Health Implications Of Cigarette Use Among Imo State University Students
This study was carried out to examine the health implications of cigarette use among Imo State university students. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking among Imo State university students; ascertain factors which influences cigarette smoking among Imo State university students; and assess Imo State university students knowledge about the health problems associated with cigarette consumption. The population size comprise of business administration students in Imo State university. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 261 respondents and 259 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a high prevalence of cigarette smoking among Imo State university students. The study also revealed that the health problems associated with cigarette consumption among student includes; Cough, Asthma, Problem in Gumm, Lung Cancer, Mouth Cancer, and Teeth problem. Therefore, it is recommended that school-based education and intervention programs should focus on the vulnerable person to prevent tobacco use. Policy for the prohibition of smoking in public places, a ban on advertisements related to tobacco products, and smoke-free environments are highly recommended. It is also very necessary to provide knowledge among school students about the hazards of tobacco. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Cigarette smoking continues to be a global scourge having been implicated in many chronic diseases, which affect vital organs of the human body like the heart, brain and lungs as well as the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, immune and metabolic systems(Chaudary et al 2018). There are about 1.3 942 million men and 175 million women ages 15 or older who are currently smokers globally. The WHO estimates that tobacco causes 8.8% of deaths globally accounting for nearly eight million people dying of tobacco related diseases annually around the world(Eke et al 2002).
The WHO reports that more than 2/3rd of tobacco users and smokers live in low- and middle-income countries(Gabriel 2013). It is reported that one person dies from tobacco use every eight seconds. It is of great concern that of the nearly six million annual global deaths resulting from cigarette smoke, more than half a million are non-smokers who are exposed to second hand smoke. Young adults and adolescents aged between 18 to 29 years have been noted as the highest risk group for smoking(Gabriel 2013)
The presence of nicotine and tar, which are part of over 4,000 constituents of cigarette smoke, has been linked with a spectrum of non-communicable systemic diseases and conditions like heart diseases, cancer, pulmonary diseases, stroke and psychological problems (Saha et al., 2007). Cigarette smoking contributes to poor oral hygiene, taste alteration, oral malodour and adverse pregnancy outcomes (Pollack et, 2000). Furthermore, the harmful health effects of cigarette smoking are not limited to those who indulge in the habit (Pollack et al., 2000). Its effects can also be significant on those who share the ‘air’ with smokers through passive smoking (Saha et al.,2007). Cigarette smoking has been on spotlight of health issues globally. This is because it is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide (Akinpelu, 2015). Regrettably, over three-quarter of these reported deaths occur in developing countries (Abdullah & Husten, 2004).
Nigeria, a developing country, has a national prevalence of 5.6% compared to the global prevalence of approximately 20% (Saha et al., 2007; Federal Ministry of Health, 2012; Akinpelu, 2015). However, the Nigerian prevalence may be apparent rather than real as smoking habit is under-reported because of the stigma attached to the habit in this part of the world (Akinpelu, 2015). Acknowledgement of this situation by Nigeria provided the impetus for the passing into law the ‘National Tobacco Control Act’ in 2015 (Oladepo et al., 2018). The Act seeks to control tobacco usage through awareness, fines and restriction in supply of tobacco (Oladepo et al., 2018).About one third of smokers globally are young adults who are in their late teens to early forties (Perry et al., 1994). This proportion may be higher in Nigeria as the country has a more youthful population compared to the global population (Omoju & Abraham, 2014). In addition, smoking as a habit is very often picked up at a young age (Perry et al., 1994). Hence, preventive programs directed at young people are one of the core approaches in the control of cigarette smoking (Abdullah & Husten, 2004; Perry et al., 1994). One of such preventive programmes involves access to knowledge on smoking and its harmful effects (Tahlil et al., 2013). Although, knowledge on smoking should precipitate desired behaviour of not smoking in theory, evidence is weak that knowledge of smoking is protective against smoking with regards to young adults in practice(Park, 2006). Some of the attributable factors for this observation include peer pressure and identity One of the desired goals of university education and training is to mould students into role models who are worthy in character (Alves & Raposo, 2010).
Taking up and indulging in smoking leaves a dent on this aforementioned goal in Nigeria. This is because smoking as a habit is viewed in bad light in the Nigerian society as it is often associated with other undesirable vices (Oluwole et al., 2018). Majority of university undergraduate students are young adults (Awopeju et al., 2013). Hence, they are susceptible to taking up and indulging in smoking (Perry et al., 1994). But there is scanty information on health implications of smoking, amongst Nigerian undergraduate university students (Amorha et al., 2017; Awopeju et al., 2013). Thus, such information would assist in understanding the smoking characteristics of this group as well as planning for health promotional activities should the need exist.This study therefore aims to elicit information on the health implications of cigarette use among Imo State university students.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Cigarette smoking among the youth is of public health concern because of the immediate and long-term impact associated with cigarette use such as asthma, chronic cough, chronic obstructive airways disease, cancers and cardiovascular diseases (American Cancer Society, 2005). Cigarette use among students has also been traced to other risky health-related behaviours, mental health problems, suicide, motor vehicle accidents, violent crime and even dental problems (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2004).
In the past ignorance of the risk factors associated with cigarette use has been reported (Amorha et al., 2017;). A study conducted among Malaysian university students shows that the mean of total knowledge score towards harmful effects of smoking among university students were lower among smokers compared to non smokers (Park 2014). Similarly, a study on Smoking Initiation and Susceptibility to Future Smoking among students in Lagos State, Nigeria reported that Students who had initiated smoking had significantly lower cigarette related health risk knowledge scores than their counterpart who had not initiated smoking (Odebunmi, 1994). This shows that cigarette smokers, especially students might be unaware of the dangers posed by cigarette smoking to their health.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general aim of this study is to assess the health implications of cigarette use among Imo State university students. To achieve this, the study will specifically:
- Determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking among Imo State university students.
- Ascertain factors which influences cigarette smoking among Imo State university students.
- Assess Imo State university students knowledge about the health problems associated with cigarette consumption.
1.4 Research Question
The study will be guided by the following questions:
- What is the prevalence of cigarette smoking among Imo State university students?
- What are the factors which influences cigarette smoking among Imo State university students?
- What are the health problems associated with cigarette consumption?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- Ho: There are no significant health implications associated with cigarette smoking by Imo State university students.
- Ha: There are significant health implications associated with cigarette smoking by Imo State university students.
1.6 Significance of the study
According to the Centre for Disease Control (2012), the vast majority of smokers began using tobacco products well before the age of 18 years. This is a major public health concern particularly among university students because of the immediate and long term health consequence associated with tobacco use. Furthermore, with the mean lifetime smoking prevalence of 26.4% (Falco, 1998), reported among students, it is therefore of importance to explore the characteristics, pattern and factors associated with tobacco smoking and its perceived effects among undergraduate students. In addition, findings generated from the study will guide in spawning evidence based intervention towards curbing tobacco smoking among university students in Nigeria.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study generally focuses on the health implications of cigarette use among Imo State university students. Hence the study will be delimited to Imo State university.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.
More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other local governments, states, and other countries in the world.
1.9 Definition of Term
A substance smoked in cigarettes, pipes, etc. that is prepared from the dried leaves of a particular plant.
The action or habit of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of tobacco by sucking on the end of a lit cigarette, cigar, pipe, etc.
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the health implications of cigarette use among Imo State university students. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine the health implications of cigarette use among Imo State university students. The study is was specifically carried out to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking among Imo State university students; ascertain factors which influences cigarette smoking among Imo State university students; and assess Imo State university students knowledge about the health problems associated with cigarette consumption.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 259 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were business administration students in Imo State university.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- There is a high prevalence of cigarette smoking among Imo State university students.
- The factors which influences cigarette smoking among students includes: Peer-Pressure, Family-members, Experimentation, Advertisements, and Stress.
- The health problems associated with cigarette consumption among student includes; Cough, Asthma, Problem in Gumm, Lung Cancer, Mouth Cancer, and Teeth problem.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- School-based education and intervention programs should focus on the vulnerable person to prevent tobacco use. Policy for the prohibition of smoking in public places, a ban on advertisements related to tobacco products, and smoke-free environments are highly recommended. It is also very necessary to provide knowledge among school students about the hazards of tobacco.
- Preventive programmes involving stakeholders must be instituted in order to reduce the number of student smokers and realize the vision of better health for Nigerian youths who are leaders of tomorrow.
- Parents should make it as a matter of priority to explore the family background, private activities and friendship selection of their children. This will help to guide their children on the right friends to make as well as detect risky behaviour.
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