A History Of Western Education In Dutsin-Ma Town, 1976 To 2015

Project and Seminar Material for History

A History Of Western Education In Dutsin-Ma Town, 1976 To 2015


Education is the bedrock and key to any nation’s national development. However, with the general standard of education in Nigerian Public Primary and Secondary Schools, there has been the demand for more schools to come in to compliment government efforts in the education sector through provision and delivering of high standard, quality and quantitative education.

Therefore, this project work sets to analyze and explore the historical and educational reasons behind the History and establishment of Western Education in Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State with particular reference to Dutsin-Ma Town and its environs, as the study is from 1976 – 2015. Thus, efficient method of research was applied to come up with a reliable result, in the form of conducting interviews with resource persons, as well as consulting newspapers, magazines, archival and government documents, internet among others. Consequently, all the necessary measures and proper solutions to all the stakeholders are provided in the recommendation section.


  • ADO – Assistant District Officer
  • CAC – Christ Apostolic Church
  • DCPD – Dutsin-Ma Cotton Processing Company
  • ECWA – Evangelist Church of West Africa
  • ERC – Education Resource Center
  • ETF – Education TET-Fund
  • IJMB – Interim Joint Matriculation Board
  • ICT – Information and Communication Technology
  • KTARDA – Katsina State Agricultural and Rural Development Authority
  • LGEA – Local Government Education Authority
  • NCE – Nigeria Certificate in Education
  • NECO – National Examination Council
  • OP – Out Patients
  • RCC – Reynolds Construction Company
  • SSCE – Senior School Certificate Examination
  • UPE – Universal Primary Education
  • UBEB – Universal Basic Education Board
  • HRH – His Royal Highness
  • IKCOE – Isa Kaita College of Education

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Abbreviation
  • Table of Contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

General Background Of The Study

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Aim and Objective of Study
  • 1.4 Significant of the study
  • 1.5 Source of data and Methodology
  • 1.6 Scope and Limitation of Study
  • 1.7 Conceptual clarification
  • 1.8 Literature review
  • Conclusion
  • Endnotes

Chapter Two:

Land And People Of Dutsinma Town

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Geography of Dutsin-Ma town
  • 2.2.1 Location
  • 2.2.2 Weather and Climate
  • 2.2.3 Vegetation
  • 2.2.4 Soil
  • 2.2.5 Origin and Migration of the People
  • 2.3 Economy of the Area
  • 2.3.1 Agriculture
  • 2.3.2 Trade
  • 2.3.3 Traditional Industries
  • 2.3.4 Modern Industries
  • 2.4 Socio-Political Organization
  • 2.4.1 Islamic Education
  • 2.4.2 Early Western Education
  • 2.4.3 Religion
  • 2.4.4 Social Amenities
  • 2.4.5 Pre-Colonial Administration
  • 2.4.6 Colonial Administration
  • 2.4.7 Local Government Council
  • Conclusion
  • Endnotes

Chapter Three:

Development Of Western Education In Dutsin-Ma Town 1976-1987

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Historical Development of Western Education in Dutsin-Ma Town
  • 3.3 Historical Background of Dutsin-Ma Education Authority
  • 3.4 Role of Kaduna State in the Provision of Western Education in Katsina
  • 3.5 Role of Dutsin-Ma in the Development of Education
  • Conclusion
  • Endnotes

Chapter Four:

Dutsin-Ma Town As A Center Of Educational Activities 1976-2015

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 The Impact of Educational Development in Dutsin-Ma Town
  • 4.3 Social Impact
  • 4.4 Economic Impact
  • 4.5 Political Impact
  • Conclusion
  • Endnotes

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion and Recommendation
  • 5.3 Bibliography

Chapter One

Background Of The Study

1.1 Introduction

The role of education in the development and transformation of human societies all over the world in the course of history cannot be overemphasized. This is because it is the wheel and hub which have propelled development and transformed the world to in all spheres. Education is important and central for societal development. Education has been the force behind the progress of all cultures and civilizations. However, western style of education came to “Ma” in the 20th century. This led to series of changes and development that transformed the society of “Ma”, even though it has its own limitations.

The introduction of Western style of education in Nigeria with the arrival of Wesleyan Christian Missionaries in Badagry in 1842.[i] It played an active role in the provision of formal education for the people. Between 1842 and 1914,[ii]about ten different Christian missions arrived in Nigeria, and began intensive missionary and educational work. Schools were built for the purpose of disseminating education and conversion of people to Christianity. The missions began to struggle for pupils/members such that there was a proliferation of primary schools established by different missions.

The education received was limited to 4Rs i.e reading, writing, arithmetic and religion.[iii] This new missionary education prepared the recipient for new job opportunities in colonial service such as teachers, clerks, messenger and interpreters. Emphasis was placed on character training, most of the missions established primary schools with little emphasis laid on secondary and higher education, at the initial stage.[iv]

Before 1940, Western education spread in schools through organized learning programs. Informal education is the learning which occurs outside the school programs in the south. Western education reached the northern part of the country when a missionary school was established at Lokoja in 1865. In 1865 the Bishop Crowther LGA Primary School was established in Lokoja, Kogi State by the Anglican missionary. It was then extended to other parts of northern states.[v]

Following the emergence of Katsina Kingdom in the 15th century, the capital was noted as a citadel of learning. This development is associated with the introduction of Islam in West Africa around the 14th century or much earlier. However, according to some oral traditions and Henry Barth, Katsina Kingdom came into being during the early part of 13th century with a ruling dynasty at Abuttai (when the seat of power was at Abuttai) where Katsina is presently situated.[vi] Thus the history of Katsina Kingdom can be fully understood when we look at the coming of Islam in Katsina even though the precise date of it is not known i.e. when Islam was first introduced.[vii].

Thus, western type of education developed faster in the South than in the North of Nigeria because of the skepticism about the impact of Christian missionary education. By 1914, it was estimated that about 25,000 Quranic schools were already in existence all over Northern Nigeria. But, by 1910 Industrial School (Technical or Clerical School) was established in Katsina and in 1916 and in 1930 girl’s school was established. The arrival of Christian Western education met stiff opposition. However, missionaries did succeed to establish schools at times, in collaboration with colonial Government. For instance, Gidado Primary School was established in 1927 followed Babban Ruga Primary School in 1937 in Katsina. The colonialists were not keenon establishing schools that was why they did not impose it the way they imposed other colonial policies.

Thus, the introduction of Western style of education to Northern Nigeria was done in early 1900s. Moreover, Western Education was rejected in the North because there was an established indigenous Islamic education, which made it difficult for the Muslim areas to readily accept western education, which was being introduced and promoted by the Christian missionaries.

More so, the development of Western Education in the North could be traced back to Reverend Richardson, J.C.D. Ryder, J.K Burgin and Dr. W.R.S. Miller who requested Governor Lord Lugard to allow them into the new protectorate in order to establish missions in Kano and Ilorin. Thus, the permission was granted, but the mission, which was led by Mr. Tugwell in 1899 was rebuffed by the Emirs of Kano and Ilorin. The mission therefore moved to Zaria where they were allowed to remain at Girku and later Wusasa. Dr. Miller established a boy’s schools to enable him educate the sons of Emirs for the purpose of Lord Lugard’s so-called Indirect Rule policy. Moreover, with the rejection of Christian Missionaries, the Colonial government stepped in and established schools. And it was this kind of situation that gave birth to Elementary Schools and Katsina College in 1922 whereby majority of the pupils/students were sons of emirs, district and village heads, Emirate Councilors and people close to royalty.
Thus, in the early 1910s, elementary schools were established in various districts of the Northern Province. The subjects taught in the school were: Reading, Writing, English, Hygiene and Religion and the teachers were graduate of Makarantar Dan Hausa.

Thus, the government in a bid to provide the necessary manpower for the colonial administration established Provincial Primary School which superseded the Elementary schools which its curriculum is highly limited. Between 1912 and 1918, Provincial schools were established in not only Katsina but Sokoto, Kano, Bida, Zaria and Birnin Kebbi. Also, a change in educational policy in Northern Nigeria brought about the establishment of Middle Schools to replace the provincial schools. By 1931, with the commission of the Bauchi middle school, the establishment of middle schools was completed in the region. Thus, the Middle School (which is just like today’s Junior Secondary school) was placed between the Elementary schools and the College, which is the secondary school.

The Elementary school was a kind of school established by colonial government in 1910 for the sons of emirs, chiefs and the malams, and also for apprentices or anyone who could pay for his materials and the school fees is 1/ 2/6d a month. Then there is another type of elementary school for the commoners with intents to teach inferior type of education and the art of crafting. The chief’s son’s school was a boarding school. The age of the pupil in those schools varied from 5 to 25. The curriculum was religion, English, arithmetic, reading, drawing, nature study, geography and hygiene. The instruction was given by the Director of Education and the Superintendents of schools and by a regular staff of local teachers, who themselves received regular instructions from the Europeans staff. Funds for running the schools, including capital projects, came from native treasury. The salaries of European instructors came from the government while, those of Nigerian instructors from the native treasuries.

Note, before the elementary school was abolished (phased out), it comprised of classes I to IV, and was terminal for the majority of pupils. Some of the pupils who completed their elementary school were selected, usually by means of competitive examination, to go to a preparatory or ‘remove’ class of provincial middle school, which was a two to four year post-elementary or primary course leading to award of a middle IV certificate. The idea of ‘remove’ class was to give the pupils a sound foundation and remedial program before proceeding to classI in a middle school. The middle I and II became known as senior primary, while middle III and IV became forms I and II of the secondary school. The middle school was re-organized in 1951 to bring about comparable standards in Southern and Northern schools of Nigeria. The financing of the middle schools came from the Native Authority Treasuries, and grants from the Regional Government were merged with those of the Native Authorities Graduates of the Old Katsina College made up the staff of the middle schools.

Thus, the first significant development in secondary education after 1950 was the conversion and upgrading of middle schools, first to junior secondary schools and later to full secondary schools. The process which began in 1953 was completed in 1966. Not only were the middle school upgraded to secondary status, their facilities were simultaneously expanded, resulting in a steady increase in enrolments. More so, sources reveal that, secondary school education in the North started with the establishment of Katsina College in 1922. The college was entirely run by expatriates except for two indigenous staff who graduated from the Hans Vischer School in Kano and who were teaching Arabic and Islamic Studies. In 1938, it was transferred to Kaduna and named Kaduna College. It was again transferred to Zaria as Government College Zaria and later renamed Barewa College Zaria.

The fund of the school come from affected provinces who paid 5 pounds monthly to the school authority, for the up keep of the college, as well as for the visit of the college students on vacation to Lagos. The subject taught includes English, Mathematics, History, Geography and Education (Principles and practices). In terms of administrative structure, the college had principal, deputy principal, subject heads, administrative staff, bursar, laborers, cleaners etc. The principal reported to the Provincial Education Officer who in turn reported to the Director of Education at the Regional Education Ministry in Kaduna.

The establishment of Gidado primary school in 1927, Babban Ruga primary school in 1937, three primary schools was also added in 1961 namely: Ummarun Dallaje (Sararin Kuka) primary school, Farin Yaro primary school, and Garama (Jabiru Abdullahi) primary school, Dan Marna primary school 1963, New Girls Day primary school 1965, Government Day Secondary School Katsina (today known as GDSS Kofar Yandaka) in 1977, Government Day Secondary School Kofar Sauri in 1980, Government Day Secondary School (Natsinta) in 1984, Katsina College of Arts, Science and Technology (KCAST) was established in 1973, Federal College of Education, Katsina 1976, and Katsina College in 1922 (known to be the oldest institution of higher learning in northern Nigeria). It was declared a Historic Monument on April 23, 1959.among others have impacted greatly in producing Prominent personalities, like Sir Ahmadu Bello, former premier of Northern Nigeria, Tafawa Balewa, the first prime Minister of Nigeria in the first republic, Sir Kashim Ibrahim, Murtala Mohammed, Yakubu Gowon, Shehu Shagari, Muhammad Abdulkadir Tsagem (TSACEM) and others had their post-primary education at the College.

Western education was introduced into Northern Nigeria by the British, following its conquest in 1903 and the need for the British to employ clerks, messengers and interpreters among others, which marked another stage in the so called Western style of Education. From 18th century, indigenous Katsina Islamic scholars had started emerging such as Waliyan Dan masani and Waliyan Dan marna. The emergence of these indigenous scholars marked another epoch in the development of Islamic learning in Katsina. This continue when Nigeria attained her independence in 1960. Consequently, education continues to receive paramount attention as part of the effort made by government of the first republic to enhance social and national development in the country and Dutsin-ma in particular. This work would attempt to draw out attention to some of the significant issues which reveal how inseparable the state of learning was in Dutsin-ma.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Statement of the research problem is the foundation of any research work. This is because every historical epoch has its peculiar problem. The choice of choosing this research is been influence by various factors this include:

  1. To show to what extent Western education impacted on “Ma”
  2. To trace the factors responsible for the state of Western Education in “Ma” Town.

Though much has been written concerning western education in different areas, societies and communities in Nigeria. Not much work of historical relevance on Western education has been done on “Ma” in this aspect. Thus far, there have not been available written literature on Western education in “Ma” Town, this have made materials limited for the conduct of the research. The interest on the impact of western education over the years prompted the research on the subject matter in order to understand how it impacted both positively and negatively on the people of “Ma”.


  1. How did the first set of Western Education Institution came to “Ma”
  2. What influenced the schools?
  3. Who were the early beneficiaries in “Ma”.
  4. Why is “Ma” regarded as a center of educational activities etc!

1.3 Aim And Objectives Of The Study

The aim of this study is to reconstruct and trace the history of Western education in “Ma” Town 1976-2015. The objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. To trace the history of “Ma” Town as a background to the study
  2. To examine how western education has impacted individual and the society at large within our period of study.

1.4 Significance Of The Study

The history of Western education in “Ma” Town 1976-2015, is of historical importance to the study of “Ma”, because it will help people towards understanding how education was introduced in “Ma” and the role the town played as an education center in the Emirate. The study would therefore be a reference material to individuals, students and general public, as well as open up avenues for further research on the socio-economic history of Katsina and other related fields.

1.5 Methodology

The research method entails the collection of several sources which would be used in study. Generally, two major important sources will be used in this research work, primary sources (oral interview and archival materials) and secondary sources (published books, article, unpublished books like PhD, M.As B.A etc). The primary sources include oral interview with some officials of the local government education board, former and present principals and teachers, students and indigenes of “Ma” among others. Secondary sources that include published and unpublished books which includes journals as well as magazines, B.A projects, M.A dissertation. PhDs thesis that has direct bearing on the study. Libraries would be visited in schools like Isa Kaita College of Education, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina, Hassan Usman Polytechnic Katsina, Federal University “Ma” and the Department of Works, “Ma” Local Government would also be visited and relevant materials would be consulted, Katsina State Brue of Historical Studies, National Museum in Katsina.

1.6 Scope And Limitation

The period of the study is 1976. Western education activities in “Ma” started in the year 1929-1976 marked the period Western education reached its peak in terms of educational development and establishment of more schools. In the process of conducting this research study one problem or the other would be encountered. Due to the inadequacy of the researcher in speaking Hausa as the major language in “Ma” would delay the researcher’s accessibility to places where interviews will be conducted. Nevertheless, the researcher will do everything possible to overcome the problems by travelling to places within the study area in order to retrieve vital information for the work.

1.7 Conceptual Clarification

The concept to be viewed concerning this study is education. Concepts are the basic theme or aspects of any study, as the entire study depend largely on the understanding of the concepts.


In the study of education, to understand the concept from a complex some scholars have provided a clear picture of the concept of defining education

Marx K Smith explores the meaning of education, as a process of inviting truth and possibility. It can be defined as the wise, hopeful and restful cultivation of learning undertaken in the belief that all should have the chance to share in life.

1.8 Literature Review

Literature review means the reviewing of past literature with a view to showing the strength and weakness of each or where gaps exist to be filled in. Quite a number of literature have been documented on history of Dutsin-Ma town, but none has a direct bearing on the history of Western Education in Dutsin-Ma town from 1976-2015. Consequently attempts have been done through reviewing literatures dealing with the history of Dutsin-Ma town and Katsina Emirate with a view to filling in the gap.

The work of Muhammad Dikko,“Emire of Katsina and his times 1865-1944”,LaboYari also provides another inspirational source of information. It also began with the ancient history of Katsina up to the jihad. However the bulk of the work by LadoYari could simply be seen as the continued sequence of events from the jihad in Hausa land especially in Katsina emirate and the emergence of Emire Muhhamed Dikko in Katsina. Hence it was during his regime that “Ma” was established as a colonial district in Katsina Emirate.

Y.K. Lawals work titled “The history of “Ma””,Gaskiya publishers 1998traces the origin in development and transformation of “Ma” Town. It highlighted played role played by several elements in the development of the town, such areas covered in the work included Shema, Karofi, Sabki and other cluster of hamlets. He attempts to trace the origin of Yandaka, title from the jihad period in Katsina, linking it with the coming of the colonialists and subsequently related it to the offfical transfer of a fraction of the jihad leaders from within theBirni in Katsina to “Ma”. However, this work has fallen short of outlining the role of the Yandaka title holders in running the affairs of theKatsina emirate and their contribution towards the development of western education in”Ma” Town.
In a study by Kabir on “The origin and development of plastic industry in “Ma””, the author discussed the contribution of Shema plastic industry as an important center of business and production. The author explains how the industry contributes toward the development of “Ma” economically, socially, and politically. However the author is silent on Isa Kaita collage of education. This study will show the role played by the establishment of institutions and its impact in “Ma” town.

Kabir write on the Social-economic characteristics and use of information andcommunication technology (ICT) in Dutsinam local government area. He stated that the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in different areas of human endeavors brought benefit not only to the individuals but also to stake holders in the communication industry. It identifies information and communication technology (ICT) as one of the major contributory factor to the Nigeria economy. It brings many benefits ranging from creation of employment opportunity, increasing productivity and cheaper communication to discovering rural and urban migration and enhancing the socio-economic ties among rural farmers. The role of Isa KaitaCollege of Education in enhancing socio and economic activitiesin “Ma” is not the concern of the writer. This work will throw more light on that.

The Newsletter produced by Isa Kaita College of Education “Ma” focuses on the academic progress achieved annually and the problem in the college as well as affecting the institution. The new settlers never touched on how the institution affect the social history of “Ma” town, observes that the establishment of institution is one of the phenomenon used in many of the developing countries like Nigeria in particular from rapid urban growth. To this end the researcher intend to show the establishment of the Isa Kaita College of education “Ma”contributes to urbanization in “Ma” town.

Another relevant work to this research is the B.A project of Zainab Lawal Bature “Ma”, titled Balangoggo and his Times. Although the work gave much attention on the biography of Yandaka title. She also discussed how Muhammed Dikko the eldest son of Mallam Na Alhaji and his immediate successors moved out from Katsina city and settled Kawami at in 1861. The work also discussed the migration of Yadakawa Hassan to Sanki (later re-named Tsauri) and how it remained the headquarters of the Yandakawa for about eighty-four years. However, this research work has not discussed the developmental structure of western education in “Ma” town. All the same is an important source in this research.

According to Buhari K, in his book “The History and development of the Yandakawa District”, in his study in the history of Yandakawa in “Ma” town, Buhari traces the emergence of “Ma” town and the settlement of the Yandakawa. He also discusses the role played by the Yandakawa in the administration of “Ma” District town. The author did not emphasize on the role of Western education in the town as it was not his concern. Thus this study intends to fill in this gap by showing the policies introduced by successive government to promote Western education in “Ma” town.

Another major work consulted for this research is the book of FafunwaA.B; entitled “History of Education in Nigeria” The author divided the book into chapters. Chapter one is on the traditional African education, chapter two, muslim education in Nigeria, chapter three on the coming of missionaries, chapter four, the beginning of modern education (1842-1929), chapter five, Educational expansion, chapter six, the era of self-determination in education (1951-1970), chapter seven, the Nigerian of Educational system, chapter eight, the new National policy on education, chapter nine, educational trends (1990-1992). This research will benefit immensely from the book particularly chapter five, educational expansion. The work is rich in details and comprehensive, but our study area was not treated in some details. However, the work was useful in reconstructing the early history of Federal Government Girls College Bakori. This study intends to fill in the gap by showing the role introduced by the successive government to promote Western education in “Ma” Town.

Kware B.B in his work entitled “Female education in Northern Nigeria”: A Study of the Genesis and spread of Western Education among females in the Sokoto Emirate 1930-1990” is reviewed. The study discusses extensively female education in pre-colonial era with special emphasis on how the Jihad of 1804 facilitated female education more especially through Yantaru movement (an effective mass education program for women in the caliphate). The author examines the beginning of Western education, starting from the southern part to the Northern portion of the country. Such institutions as Kano Girls Centre, Katsina Girls Centre and the Sokoto Girls Centre established for female education as well as many problems faced in the campaigns for female education during colonial era were all discussed in the study. Female education in the post-colonial period; from Northernization policy down to Ashby Reform as well as UPE and Post-UPE era would also be examined. The author does not tell us, in town. This work will fill the gap by showing and also to promote Western Education in “Ma” Town.

Adamu A.T. in his work entitled, “Western Education, political power and cleavage in Northern Nigeria 1900-1960” is a detailed study on the origins and development of Western education in northern Nigeria. The author examines among other things, the beginning of full-scale participation in education and the expansion of schools in Northern Nigeria, African response to Western education as well as the collaboration between educated elites and chiefs in reform movements in northern Nigeria. This work provides us with some ideas about the rejection of Western education in northern Nigeria as a whole. In effect, in its effort to examine the introduction and development of Western education in Bakori special consideration would be given towards understanding the response of Bakori people to Western education when it was introduced. The work is very useful reference materials to our area of study, for it will show and outline some of the policies introduced by successive government to promote Western education in “Ma” Town.

Dayyabu discusses extensively about the existence of Dutsin-Ma as a Hamlet under Karofi until 1850’s, when it was transformed to be part of Shema village. The author added that, by 1925 Dutsin-Ma town came under the control of ‘Yandakawa’. He also shows that Zakka, Kurfi, Shema, and Karofi are older than Dutsin-Ma historically. Western Education which contributed to the development of Dutsin-Ma town was not discussed.

Lugga S.A. “The Twin Universities”. The book divided it into six chapters. Chapter one, establishment of Goborau, Chapter two, Gobarau as a Mosque, Chapter three, Gobarau as a university, Chapter four, Decline of Gobarau, chapter five, Al-Kashinawi scholars, Chapter one, is on the establishment of Gobarau is found relevant material to the research. “There is ample evidence to suggest that at a certain period in its history, the Gobarau mosque had served as school (Madrasa in Arabic) or even a king of university. Indeed, the tradition of making a mosque to serve not only as a prayer house but also as a school and a town hall is still upheld in many parts of the Muslim world. The difference of this book and the present research work is that, the book is on the history of early centers of Islamic learning in Katsina, where as the research works is on the Federal Government Girls College Bakori. The author limits itself on Islamic learning, and did not throw more light on Western education, on the Katsina Emirate. This work will fill in the gap by showing the development of Western education and its impact on the people of “Ma” and Katsina Emirate.

Another work on education of importance to this study is the book titled “Education in Northern Nigeria” by Ozigi A. and Ocho L. gives an understanding of the Christian missions and education in northern Nigeria. Despite the fact that the book did not place emphasis in catholic education in northern Nigeria, it tells us of the unsuccessful attempt by the catholic mission in the Benin area in the fifteenth century by the Portuguese missionaries. Chapter two of this book is found relevant in telling us an account of how the various schools used education as an important tool for development and civilization. The work, it has weakness to the research because it does not highlight extensively the secondary school education. This work will fill in the gap in showing the role, Western education plays in the development of secondary schools in “Ma” town.

Kofar Sauri, in his study of Dutsin-Ma town discusses extensively about the movement of Yandakawa from Mani to Kwami near Katsina and finally to Dutsin-Ma town where they became the dominant rulers. The study stopped at 19… as such he did not mention anything about the development and contributions of Western Education to the area.

Lastly, Yahaya emphasizes on the importance and political overview of Zobe Dam. The writer also glimpses on the socio-economic roles of the Dam on Dutsin-Ma people. Obviously, the contribution of Western Education seems not to be the concern of the writer.


This chapter has highlighted on the history of Western education in “Ma” town ranging from its historical evolution and transformation. It gave brief information on the state of the problem, aim and objectives, significance of the study, sources of data and methodology, scope and limitation, literature review, conclusion and lastly the end note.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This chapter sums up the study by giving a general conclusion of the research work. It examine the issues of notable significance based on the work. The project work is aimed at bringing to the knowledge of researchers, students and the general public the nature and contemporary development that had occurred due to the establishment of western education, which had led to the establishment and development of schools in Dutsin-Ma area. The choice of this area of research was due to the fact that much has not been written concerning the study area and most available literature on the area lacked historical analysis. This research used both primary and secondary sources and adopted narrative and behavioral scientific approaches in explaining the subject matter.

The second chapter discussed briefly the history of Dutsin-Ma, its origin and development. It pointed out the changes it went through during colonial government administration and then the local government reforms of 1976 that turned the area into a local government of its own and its development. The chapter further discussed the economic activities engaged in the area which led to diffusion of various people from Nigeria and even Africa at large. Other issues discussed include social activities such as education, religion etc.

The third chapter focused on the historical development of western education in Dutsin-Ma Town. The issue of development no doubt remains sensitive and in no small way, this study will help in understanding issues of the development of western form of education in Nigeria in general and Dutsin-Ma in particular. It examined the historical background of Dutsin-Ma education authority which remained as a binding force in the promotion of education in Dutsin-Ma area. The chapter also discussed the role of Kaduna State in the provision of western education in Katsina, which was a major reason for the migration of people to the area that bound the people together in the area, it was discovered that this promoted not only relations among the people, but also led to diffusion between the host community and the migrants. And lastly, it also looked at the role of Dutsin-Ma in the development of education to its people.

The fourth chapter examines the impact of educational development in Dutsin-Ma. It emphasized on the contributions of western education to the development of the area. The role it played in the economy which has expanded business/trade, and opened the host community to new aspects of artisanship. Also the establishment of schools have also trained a lot of indigenes in this area which has reduced lack of jobs and developed the economy in various ways. The chapter also discussed the relationship between the host community and the migrants which has led to inter-marriage, socio-cultural relations etc. the migrants has also had great impact on the education and health sector which has become a binding factor in their relation with each other.

5.2 Conclusion And Recommendation

No society in the world history exists as an island. In several ways, the people of Dutsin-Ma have encountered and engaged in different levels relationship ranging from economic, marriage, education and socio-cultural integration. The indigenes and the non-indigenes of the area have engaged in long period of integration in the history of Dutsin-Ma. The socio-cultural tolerance and religious affinity among the host community and the migrants have led to integration and developments in the area. The economic relationship by the two groups have serve as a binding force and led to development of the economy and has reduced poverty through the establishment of western form of education. The peace that has existed between the host community and the migrants has impacted in numerous ways to the development of Dutsin-Ma. The cordial relationship has helped in the exchange of educational expertise, socio-cultural diffusion which has impacted on the moral and discipline of the area.

The study found out that the relationship between the people of Dutsin-Ma have been cordial over the years although there have not been any migrant that has occupied any political office in Dutsin-ma. This shows that there are still traces of discrimination. When it comes to politics ethnic barrier sets in, especially when it’s a person with an opposite religion.

To eliminate these kind of issues as seen above in this area, there is need for the establishment of a more humane social order which can be achieved through increased utilization of the intellectual resources of the area by encouraging social research and using the results for solving social problems which of course include those relating to inter-group relations and the establishment of more schools. This will help in further understanding of the integral nature of the relations between the host community and the migrants.

To further reduce discrimination there is the need for a concerted effort to bring about cross cultural awareness among the people in the Dutsin-Ma and Nigeria in general. Thus, the need for study of the history of the people of Nigeria, their culture and religious should be made compulsory at all level of educational system. Efforts should also be geared towards enhancing interaction between the ethnic and religious group in the area.

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Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.