 4.4 Awareness on Waste Management

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary and Major Finding
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

List of Figures

  • Fig1: Nigeria showing Kaduna state
  • Fig2: Kaduna state showing Zaria local government
  • Fig 3: The study Area (Zaria City)

List of Tables

  • Table 2.1: Solid waste generation by land uses
  • Table 2.2: Average composition of residential solid wastes by percentage of total weight
  • Table 2.3: Result of Santa Monica Solid waste
  • Table 2.4: Solid waste composition in Ibadan Onitsha and Jos
  • Table 2.5: Changes in solid waste composed by percentage weight in Ibadan
  • Table 3.1: Number of dwelling units, and sample of households taken
  • Table 4.2.1: Socio demographic profile of respondents
  • Table 4.2.2: Frequency distribution of educational background
  • Table 4.2.3: Occupational structure of the respondent
  • Table 4.3.1: Frequency distribution of the types of household waste generated
  • Table 4.3.2: Frequency distribution on the use of refuse in a household
  • Table 4.3.3: Frequency distribution on the nature of refuse bin
  • Table 4.3.4: Frequency distribution on how often refuse bins are Emptied in the study area
  • Table 4.3.5: Frequency distribution on the respondents awareness of household waste collection points
  • Chart 4.3.6 Bar chart showing how resident dispose their household waste
  • Chart 4.3.7 Pie chart showing the authorities responsible for household waste collection
  • Table 4.3.8: Frequency distribution about the environment health officials
  • Table 4.3.9: Frequency distribution on cont cases abut environment sanitation
  • Table 4.4.1: Frequency distribution about sources of awareness on waste management
  • Table 4.4.2 Frequency distribution on the factors responsible for dumping of household waste

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

One of the greatest hazards of man today is poor sanitary condition of his environment, which is being caused by his daily activities, such as waste generation, increase in population and attendant increase in agricultural, industrial and commercial activities.

Wastes are substances, materials or objects discarded as worthless or unwanted, defective or of no further value for human economic productive, activities or processes (Okechukwu, 1995).

U.S AD-Hoc Group for science and technology (1969), and Adegoke (1990) defined waste as substances and materials or objects which are disposed off according to the provision of a national law. Basically, wastes can exist in three different states-gaseous, liquid and solid. The people are more sensitive to solid waste than to the others. This is because solid wastes have the potential of accumulating and physically insulting the environment.

In the past, the advance effects of human activities were spread over large expense of land and sea. With the measure increase in pollution in recent times and the growth of cities and rapid industrialization, waste discharge have multiplies concentrated at a few model points.

Solid wastes are unwanted materials that cannot flow directly into steams or rise immediately in the air. They are non-liquid, non-gaseous residues of manufacturing, construction, cooking, recreation, agriculture and other activities that use and then discard materials.

They include glasses, bottles, outdated newspapers, carton, plastic, bottles, abandoned automobiles and automobiles parts, discarded cooking utensils, wraps, dead animals et cet era.

Effective solid waste management is achievable only when socio-economic factors are integrated into solid waste management studies. This approach would, according to Hudson and Marks (1977), make it possible to predict not only the expenditure pattern of a household and how much waste would be generated by each particular item consumed, but also the qualities of wastes generated by household. The first note worthy attempt at studying this problem based on this approach was made by Boyd and Hawkins (1971) With limited success, it would be argued that this approach may make it possible to transform the data generated into an input a national solid waste generation projection since that household is the basic wait of consumption and waste generation. Projection of this nature would assist urban environmental planner to better and rationally tackle this problem of waste urban areas. In addition, waste management agencies may use the results of such studies as an instrument for improving or initiating innovations in waste management practices.

It is the realization of the need to highlight the socio-economic aspects of wastes generation and management and their implication for solid wastes managements that provided a case for the present study of Zaria city area of Kaduna state.

1.1 Background of the Study

Improper waste management leads to pollution and subsequently degradation of the environment. It also adds substances that affect the environment, which because of their nature and quantity constitute a menace to the health and well being of the individuals, the society and the environment as a whole. The Environmental Act of the United Kingdom defines waste as any substance or object which the holder discards or intends to discard (Freeman, 1990).

The available infrastructure for absorbing wastes generated by urban dwellers in Nigeria is grossly inadequate, consequently uncontrolled proliferation of solid wastes dumps is a common feature of most Nigerian cities. These solid wastes appears in various sizes. For example, they could be small, medium, or large depending on the number of households that the dumps serve. In most cases, these dumps are located at the backyards of the dwelling units, roadsides, gutters, streams, abandoned buildings and so on.

Most solid waste dumps are usually invaded by scavenging animals which scatter the wastes to make them breeding grounds for disease vector such as rats and flies. Besides direct contamination of water bodies by these waste, leachartes from decomposing and purifying solid wastes percolate into soil and nearby water sources which could cause disease to humans when consumed. This is particularly the case of un-collected solid wastes which find their way either back to the neighborhoods or into open river channels which become blocked, thus creating favorable breeding grounds for mosquitoes and in some cases block drainage ways, causing floods.

For solid wastes to be effectively managed to ensure the acceptable level of environmental quality required for sustainable growth and development in the urban settings, developing or applying accurate methods of estimating the amount of waste generated and disposed constitute a fertile area of research.

Such methods require accurate information on the types and quantities of solid wastes, generated by households the socio economic profiles of the household waste management systems and mechanisms used by the households and the waste disposal strategies.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Household waste generation increases due to increase in population and household activities. The cost of maintaining the environmental quality also increases as government now have much more wastes to dispose.
Household waste management and practice is amongst the problems affecting Zaria City. Despite the setting up of Kaduna State Environmental Protection Agency (KEPA), the situation has remain largely characterized by indiscriminate dumping of wastes, such as food waste, paper, polythene, scrap mutals et cet era, in virtually everything every part of of the area and have constituted problems like heap waste which can cause road/rail blockage, air pollution, open air burning, leach ate which has adversely affected the general aesthetic nature of the environment. This problem also causes some health related problems due to the incidence of improper waste management practices such as cholera, typhoid, malaria and diahroea for solid wastes to be effectively managed to incur the acceptable level of environment in the urban settings developing or applying accurate methods of estimating the amounts of waste generated and disposed constitute a fertile area of research.

Such methods require accurate information on the types and quantities of solid waste generated by household waste management systems mechanisms used by the households and the knowledge, the information required for proper household waste generation, management and disposal in Zaria city is locking. The research questions predicating the study are:

  1. What quantities of each types of waste are generated by the households in Zaria city.
  2. What quantities of each types of waste are generated by the households?
  3. What are the major socio-economic characteristics of the households?
  4. What major household chores generate these wastes?
  5. What are the solid wastes management strategies?
  6. In what ways do the household characteristics influence these solid waste generation and management strategies?
  7. Are these influence uniform or do they differ from household to household or from one study area to another.

1.3 Aim

The aim of this research is to examine the types of household solid waste management practices with a view of identify the most appropriation method for Zaria City.

1.4 Objectives

The aim of the research will be achieved through the following objectives;

  1. To identify the types of waste generated
  2. To identify the management practices being adopted by households in the area
  3. To identify the hazards of solid waste to the in habitats and environment of Zaria.
  4. To recommend appropriate measure to comb indiscrimination dumping of solid waste.

1.5 Justification

The world is becoming increasingly urbanized. The outbreak of diseases and the associated environmental problems are increasing in frequency and magnitude. However, government at the local, state and federal levels with non-governmental agencies have shared little concern to the issue of improper household waste management in the study area. The research therefore, intends to suggest a better waste management practice in the study area.

In the study area, much solid wastes are being generated by the households on daily basis. The waste is usually left un cleared for about two weeks before the waste are reluctantly rumpled into gutters or at the designated sites. The households use various methods in during this. This ranges from drums and buckets to refuse bin with lid or without lid and packed by boys using wheel barrows to empty it.

This methods seen not to be affective, this is due to the fact that the refuse/ wastes smell in the compound and eventually leads to outbreak of disease such as diarrhea, cholera et cet era.

This work shall therefore suggest a better practice of waste management in the study area.

This will go along way to eliminate the effects of late evacuation of waste, either from the compounds or at the designated points.

1.6 Study Area

1.6.1 Location

Zaria is one of the major cities in Kaduna state and the second largest after Kaduna with a total population of 408,198 (NPC, 2006). It lies between the co-ordinates of 11o-04on and 7o42e. Here it shares common boundaries with Soba local government to the east, Igabi local Government to the south, Giwa local Government to the west and Sabon Gari Local Government to the north, (fig 2) Zaria is linked by both rail way and good roads, which serve as a link to many other states in the north.

1.6.2 Geology and relief

The Zaria area is a dissected point of north central plains, an extensive peneplain in developed loamy stalline by stalling metamorphic rocks of the Nigerian basement complex.

Residual granite inset bergs, the largest of which is Kufena hill, provide the main relief and there are 100 quartzite fidgets in the west.

An extensive older laterite cover of possible Pliocene age (du preey, undated) is known preserved as low scarp bounded plateau remnants, mainly on interfluves in the western half of the area. Dissect of this older pen peneplain laterite and format of the younger late rite and older alluvium are the result of Pleistocene erosion cycles.

The eastern part of the area is dreamed by the south ward flowing Galma River and its tributaries. The western limit of the Galma catchment basin crosses the map from the middle of the southern boundary to the North West corner.

1.6.3 Soil

Higher up the slope, the drainage Condition improves and the soils are generally reddish in color, metals are completely absent or a few may occur at great depth, iron concentrations are also not common.

Lower down the slope, the soil gradually become greyer in color while the mottled horizon occurs nearer to the surface. The number of iron concentrations also increase and in some places an iron pan can be seen out roping at lower slops positions. This indicates that iron is not only moved vertically down the profile, but also laterally down the slope.

Locally, in lower slope positions some grey clay soils have been formed. These have a strongly developed coarse blocky structure and may contain calcium carbonate concentrations. The reason why these soils occur here cannot yet be fully explained. They may be influenced by local differences in parent rock or they may have been formed under a previous drier climate.

1.6.4 Vegetation

The re-growth of woody individuals following cultivation is the foundation on which to base a series of communities in the Zaria area. For in the various characters of the plants concerned are to be found the factors for survival.

Many savanna species are able to produce profuse sucker and coppice rowth when the main trunk is cut and because so many of the same species have wide spread horizontal root systems this leads, with constant cutting, to a proliferation of scrub, composed of many small re growths. Associated with this habit is the ability to survive in a suffrutex form for many years. The arid shoots are burnt off or destroyed each year while of the underground root system enlarges and stores food material and water. Relaxation of damage enables the shoots from the crown of the root stock to grow rapidly and establish scrub growth. This growth often has in the early stages much larger leaves and longer inter nodes than is normal for the species.

Many of the seedlings of the trees involved also survive in their early stages in a similar way. An extreme example is that of butyrospermum paradoxum which on germination actually buries the plumage and then survives for many years as a suppressed growth before finally becoming a tree. (Jackson,1969).

1.6.5 Weather and Climate

The part of Nigeria where Zaria lies is invaded by two distinct air masses, one from the north-dry and continental in origin, the Saharan air mass and the other from over the Atlantic in the south must, cool and equatorial maritime in nature.

The weather depends, to a large extent, on the air mass which covers the area and its depth. These two air masses form a discontinuity zone at their boundary.

The animal rhythm of weather in Zaria follows the annual march of the surface position of ITD. Statistical averages of weather elements would fail to portray the climatic picture of Zaria. It is rather, the weather sequence in a season and sometimes its extremes which convey a realistic picture of the weather and climate of Zaria.

Dry Season

By the middle of November, in most years ITD moves south of Zaria and the dry continental north-easterly or easterly air replaces the moist south westerly air from the surface. ITD oscillates, moving forward and backward, before it finally moves south of Zaria. As a result, the surface air, at times, becomes dry north easterly and the others, humid south westerly with the beginning of the dry season the ‘sticky’ heat of September October is over.

Hot Season

ITD starts its northward movement in February and by late March or early April it crosses the latitude of Zaria. At this time there is a thug-of-war between the mE air from the south and the cTs air from the north to take control of the surface around Zaria, so in march and early April the surface winds recorded in Zaria are sometimes south-westerly and sometimes north-easterly. The movement of ITD north of Zaria is marked, firstly by a change in the direction of the surface winds and secondly by a sudden group in the moisture content of the surface air.

1.6.6 Economic Activities

Economic activities found in Zaria includes farming (rainfall and irrigation) such as maize, millet, guinea corn, vegetables among others. Other activities include administrative work, banking services, teaching, industries, and animal rearing (such as cattle, sheep, goat and horses).

Among the major industries located in Zaria include the British American Tobacco, Zazzau pharmaceutical industry, Zazzau gunnery mills and other several small scale industries such as bricks and furniture making.

The main types of land are found in the Zaria area: gona or upland fields which support, during the wet season only. Crops of relatively low value per acre such as millet, guinea corn, groundnut, and cotton. And Fadama or low land fields which support, throughout the year, more labor-intensive, higher value per acre crops such as sugar-cone.

1.6.7 The People

The dominant people of Zaria city are Hausa. Others are Nupe, Yoruba, Fulani et cet era. There are Angwans Nupawa, which was established by Nupe immigrants, limanchin Kona, iya populated by Arabs and Kanuri immigrants, Kaura and Amaru from Borno and people from southern Zaria (Kaje, Kurawa, Kaduna among others). (fig 3).

The diversity of ethnic groups made Zaria to grow into what is now generally referred to as cosmopolitan city (Sunday, 2007).

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation.

5.1 Introduction

The analysis of the data set collected for this study was carried out at the level of

  1. Tabulation and summarization of solid waste sensation, management and disposal at the household level in an area, and the defining characteristics of the household and
  2. Statistical tests of hypothesis on the topic of study.

The present chapter discusses the results, draws conclusions from the discussions and suggest areas of the subject that offer opportunities for further investigation

5.2 Summary of Major Finding

One of the major problems of Nigeria cities, particularly the slums, is that of solid waste generation and management. The micro-unit of waste generation in any human settlement is the household. The solid wastes generation and management is influenced by the existing socio-economic and demographic factors in households.
A review of the relevant literature revealed that the rate of solid waste generation is on the increase in most Nigeria cities with little or no attention given to its management.

Using questionnaire approach, data were collected on the socio economic and demographic characteristic of the households, chores and activities that generate solid waste, types of solid wastes generated and its management strategies and problems.

Since this research is aimed at effective household waste management practice in the study area and from the available data collected and analysed in Chapter Four concerning the socio demographic profile from respondents, household waste generation and management by respondent and also the awareness on waste management in the study area.

The study has found out that wastes are stored in containers that have no lid, in drums, polythene bags and buckets (table 4.3.3) this also depends on the awareness of the occupants or generators (table 4.4.1) for household waste management in the study area. In some household that have large number of inhabitants (table 4.2.1) there are no storage facilities (table 4.2.6).

5.3 Conclusion

The study have provided erupirical findings on household waste management practices in the study area, which is replicable of the current practices in Nigerian cities that include the use of dustbins, buckets, plastics, bags and other containers.

Therefore, household waste management should keep pace in addressing the growth in household waste volumes due to population increase and people’s attitudes towards waste in our cities. Based on the findings, it is conclusively hoped that it is possible to increase the quality of our environment in Nigeria and indeed Zaria city by adopting the most rational and operational policy or practices on household waste management. The policy should be enough to reflect the dynamic nature of Nigerian town as Zaria city in Kaduna state.

5.4 Recommendation

  1. There is need for government to partner with non-governmental organization [NGO], community and private sector to manage waste in the study area. Residents should be encourage and learn how to start combustion and incineration of waste to reduce the volume of household waste through the local government and private sectors. This can convert water to stream which can in turn be converted by electricity.
  2. Government should provide, upgrade and maintain all the necessary infrastructural facilities and agencies responsible for household waste evacuation in Zaria city. Adequate and efficient transportation is required to safety evacuate the enormous household waste generated to the final disposal sites.
  3. The state government should provide household waste management equipment and vehicles, guarantee loans for waste management authorities, final management such as the construction of sanitary landfills and purchase of incinerators for recycling plats.
  4. The federal government through its agencies such as the national Environmental standard regulatory and enforcement Agency [NESREA], Ministry of environmental etc, era should provide national policy guideline and standards for household waste management, support capacity building through programs prepare by the ministry of works and housing, prepare master plan for key Nigerian cities on waste management, support programs of environmental education nationwide.
  5. Also funds can be sourced from multilateral agencies such as the united Nations Environmental Program,[UNEP] , united Nation Development program[UNDP] et cet era for specific aspects of waste management.
  6. Waste to wealth practices should also be encouraged in the study area. This would actually reduce the amount of waste that would be practically available. Also these can be achieved by the following;

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