Heavy Metal Distribution In Sediment Of Akpabuyo Stream, Cross River Basin Southeastern Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Geology

Heavy Metal Distribution In Sediment Of Akpabuyo Stream, Cross River Basin Southeastern Nigeria


Abstract


Sediment samples were collected through the purposive sampling method from various streams in Akpabuyo L.G.A, ten sample location were selected. The concentration and areal distribution of selected metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Pb) in the sediments of Akpabuyo streams .Geo-accumulation index have been calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contamination levels. It proves that the choice of the background plays an important role in the interpretation of the geo-chemical data. It is concluded that the selected streams in Akpabuyo is uncontaminated except a metal (Cd) which it i-geo value is 1 which means it is moderately/uncontaminated.


Table of Contents


  • Abstract
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Aims and Objective
  • 1.3 Study Area
  • 1.4 Geology of the Study Area

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Literature Review

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 Materials
  • 3.2 Methodology (Field)
  • 3.3 Laboratory Methodology

Chapter Four

  • 4.1 Results and Discussions

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Summary and Conclusion
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Introduction

Heavy metals pollution of aquatic ecosystem is becoming a potential global problem, pollution typically refers to chemicals or other substance in concentration greater than it would occur under natural conditions. Water pollution is the introduction by man of substances into the aquatic environment resulting from deleterious effect as harm to human health (FAO 1990).The presence of increased level of heavy metals in the aquatic environment has been of much concern for the past decades due to adverse effect of some metals on living organisms in food chains leading to man. Pollutants are the cause of major water quality degradation around the world. Several toxic metals which are important to the environment and human health have been detected in aquatic media. These toxic metals include the non-essential meals and are no importance to humans (Borgman and Norwood 2002).

Trace amount of heavy metals are always present in fresh water from terrigenous sources such as weathering of rocks resulting into geo-chemical recycling of heavy metal elements in these ecosystem. Trace elements may be immobilised within the stream sediments and could be involved in absorption, co-precipitation and complex formation. Sometimes they are co-adsorbed with other elements as oxides, hydroxides of Fe, Mn, or may occur in particulate form.

Heavy metal may enter into aquatic ecosystem from anthropogenic sources, such as industrial wastewater discharge, sewage wastewater, fossil fuel combustion, and atmospheric deposition. Trace element in stream sediment compartment can be used to reveal the history and intensity of local and regional pollution. In this work, the of stream sediment contamination was assess using geo-accumulation index.


1.2 Aims and Objectives

The main objectives of the current study area are:

To assess the extent and degree of metals, and the origin of these metals, using the geo-accumulation index of the metals.

To determine the total content of heavy metals in surface sediments of Akpabuyo.

To estimate the anthropogenic input and to assess the pollution status on the area.


1.3 Study Area

The study area which is located in Akpabuyo, Cross River State lies between longitudes 80 22I 30II E – 80 30I 0II E and latitude 40 52I 30II N – 40 57I 30II N (fig 2). With an area of 126,4032 Square Km. Although many stream samples where collected but few was selscted for the heavy metal analysis.

The various Locations in Akpabuyo which sediment samples were collected and used to carry out the analysis are Esuk Mbat stream(L1), Esuk Ekpo Eyo Stream(L2), Ikot Akwa Stream(L3), Dan Archibong Stream(L4), Itu Stream(L5), Ikot Ndarake Stream(L6), Asioha Stream(L7), Ikot Ekpo Ene Stream(L8), Ekpene Ikot Imo Stream(L9), Ikot Nakanda(L10), and their following coordinate shown respectively (table 1.3) . It originate from a hilly region and flows through several villages and farmland.


Chapter Five


Summary and Conclusion

The study area shows that the concentrations of analysed heavy metals such as (Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co) in the sediment are slightly high and suggest no contamination level when compared with the index geo-accumulation value (Muller. G 1969).

The major source of heavy metal contamination in stream sediment are related to the consequences of population growth, urbanization, agricultural activities and uncontrolled discharge of solid waste and sewage, though we can conclude from the result that these sources will gradually increase in the study area hence impacting the surface water of Akpabuyo Streams. Another major sources of heavy metals in the streams are leaching of metals from garbage waste dumps, washing of motor bikes in streams, pouring of faeces and urinating directly into the streams etc.

Atmospheric pollution is minimal. The element may also be derived through corrosion of the numerous abandoned launches along the streams.

The study area is turning into a developing metropolis with partial increase in anthropogenic activities impacting on the stream sediment but this impact has not completely ruled out the water surface from being used for various purposes when comparing heavy metals values with Index geo-accumulation value Muller 1969. The distribution pattern of heavy metals in the streams indicate that the effluents containing the metals have not so far polluted the total area of the streams. The indication is that the area of the heavy metals in the sediments of the Akpabuyo streams present no risk to human or aquatic life. The continuous discharge of sewage into the streams will continue to increase the magnitude of metal pollution in the streams to intolerable limits and this may have a very serious impact on marine-plants and other organisms in the streams.

It is advisably to conclude that the increased concentration of heavy metals in the sediments of the Akpabuyo streams are mainly due to direct discharge of urban wastes into the streams although some were eroded from land or transported from channels and other neighbouring streams. It is therefore recommended that in order to check this trend, the municipal council should establish efficient waste- treatment and disposal systems.


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