Health Problems And The Academic Performance Of Senior Secondary School Students In The Stone Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State Nigeria

Health Education Project Material

Health Problems And The Academic Performance Of Senior Secondary School Students In The Stone Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine on health problems and the academic performance of senior secondary school students in the Stone Quarry Areas of Ebonyi State Nigeria. The study was specifically set to investigate the role nutrition plays in the health of secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State, investigate the problems associated with heath problem among secondary school students in Quarry Areas of Ebonyi State, and ascertain the factors that affects the health status of secondary school students. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of secondary school students in Ebonyi State Nigeria. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that The problems associated with heath problem among secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State includes: poor eating and hygienic condition, depression, poor quality of life, low life satisfaction and poor academic performance. Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that the factors that affect the health status of secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State includes: lack of proper knowledge on health and balanced diet practices, academic stress, financial constraint, improper perception of body image and poor environmental heigyne. Therefore, it is recommended that there is need for mass education on healthy lifestyle with a focus on proper nutrition by the school authorities and health stakeholders. This will involve the development of healthy eating habits by emitting a consistent health message to ensure that healthy food choices are made. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

A continuing debate about the influence of health education on healthy living and academic achievement has occurred since the 1960’s. It has become a bigger issue now that there are series of constraints in our nation’s schools. Decision makers often find it easy to cut health education programmes because they believe sports and health education are not overly important in the academic arena Recently, it was discovered that physical and health education was eliminated among the core subjects in many secondary schools based solely on conjecture that it has nothing to offer for the growth and academic attainment of the students. There is dearth of literature to empirically conclude on this assumption if based on knowledge of the positive effects of the programme on adolescent development. It is obvious that decision makers need to be well informed about the impact of health education on academics and health condition of adolescents before they decide to retain or eliminate it from the curriculum.

Good nutrition is necessary for good health and concern with food is of great importance if certain diseases are to be prevented. Good nutrition is closely associated with good health – how one looks and feels as well as how well one performs mentally and physically at work or at home. The body is made up of many materials. These can be supplied by a wide variety of foods to ensure good health. The body is, broadly speaking, the product of its nutrition. Therefore, it is important that daily decision-making on this important aspect of health be properly guided and not based on wrong influences (whether external or internal).

A person’s diet is made up of the food they eat. Nutrition is the way that food people eat nourishes their bodies. Good nutrition means your body is getting all the nutrients, vitamins and minerals it needs to work at its best level. Eating a healthy diet is your main way to get good nutrition. These diets should maintain growth, encourage health and be satisfying, as nutrition for students is important to the way their bodies are shaped for the rest of their lives (Nicklas and Johnson, 2014). Nutrition is what one eats and how one’s body uses it. It is one’s total daily food intake transformed into physical appearance, energy, growth and countless other body functions. Happily, one’s nutrition is in one’s hands. Your decisions really count when it comes to the food one eats. Whether one buys and prepares food to be eaten at home or one eats out, one is faced with important food choices.

The basic function of food is to keep one alive and healthy to grow and to reproduce. Food contains nutrients – components that contribute to, and in some cases uniquely provide for, biochemical and physiological functions in the body. Foods may also include non-absorbed components which may influence bowel health and function e.g. some phenolic compounds such as tannins and classes of non-starch polysaccharides (e.g. cellulose). Food may also include contaminants from unusual soil types or from industrial pollution. Heavy metals, radioactive isotopes, and microbial contamination all have potential negative health effects. Foods contain a variety of compounds which can be absorbed and which have important biological effects e.g. caffeine.

Different age groups have different nutritional needs and people’s diets should meet these specific needs. For example, the nutritional needs and diet of a pregnant woman are different from those of an elderly man. Likewise, an infant needs a different diet and nutrition than a teenager. Each of us has different nutritional needs, and these needs are constantly changing. Children’s needs are dictated, in part, by their growth patterns. Adult needs change with age. One set of rules simply cannot apply to everyone. In addition, factors such as a person’s height and current weight, current health status, and activity level also affect what kind of nutrients they need and how much they need.

Optimal nutrition is critical for the development, growth and overall health of students. It helps ensure optimal cognitive and physical development, prevent sickness and illness and promote overall health (Nicklas and Johnson, 2014). Despite the benefits of healthy eating, only 30% of youths meet the dietary recommendations for fruits, grains, meat and dairy and 36% for vegetables (Munoz, Kerbs-Smith, Ballard & Cleveland, 2017), based on the Food Guide Pyramid. Further, 16% of youths did not meet any recommendations, and a merger 1% met all recommendations (Munoz et el, 2017).

School-based programs can play an important role in promoting healthy lifestyles and diets among students — through “direct” and “indirect” avenues. These include formal health and nutrition curriculums and school lunch programs and other provisions of foods, respectively (Passmore, 2016). Several studies have shown that youths are interested in learning about nutrition and generally believe nutrition is important to good health (Murphy, Youatt, Hoerr, Sawyer & Andrews, 2014). This is of even greater importance to students, as malnutrition affects their cognitive ability, retentive capacities and health and academic performance. It is against this background that this study is carried out.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Good health requires a balance of food, vitamins and minerals (from eating a healthy diet) and physical activity. Overweight and obesity can result if things get out of balance —such as eating too much food, not getting enough physical activity or having too much of one or more nutrients in the diet. Health risks associated with being overweight or obese include type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, asthma and arthritis, among other risks. Good nutrition is a critical step in helping control your weight and preventing the risks that come from being overweight or obese.

The health of students has been slowly deteriorating over the years and this is not a new phenomenon that educators and administrators have to address. The challenges associated with making students healthier are enormous and have posed problems for political and school officials as well as educators in the front lines of this struggle. Peterson (2014) states that lack of physical activity, diet, parental involvement are all factors that are affecting the health of students today. Educators can have a direct impact on many of these areas and it is important to have a well-developed understanding of the contributing factors so appropriate decisions about interventions can be made, especially if they affect parental involvement. It is important to note that contributing factors to the health of students is not limited to in-school only. They move beyond in-school to before and after school as well.

The general topic to be discussed in this research plan is quality of health and the implication to academic performance of secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State as a case study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to evaluate health problems and the academic performance of senior secondary school students in the Stone Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State Nigeria.

The specific objectives of this study are:

  1. To investigate the role nutrition plays in the health of secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State.
  2. To investigate the problems associated with heath problem among secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State.
  3. To ascertain the factors that affects the health status of secondary school students.

1.4 Research Questions

The researcher formulated the following research questions based on the research objectives:

  1. Does nutrition play a significant role in boosting the health of secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State?
  2. What are the problems associated with heath problem among secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State?
  3. What are the factors that affect the health status of secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

HO1: There is no significant influence of health status on the academic performance of secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State.

HA1: There is a significant influence of health status on the academic performance of secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The essence of this study is to make available useful information on proper health to parents, educators, school officials and students themselves. Educators can become more aware of the problems surrounding the health of their students and implement better practices during school sessions. Parents can take this information, and implement and provide healthier food options at home during and after the school year ends. School officials can implement programs and adopt school-wide programs that will benefit the overall health of their students. Students can learn food habits that will contribute to their well-being and development. Lastly, this study will contribute to future research I related areas of study.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study focuses on evaluating health problems and the academic performance of senior secondary school students in the Stone Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State Nigeria. The secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State Nigeria will be used as the case study. The study covers the role nutrition plays in the health of secondary school students, the factors that affects the health status of secondary school students, the academic problems associated with poor health.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

One Limitation to this study would be that students are not a true random selection, because only the participating area would be random. The number of students in the study is limited to the research specification. Also, the researcher faced time and financial constraints as the study had to be combined with other academic activities as well as incurring expenses during the printing and distribution of the questionnaires.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Nutrition:

Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, and excretion.

Health:

Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Academic Performance:

Is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.

The impact of health problems on students academic performance in secondary schools


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on health problems and the academic performance of senior secondary school students in the Stone Quarry Areas of Ebonyi State Nigeria.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine on health problems and the academic performance of senior secondary school students in the Stone Quarry Areas of Ebonyi State Nigeria.The study is was specifically carried out to investigate the role nutrition plays in the health of secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State, investigate the problems associated with heath problem among secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State, and ascertain the factors that affects the health status of secondary school students.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent aresecondary school students in Ebonyi State Nigeria.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Nutrition play a significant role in boosting the health of secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State.
  2. The problems associated with heath problem among secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State includes: poor eating and hygienic condition, depression, poor quality of life, low life satisfaction and poor academic performance.
  3. The factors that affect the health status of secondary school students in Quarry Areas Of Ebonyi State includes: lack of proper knowledge on health and balanced diet practices, academic stress, financial constraint, improper perception of body image and poor environmental heigyne.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. There is need for mass education on healthy lifestyle with a focus on proper nutrition by the school authorities and health stakeholders. This will involve the development of healthy eating habits by emitting a consistent health message to ensure that healthy food choices are made. Also, the administrators need to provide opportunities for staffs to receive education on good nutrition and health in the school environment as they stand to influence the students to some extent.
  2. Also, there is need for students to receive health education that will teach them the skills to make healthy choices not only at school but at home as well. Families should also receive nutrition bulletins throughout the school year to help them reinforce what is being learned at school.
  3. Further study could determine the obstacles that don’t allow certain groups like low-income families and ethnic groups to follow healthy eating plans. Ways to educate and motivate these groups could be designed to help them achieve a better life physically and cognitively.
  4. Further research could look at the correlation between health patterns and students’ general well-being beyond academic performance.

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