Hostel Sanitation Practices And It’s Effect On Student’s Health

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Hostel Sanitation Practices And It’s Effect On Student’s Health


Abstract


This study was designed to examine hostel sanitation practices and its effect on student’s health. A case study research design was adopted for the study. It was done in the University of Calabar. Four research questions guided the study. The population for the study was students in the University of Calabar, Cross river state. Non stratified ransom sampling technique was used to select 100 students comprising of 20 students each from the five departments in the faculty of Vocational and Technical Education.

Questionnaire consisting of 30 items was used to elicit information from the respondents. The questionnaire was validated by three experts. Cronbach alpha was used to determine the reliability of the instrument which yielded 0.76 coefficients. The data collected was analysed using mean statistics.

The study identified various causes of poor sanitation, the effects of sanitation on student health, the ways in which the school management has provided equipment/facilities to enhance sanitation as well as the strategies for improving school sanitation so as to reduce the negative effects of poor sanitation on student health.

The study recommended the following; the school management has to ensure that the various ways of improving sanitation within the institution are used in synergy, the school management has to ensure that those in charge of cleaning the school environment are adequately monitored as well as adequate provision of funds by the Government for the procurement of facilities that will enhance proper sanitation.


Table of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope and limitation of the Study
  • 1.7 Definition of Operational Terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Framework
  • 2.4 Summary

Chapter Three:

Methodology And Procedure

  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Sources of Data
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sampling of the study
  • 3.5 Instrumentation
  • 3.6 Reliability
  • 3.7 Validity
  • 3.8 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.9 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four:

Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

Student’s health has been a major contributing factor to their academic performances over the years because it determines the student’s ability to read and prepare for his examinations; it even defines the ability of the student to write very well inside the hall which are primary aim of a student going to school. Health defined by WHO is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social changes.

It is a widely accepted fact that students are known for their laziness and ego, many of them tend to leave their area of residence without taking care of it only to be waiting for cleaners to clean it for them but even as that the hostels are always very dirty because things are not done appropriately for example a student urinating in the front of the hostel where it shouldn’t be is indirectly calling for mosquitoes to breed around the hostel and this is also the case in the area of focus for this study, which is the University of Calabar.

Waste generation is a major cause of dirtiness in the hostel due to the large number of students and if not properly manage may cause a lot of harm than good, wastes are generated on daily basis through different activities of human being and if not disposed of properly the way it should,they lead to pollution of the environment having serious implications on the health of the students residing in the hostel (Earthwatch, 2007). Different institutional bodies have been set up at different levels for environmental sanitations and tertiary institution like the University of Calabar is of no difference so as to ensure that students waste are properly disposed in a quest for the students residing in the hostel to be in good health. In a study carried out by Ogeah and Ikelegbe (2007) reveals that students are nonchalant about the cleanliness of their hostels and their environment generally.

They further illustrated that even with availability of cleaners that students contribute to the poor hostel sanitation practices and this go a long way to affect the students’ health. Students contribute to poor hostel sanitation practicesby the laziness of students to use facilities provided by the school authority for waste disposal in the hostels. Outside cleaning their rooms in the hostels most of the students feel it is humiliating for them to tidy their surroundings.

Even though the University system has hired cleaners to clean the hostels these cleaners are poorly supervised and with them not doing their jobs properly the hostel surrounding becomes a breeding site for all sorts of dangerous insects and pests such as mosquito which can expose the students to malaria, tsetse fly which when a student is bitten by will cause sleeping sickness and some many more insect with different health complications, even some students go as far as urinating and defecating indiscriminately outside the hostels because they cannot clean the dirty toilets themselves and in the long run they will still come to those polluted areas to carry out their daily activities like cooking, washing of clothes etc

World Health Organization defined sanitation as the means of collecting and disposing excreta and community liquids, waste in a hygienic way so as not to endanger the health and welfare of beings and also for the social and environmental effects, it may have on people; people have been suffering from one disease to another without knowing the problems of their illness, the situation and due to distress or dirty environment (Earthwatch, 2007).

Good sanitation practices occurs where the environment is clean concurring with the School Sanitation Consultative Meeting Report (1999) which defined it as personal and universal cleanliness. Burnet (1995) clearly stated that living and learning conditions in institutions affect the critical thinking, intellectual development and aesthetic appreciation of students. In school hostels; where one of the major problems is overcrowding and this has gone a long way to affect students’ health. More than 200 students share four (4) toilets. Mostly girls in hostel have inadequate sanitation facilities. Inadequate sanitation in school hostel has jeopardized student’s health; girls in the hostel are even affected more in this situation. From the foregoing, it is of upmost importance to find out the effect of hostel sanitation practices arising as a result of the scenario on student’s health.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Knowing fully the importance of cleanliness, sanitation and its effect on one’s health, one still find that the school hostels in Nigeria universities are very dirty. It becomes necessary to find out to what extent particularly students, in the universities are involved in hostel environmental sanitation considering the increase in the prevalence of diseases that are hygiene related However, this research will focus on the examination of the hostel sanitation practices using the University of Calabar as a case study, and the its effect on the health of students. This study will also find out how to encourage hostel sanitation practices amongst the students.

This study will be approached by identify the mechanism adopted in ensuring the cleanliness of the students hostel both by the management and students themselves. This study will also analyze the frequency of student illnesses that can be associated poor sanitary practices as way of identifying the effect of hostel sanitary practices on student’s health.


1.3 Objectives Of Study

The general objective of this study is to analyze the concept of hostel sanitation practices and its effect on student’s health in the University of Calabar. The specific objectives are to;

  1. 1To identify the hostel sanitation practices in University of Calabar
  2. To examine the effect of hostel sanitation practices on student’s health in the University of Calabar
  3. To examine the effectiveness of hostel sanitation practices in the University of Calabar
  4. To identify the challenges facing hostel sanitation practices in the University of Calabar
  5. To examine the view of students towards hostel sanitation practices in the University of Calabar

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the hostel sanitation practices in University of Calabar?
  2. What is the effect of hostel sanitation practices on student’s health in the University of Calabar?
  3. What is the effectiveness of hostel sanitation practices in the University of Calabar?
  4. What are the challenges facing hostel sanitation practices in the University of Calabar?
  5. What are the views of students towards hostel sanitation practices in the University of Calabar?

1.5 Significance of Study

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. The outcome of this research will create awareness to both the general public and students staying in any tertiary institution hostel about the effect of hostel sanitation practices on their health.
  2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the hostel sanitation practices and its effect on student’s health, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.6 Scope / Limitations of Study

This study is limited to the student’s hostel in University of Calabar. It will also cover the opinion of the students about hostel sanitation practices and its effect on student’s health.

Limitation Of Study
Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.7 Definitions of Terms

Hostel:

Hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge and sometimes a kitchen

Sanitation:

Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or wastewater.

Practice:

A theoretical term for human action in society

Effect:

A result or change of something

Health:

Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social changes.

Student:

Is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

Sanitation can be seen as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. Sanitation is necessary in all places which includes schools. School sanitation refers to hygienic practices that occur in schools. However, sanitation in institutions have been observed to be poor. This is due to a number of factors such as inadequate hygiene education, neglect of health facilities, insufficient water supply, inadequate toilet/latrine facilities, lack of dustbins for disposing wastes, throwing rubbish anywhere in the compound, inadequate funds to provide sanitation equipment and poor waste storage methods adopted. Poor sanitation has led to negative effects on students’ health.

Poor sanitation leads to students’ ill health which can lead to failure of students in their academic work. Effects of poor sanitation on student health is manifested in students being sick due to diseases like malaria, cholera, diarrhoea, and even death in extreme cases. Due to these negative effects, school management have devised means of ensuring proper sanitation. These ways include employing cleaners to keep the environment clean and encouraging people to undertake research in environmental sanitation. However, these aren’t enough to ensure proper sanitation

Ensuring sanitation in schools involves a lot of ways which should preferably be used together instead of adopting these methods in isolation. The methods include; the need for students to undertake hygiene education, more health workers should be trained to include sanitation practises counselling into their consultations with patients, more toilets should be put in place in strategic locations to complement the existing ones so as to reduce incessant urination and faecal deposit, impromptu inspection around the campus from time to time. Management should source for more funds from local and international levels which would be used for providing sanitation facilities, partnership should be established with private agencies to help convert waste to wealth through waste reduction, reuse and recycling and regular seminars should be organized on the need for sanitation.

If these methods are used in synergy instead of in isolation, the menace of poor sanitation and its negative effects on students’ health can be stopped or at least reduced to a manageable level.


5.2 Recommendations

Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made;

  1. The school management has to ensure that the various ways of improving sanitation within the institution are used in synergy instead of in isolation due to fact these methods are all important.
  2. The government at all levels should provide the necessary funds needed by the school management to ensure the procurement of various facilities/equipment needed for students to live in a hygienic environment
  3. The school management have to ensure that those in charge of cleaning the school environment are adequately monitored so as to ensure they discharge their duties properly.

Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Hostel Sanitation Practices And It’s Effect On Student’s Health

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.