A History Of Agricultural Development Project, 1987 – 2000

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A History Of Agricultural Development Project, 1987 – 2000


Abstract


This study has examined the history of Kaduna State Agricultural Development Project (KADP) in Kaduna State. The study found out that the activities of KADP have impact on lives of the Kaduna State indigenous farmers who were known to be traditional farmers. They heavily relied on subsistence farming for a couple of centuries. However, the emergence of the KADP in 1987 brought more agricultural changes in their lives as it introduced new agricultural programmes that improved the harvest yields in the area. More interestingly by the year 2000, the KADP programmes have improved the standard of living as well as general socio-economic activities of the agrarian communities in Kaduna State.However, this development was mainly achieved due to the involvement of other agricultural-based governmental and non-governmental organisations like The Federal Government of Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in Zaria, Institute of Agricultural Research and West African Agricultural Productivity Programme among others.


Chapter One


General Background

1.1 Background of the Study

Without any doubt, agriculture is one of the necessities for the growth and development of any particular country. This is because agriculture has some links with other sectors like the industrial sector and also peoples economic growth and development. However, agriculture involves the cultivation of land, raising and rearing of animals for the purpose of food for man, feed for animals and raw materials for industries. Agriculture involves cropping, livestock, forestry and fishing, processing and marketing of these agricultural products. Broadly, agriculture can be classified as crop production, livestock, forestry and fishing. Thus, the importance of agriculture in society goes beyond it being a source of food and raw materials for industries to provision of job opportunities and a source of foreign exchange. However, agricultural extension was ascribed by the colonial government as one of the important activities for economic take off in Nigeria.

Agriculture is the mostly widespread activity, it serves as a means of livelihood for more than quarter of mankind, raw material for factories, which human beings depend upon and for feeding the agro allied industries. The surplus is sold to purchase other necessities of life such as clothes, can food, electric cookers, stoves, refrigerator, cables, satellite, television sets and radio sets among others. Many industries will shut down without agriculture. Despite the work of science and technology, the world is a dead place without food. Agricultural development through the adoption of new farm input, technological knowhow, rural roads facilities. Rural electrification enhances increase in food production, provide employment, obviate rural urban drift as well as improve standard of living of the rural populace and social status. Government strategies to increase farm income of the rural farmers is designed in such a way that farmers input are scientifically and technologically improved to bring about greater output. Before the 1960s, Nigeria former regional governments namely the North, West, East, and Mid¬-west, undertook different policies and specialization method of producing different crops within their territorial bound. This has shown that before the advent of the “oil boom”, the major foreign exchange earner for Nigeria was the sale of agricultural products such as cocoa, groundnut, cotton, coffee, rubber, palm oil and soya beans. But it was reported that even though the Federal Government currently derives most of its foreign exchange from petroleum, the earnings from agricultural export could still be much higher if appropriate and sustained policies are applied to the sector. In Nigeria, the year 1960-68 marked the period of agricultural development, to accelerate food production, generate foreign exchange and increase country’s balance of trade in the international market, projects were empowered to distribute seed, establishing cooperative farmers association and plantation units, provides extension farm centre, introduce modern farming techniques, industries for processing agricultural produce such as cotton, groundnut, maize, and palm oil. The second period of agricultural was between the years 1970-1980, was a period of prosperity and oil boom, agricultural development constraints have taken myriad dimensions ranging from physical problems such as lack of incentive, poor return, low yield of output, lack of fertilizer. Other problems include erratic rainfall, long unset and short upset of rain drought. There were also economic problems such as lack of capital and good transport and communication network, very little or no incentive to farmers to produce more, poor marketing/low pricing problems of agricultural productivity. Nigerian agriculture has been characterized by small scale production. This characteristic has led to low income hence, the farmers cannot afford yield increasing technologies and consequently experienced low output. Due to low incomes and output, the levels of investment in farms have been very low, forming a cycle called “vicious cycle of poverty” (Ezeh, 2007; Ajibefun and Aderinola, 2004). In order to break this cycle and improve the performance of the agricultural sector, the Nigerian governments, over the years, introduced and implemented several policies and programmes aimed at revamping the sector. Prominent amongst these programmes is the Agricultural Development Programme (ADPs) previously funded via a tripartite arrangement of the World Bank, the Federal Government and the State governments. The ADP is perhaps the boldest step taken by the Federal Government of Nigeria to develop the agricultural sector of the economy. Thus the ADP became a central motive force for direct investment by government on small holder agriculture (Igwe et al, 1997; kalu, 2000; Ezeh et al, 2006) The ADPwas designed to improve the traditional systems of production and raise productivity by transfer of relevant and proven production technologies to farmers, easing constraints on imputs supplies and provision of rural infrastructure (Obasi, 1995) Strategies for achieving the ADP objectives in the crop sub-sector are usually the employment of Onfarm Adaptive Research (OFAR) and Small Plot Adoption Technique (SPAT) (Ezeh, 2007). These are achieved under the umbrella of the Training and visit (T and V) system of extension with male and female contact farmers as the centre piece of all extension actions. A contact farmer (male or female) is a progressive and receptive farmer trained by the village Extension Agent (V. E. A) on the new practices and through whom information is communicated to other rural farmers within the rural Community (Dimelu, 2002; Oriaku, 2008) Despite numerous policies and programmes geared towards improving the living standards of Nigerians, it has been difficult to stem the growth of rural poverty especially among the women (Adegeye, 1999; Ezeh, 2007). Despite the disproportionate agricultural roles played by the women contact farmers, they have remained seriously disadvantaged with respect to access to health, education, finance and credit, agricultural extension services, other productive resources and training opportunities. This, according to World Bank (1996), is as a result of the legal, regulatory, cultural and structural barriers that have made women contact farmers’ status to be generally lower than men. These have interacted to make women contact farmers more dependent on men contact farmers and have led to the evolution of a rigid division of labour and labour market highly segregated by gender. Men generally own and manage family land, incomes and women’s labour thereby restricting women’s ability to acquire new ideas, skills, contacts and employment outside the home, making men the sole s beneficiary of economic development (Ezeh, 2007). This unequal access to resources has made rural poverty to be synonymous with women. World Bank (1996) and Ayobatele and Amudipe (1999) confirmed that the depth and severity of rural poverty is highest in polygamous households affecting a large number of women in both rural and urban areas of Nigeria. The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) rural poverty study revealed that the number of rural women living in absolute poverty in developing countries including Nigeria is on the increase (U.N. 1980). This makes it imperative to determine literally the impact of the ADP on rural women (women contact farmers and women non contact farmers) in Aguata Agricultural Zone of Kaduna State, Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Within the context of development paradigms postulated in the field of agriculture, communication, sociology and economics there are evidences to show that changes are taking place in the agricultural sector across the globe. Therefore, such changes can be viewed from contributions of agriculture to the national economies of various countries in form of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, the general goal of development initiatives is total transformation in the quality of the life of the people or target beneficiaries of development programmes.It is in view of this that the researcher intend to examine the history of agricultural development project in Nigeria.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the history of agricultural development in Nigeria;
But to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intend to achieve the following specific objective;

  1. To examine the effect of agricultural development project on the growth of agricultural sector in Nigeria
  2. To ascertain the role of government in ensuring sustainability of food security in Nigeria
  3. To examine the relationship between agricultural development project and food security in the state
  4. To access the impact of agricultural development project of on farmers productivity

1.4 Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study:

  1. H0: there is no significant relationship between agricultural development project and food security in the state
    H1: there is a significant relationship between agricultural development project and food security in the state
  2. H0: agricultural development project does not have any impact on farmers productivity
    H2: agricultural development project does have an impact on farmers productivity

1.5 Significance of the Study

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the ministry of agriculture as the study will help in policy formulation and implementation of agricultural development project in the state, the study will also be of importance to farmers who may not be aware of government agricultural development project, that will aid higher productivity of farm and agricultural produce. The study will also be of great importance to researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to further research on the subject matter, finally the study will be of great importance to student, lecturers teachers and the general public as the findings will contribute to knowledge and also add to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers history of agricultural development project in Nigeria. But in the cause of the study, there were some factors that limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Finance:

Limited Access to the required finance makes it difficult to broaden the scope of the study


1.7 Operational Definition of Terms

Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life

Development

Development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people. The term has been used frequently by economists, politicians, and others in the 20th and 21st centuries.

History

History is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and also recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to examine the historical agricultural development project.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of agricultural development project in Nigeria.


5.2 Summary

The ADP should evolve an arrangement for using multiple farmer contact methods. Use of group approach and employment of existing rural communication patterns are policy options that should be pursued. This would enhance effective contact and facilitate farmers’ participation in agro-technology transfer services of the ADP. Examined as an agro-technology system, we observe that the linkage between technology generation and technology transfer sub-systems was weak in the system and strong in the university system. The ADP, as an agro-technology transfer system is a relatively younger organization, compared with the cooperating technology generating agencies. Most of the research agencies generating agro-technology for it were established in the 1960s and the cooperating ADPs were established in the 1980s. Our observation points to the difference in age of the agencies as an important issue that reduced cooperation between the sub-systems. The research agencies perceived the ADP as a relatively young and inferior agency to deal with. Consequently, its capability as an agro-technology transfer system to meet with the challenges of establishing new inter-organizational relationship with agro-research agencies, was absent.


5.3 Conclusion

It is no longer news that Nigerian society is segregated in such a way that the urban sector is controlled by small influential group of elites who are better-off economically and more educated and control the industries as well as hold key government positions. On the other hand, the sub-urban segment is made of the slums and areas inhabited by the illiterate or half educated citizens forced out of the rural sectors by the pull and push factors, particularly, harsh realities of economic deprivation. Rural areas are large in population and land area. They are characterized by traditional practices, hopelessness and fatalism, very poor, and lack the basic necessities that make life worthwhile (lack motorable roads, medical facilities, schools are almost absent because where they even exist, there are inadequate teachers, lack furniture with poor attendance records and they predominantly practice subsistence agriculture). In the process, monitoring and evaluation should be fully integrated into the project. While target beneficiaries should form the cardinal point of the evaluation process, the gains and outcomes in both social and economic perspectives should form the principal indicators in the process of evaluation. No matter what happens or befall Nigerian agriculture today, it will turn out to be the savior of the nation’s social and economic doldrums in the nearest future. Finally, policy direction in rural and agricultural development programmes should be integrated with target beneficiaries seen as active rather than passive participants. Hence, the development of both human and economic capital in the face of social and cultural challenges should have human face and sympathy.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made: The scope of the Agricultural Development Programmes (ADP) in Aguata Agricultural Zone of Anambra State and Nigeria in general should be enlarged to accommodate more willing rural women farmers as evidence had shown that the ADP impacted positively and significantly on some economic indices of the women contact farmers. Deliberate massive fund injection in the form of loan should be extended to the rural women farmers as evidence had shown that the level of poverty experienced even by the women contact farmers was high. Increased funding has the attendant effect of empowering the women to venture into new fieldsof agricultural investments such as processing and value addition that would increase their net returns and increase production and productivity. The governments at all levels (Federal, State and local government) should as a matter of deliberate policy initiate the policy towards the removal of all institutional, customary, and traditional inhibitions to agricultural lands by women farmers. This calls for the full operationalization of the land use Act of 1978. Increased access to land by the rural women will boost agricultural production and reduce endemic poverty


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