Needs For Guidance And Counselling Services In Primary Schools As Perceived By Primary School Teachers In Ilorin Metropolis

Project and Seminar Material for Guidance and Counselling

Needs For Guidance And Counselling Services In Primary Schools As Perceived By Primary School Teachers In Ilorin Metropolis


Abstract


The purpose of this study was to conduct research into ā€œthe needs for guidance and counseling services in primary schools as perceived by primary school teacher in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State.

Data were collected through the use of questionnaire four types of questionnaire were designed. Type one is there any difference in the need for guidance and counseling service in primary school as perceived by primary school teachers based on respondents gender?

Is there any difference in the need for guidance and counseling service in primary schools as perceived by primary school teacher based on respondentsā€™ educational qualification? Is there any difference in the need for guidance and counseling service in primary schools as perceived by primary school teacher based on respondentsā€™ religion? Is there any difference in the need for guidance and counseling service in primary schools as perceived by primary school teacher based on respondentsā€™ teaching experience? It was therefore, recommended that government should try to employ the qualified counsellors for primary school for effective changes in pupils and teachers.

It was also recommended that adequate teaching and learning materials should be provided for the teaching. The provision could be made entirely by the government or through counterpart finding with the parents.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • Background to the Study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Research Questions
  • Research Hypotheses
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Significance of the Study
  • Operational Definition of Terms
  • Scope of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • Introduction
  • Concept of Guidance and Counselling
  • Historical Perspective of Guidance and Counselling
  • Aims and Objectives of Guidance and Counselling
  • Developmental Problems Typical of Primary School Ages Pupils
  • The Need for Guidance and Counselling in Primary School
  • Roles and Functions of the Counselling in Elementary Schools
  • Summary of the Review of Related Literature

Chapter Three:

Methodology

  • Introduction
  • Research Design
  • Sample and Sampling Procedure
  • Instrumentation
  • Validity of the Instrument
  • Reliability of the Instrument
  • Procedure for Collecting Data
  • Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four:

Results

  • Introduction
  • Descriptive Analysis
  • Hypotheses Testing
  • Summary of the Findings

Chapter Five:

Discussions, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Introduction
  • Discussions
  • Conclusions
  • Recommendations
  • Suggestions for Further Research
  • References
  • Appendix

List of Tables


  • Table 1: Distribution of the respondents based on Gender
  • Table 2: Distribution of the respondent based on religion
  • Table 3: Distribution of respondents based on educational qualification
  • Table 4: Distribution of respondents based on teaching experience
  • Table 5: Means, standard deviation and t-values on respondentsā€™ perception of the need for guidance and counselling in primary school based on gender
  • Table 6: Mean, standard deviation and t-value test on respondents. Perception of the need for guidance and counselling services in primary school based on their educational qualification
  • Table 7: One-way analysis of variance on the perception of respondents on the needs for guidance and counselling services in primary school on the religion
  • Table 8: One-way analysis of variance of respondentsā€™ expression of the need for guidance and counselling services in primary school on the teaching experience

Chapter One


Introduction

Background to the Study

Guidance and Counselling is based on the assumption that every individual in any society had, is having and will have a problem that he/she alone could not solve (Makinde, 1983). Okon (1984) suggested that African communities had always been carried out by traditional helperā€™s who assisted people when they had personal concerns and problems that could not be solved all by themselves. These traditional helpers have been identified in the various African cultures as ā€˜Uzenakpo among the Ibiobios, Dibia, Bokaye Uganda, Ngangu in Tanzania, Sikidy in Malaysia, Babalawo among Yoruba and Oboz among the Igala-tivs (Makinde 1983). This list is sufficiently convincing to indicate that traditional guidance have always been part of the role of the African extended family system in the traditional Nigeria society too. People sought solution to their problem in various ways, including going to fortune fellers, seeking advice from the elders, relation or friend.

To explain the term guidance, Durojaiye (1992), viewed guidance within the content of the total educational process. He describe guidance as a complex process with encompasses the total needs of the individual, students to be directed or guided. This guide is available to the individual educational, social, emotional, health, vocational and leisure-time needs and for the individual preparation for a suitable occupation. This assistance h stressed, may take many forms. It may be educational, vocational, social, recreational, emotional and/or moral. Okon (1984) also defined guidance as a total programme of highly specialized activities implemented by all staff members to help individual make wise intelligent choices and decisions. As a service, guidance is the activities required for helping an individual for the enhancement of the individuals functioning. Guidance consist of the process of thinking an doing, it is the process of thinking and providing service aimed at helping individual to understand how to help themselves realistically.

Shertzer and Stone (1994) define guidance as the process of helping individuals to understand themselves and their world. It should be clearly pointed out here that guidance has several definitions but they all point towards helping, aiding, directing or assisting an individual towards better understanding of him/herself and his/her world which leads to adjustment of the individual. It is a dynamic process, which undergoes continuous changes over time, as it is not a single event but a series of events, steps or actions, which are geared to general development of the individual.

There are various guidance services which Okon (1984) called the basic element of guidance programme. The following activities are the essential services taken to paddle and cushion individuals off some of the problem that he or she may be faced with. These services include, Counselling information. Counselling services is a procedure by which a counselor assists a client or a group of clients achieve self-understanding and self-actualization.

Information services involve the creation of awareness and provision of necessary guidance to assist students in decision making. Appraisal services encompass gathering, organizing and interpreting data or information about students for the purpose of assisting them to understand themselves.

Orientation service involves the introduction of new students or staff to schools and members of a community. Placement services refer to the organization or any experience helpful to them according to their needs and capacities. Referral services it is a procedure by which a student or client who needs special attention or assistance is directed to relevant institutions and agencies in the community. Follow-up services involves monitoring of client or students by obtaining relevant and up-to-date information on their progress in school, working place, etc.
Local research is related to the study of happenings in the school and the community in which a school is located. The main objectives of local research is to accelerate the growth and development of the students and the community.

Counselling is a part of guidance; it is the care of the school guidance programme. It is a interaction which takes place between a counselor and a counsellee or a group of counsellees (Idowu 1996). Thompson and Poppen (1986) defined counselling as a person to person relationship in which one person assist another to resolve an area of conflict that has not been hither to resolved. The purpose of Counselling is to assists students to explore and understand themselves so that they can become self-directing individuals.

Burks and Steffire (1991) described Counselling as a professional relationship between a trained counselor and a client. The relationship is usually person-to-person (individual) Counselling although it may sometimes involve more than two people (group Counselling). It is designed to help clients understand and clarify their view of life space and to learn to reach their self-determined goals through the resolution of problems of an emotional or inter-personal nature.

Makinde (1983) described Counselling as an enlightened process whereby people help people by facilitating growth, development and positive change through an exercise of self-understanding. The further explained that Counselling is designed to provide an interacting relationship where the counsellee to better understand himself in relating to his present and future decision or problems.

The counselor provides information about the counsellee and his environment, he reacts in certain ways that stimulate the counsellee to develop behaviours which enable him deal more effectively with himself and his psychological and social environment. Therefore, Counselling provides insight for the future and make personal gains in the self-actualization process. Makinde (1983).

Guidance and Counselling are similar in that they have as their basis a helping relationship that seeks to assist individual in attaining self direction. However, practitioners know that the two terms are not synonymous. Guidance is abroad term, usually applied to a total-school programme of activities and services aimed at assisting students to make an adequate plan and to achieve satisfactory adjustment in life. Idowu (2004). Counselling is usually viewed as a part or subset of guidance services.

Therefore, it is essential to realize that guidance and Counselling process were initiated to assist societal aspiration of raising good citizens in all ramification as determines by the philosophy of the society. Awokoye (1980), felt that without academic and career guidance and Counselling in the schools the whole purpose of education cannot be achieved. The students must be counseled about the combination of subject which will lead to the career in which he/she has interest and motivation. He argued that no matter how good and well structured the new educational policy may be as it relates to any level of education, if guidance and Counselling services are not given priority and made an integral part of the system, it cannot succeed.

The National Policy on Education (2004) identified guidance and Counselling as one of the major means of achieving educational goals. This is a service that enables each learner in our institutions of learning to deprive optional educational benefit. This came to the limelight during the nations 1975 ā€“ 1980 development plan. The plan was made to introduce guidance in the national educational training programme. As a follow-up to this plan, the government aptly stated in the national policy on education of 1977 (Revised in 1981 and 1989) that in view of the apparent ignorance of many young people about career prospects and in view of personality maladjustment among school children, career officers and counsellors will be appointed in post primary institutions. The school guidance programme is founded upon two primary beliefs.

Firstly, it recognizes that each student is a worthy individual possessing unique qualities abilities and needs. Thus, the school guidance and Counselling programme focuses on the identification of, and the provision of individualā€™s needs of the student.

Secondly, while acknowledging individual difference, it is also recognizes that there are needs and concerns which are common to everyone. These common needs can best be met through carefully planned sequenced programme which are provided, witnessed a remarkable growth in secondary school Counselling since the 1980s. In response to the increased recognition of the Nigerian adolescent development needs, problems and concerns perhaps in given guidance and Counselling at this points in time some recognition, the Federal Government probably believed that the objective of National Policy on Education (1998) can be brought about more easily through the services of guidance and Counselling.

Some of important objectives of the policy are:

  • Respect for the worth and dignity of the individual.
  • Faith in means ability to make national decision.
  • Moral and spiritual valueā€™s inter-and intrapersonal human relations.
  • Shared responsibility for the common good of society.
  • Promotion of the emotional, physical and psychologically of all children.

Therefore, a look at the Nigeria educational sector today reveals that the needs of elementary of primary school pupils for the kind of developmental assistance that school counsellors will provide have not yet been recognized. The National Policy on Education (1998), refers to the primary school as the institution for children aged normally between 6 to 11 or 12 years. It also recognizes the fact that since the rest of the educational system is built upon the primary school, it is the key to the success or failure of the whole system. However at the moment, attention seems to be focused on providing guidance service for post-primary school students why elementary school Counselling is on the other hand relegated to the background.


Statement of the Problem

The primary school children face many developmental problems which hinder their intellectual physical, social, emotional, moral and vocational development. Guidance and counselling in the elementary school is an emerging field in the world, report according to Hoose et al (1983) revealed that the United State of America witness a remarkable growth elementary school counselling in the decade of 1960 to 1970. A few surveys conducted by Hoose, Pietrofesa and Carlson (1983) and Hoose and Carlson (1981 ā€“ 1982) revealed a phenomenal increase in the primary school counsellor size. According to the study, the number was 6041 for 1968 ā€“ 1969 period and 7982 for 1981 ā€“ 81 periods. This substantial growth suggests the recognition in United States of America of elementary school guidance and Counselling as a permanent part of elementary school education.

The study may be the same in other parts of Europe. In contrast, the picture of elementary school counselling in Nigeria is dismal. This is not surprising since secondary school counselling itself it not yet properly rooted in the Nigeria education system barely taking off. This not withstanding primary school counselling in Nigeria has to be given the recognition it deserve, this is because most future unhappiness of adults are rooted in their needs were created for and their concerns solved in their early educational period. (Odomelan 1991). Since maladaptive behaviours and problems originate in the primary schools, primary school guidance and counselling needs to be explored, developed, applied and implemented in Nigeria primary school.

Consequently, counsellors can also be able to work in the primary schools by virtue of their provisional training. This study is to investigate the perception of primary schools teachers in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State on needs for guidance and counselling services.


Research Questions

  1. What are the needs for guidance and counselling services in primary schools as perceived by primary school teacher?
  2. Is there any difference in the need for guidance and counselling services in primary school as perceived by primary school teachers based on respondentsā€™ gender?
  3. Is there any difference in the need for guidance and counselling services in primary school as perceived by primary school teachers based on respondentsā€™ educational qualification?
  4. Is there any difference in the need for guidance and counselling services in primary school as perceived by primary school teachers based on respondentsā€™ religion?
  5. Is there any difference in the need for guidance and counselling services in primary school as perceived by primary school teachers based on respondentsā€™ teaching experience?

Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses are generated for testing based on the research questions.

  1. There is no significant difference between the perception of male and female primary school teachers on the needs for guidance and counselling services in primary school.
  2. There is no significant difference among primary school teachers in their perception of the needs for guidance and counselling service in primary schools based on their educational qualification.
  3. There is no significant difference between the perception of Muslim and Christian primary school teacher on the needs for guidance and counselling services in primary school.
  4. There is no significant difference among the primary school teachers in their perceptions of the need for guidance and counselling services in primary schools based on their years of teaching experience.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of primary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State as regards the needs for guidance and counselling services in primary schools. The study will also investigate the influence of gender, educational qualification, religion and teaching experience in respondentsā€™ perception of the needs for guidance and counselling in primary schools.


Significance of the Study

The successful completion of this study will be of greater importance to different people in the society as well as to the nation as a whole. This study is therefore very important as it will enable teachers of primary schools to understand better and acquire more information about guidance and counselling services available for primary schools.

Also, it will help the pupils and parents to realize that all hopes are not lost on the inability of their children and the society at large will also realty benefit from this study. The society will also be educated about the usefulness of guidance and counselling service and thereby encourage them to join hands together with the teachers, helping the pupils achieve better ends in their life.

The findings of this study will enables learners as well as curriculum developers to see the need area in various primary school especially the provision of more guidance service. Also, the study will encourage the government to put more efforts in ensuring the successful implementation of the 9 ā€“ 3 ā€“ 4 system of education from the grass root.


Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms have been operationally defined for the study:

Counselling:

Counselling is a helping relationship between a professionally trained and competent counselor and an individual seeking help with personal concern(s).

Guidance:

This is a process development in nature by which an individual is assisted to understand him or herself and his or her world.

Guidance and Counselling Services:

These are professional aids given to individuals and small groups on dealing with common personal educational and vocational needs and problems.

Need:

A need is a condition on within an individual that energies and disposes the individuals towards certain kinds of behaviour.

Primary School:

This refers to the educational institution for children aged normally between 6 to 11 or 12 years.


Scope of the Study

In order to attain the objective of this study on extensive work is expected to be done to cover the whole of Nigeria but due to the limitations posing against the researcher, such as extensive work cannot be done. Therefore, this study covered Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State and a total of 200 respondents will be involved in the study. The variables to be covered are gender, educational qualification, religion and year of teaching experience.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

This study investigated the need for guidance and Counselling services in primary schools as perceived by primary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State. The researcher identified five categories of the needs for guidance and Counselling services in primary schools. These categories of need were stated in the instrument which was a questionnaire used for the study, after the administration and collection of the question, the data obtained were analyzed using the t-test and analysis of variances (ANOVA) statistical methods.


Discussion

Table 5 to 8 revealed the testing of hypothesis, hypothesis one stated that ā€œthere is no significant difference between the perception of male and female primary school teacher on the need for guidance and Counselling services in primary school.ā€ The result obtained indicated that there was no significant difference between the perception of male and female respondents because the calculated t-value is less than the critical t-value. It can therefore be conceded that both male and female respondents agreed with the above mentioned needs for guidance and Counselling services in primary schools. But from the descriptive analysis, more male teachers responded than female teachers. This could be due to the fact that male teachers are usually more active in school work especially in the maintenance of good school tone than female teachers who mostly maintain non challant attitudes except when compelled.

Hypothesis two stated that ā€œthere is no significant difference among the primary school teacher in their perception of the need for guidance and Counselling services in primary schools based on their educational qualification.
The hypothesis was tested using t-test statistical method. The result revealed no significant difference among the expressed perception of the respondents. This could be as a result of the growth in the level of awareness of guidance and Counselling by the Nigeria government within the past decade and which has led to the offering of courses, at both undergraduate and post-graduate levels of our tertiary institutions in guidance and Counselling. And since most of the primary many school teachers had attained either of NCE, bachelor degree or masters degree, they may have been equally aware of the need for guidance and Counselling services in our educational institutions.
Hypothesis three stated that there is no significant difference between the perception of Christian and Muslim primary school teachers on the needs for guidance and Counselling services in primary schools the hypothesis accepted. The hypothesis was tested using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings as revealed on table 7 indicates that there was no significant different between the perception of Christian and Muslim respondents, because the calculated F-value was less than critical F-value. It can thus be concluded that both Christian and Muslim teachers agreed with the needs remunerated for guidance and Counselling services in primary schools. However, the analysis indicated for guidance and Counselling services of Christian teacher have a higher mean score. The reason for this could be that most of the Christian teachers view the guidance services to be complementary to research work while the Muslim teachers feel they can combine guidance with teaching work and so view the counselors (who may be employed) as unnecessary rivals.

Hypothesis four stated that ā€œthere is no significant difference among the primary schools based on their year teaching experiencesā€. This hypothesis was tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) method of statistics, the result revealed that there was no significant difference among the expressed perception of the respondents with varying teaching experiences is accepted. This mean that all the teachers regardless of their length of service agreed with the stated needs for guidance and Counselling in primary schools. This could be the to the realization that trained counselors had since the distant past been posted to secondary schools while the primary schools have been neglected to date. The need to provide primary school children with specialized assistance in terms of guidance has been neglected despite the fact that it is these young ones that will grow to be the future leaders. There is a strong feeling in all the primary school teachers that whatever is good for the goose is also good for the gender.


Conclusion

Based on the findings for this study that presented in the previous chapter and the discussion in this chapter the following conclusions could be drawn from the study:

Guidance and Counselling services are needed most at the primary school level to perform effectively in schools.
Genders of the primary teachers do not affair their perception on the need for guidance and Counselling services in primary schools.

Educational qualifications obtained by the primary school teachers do not affect their perception on the needs for guidance and Counselling services in primary schools.

Religious affiliation of the primary school teachers do not affects their perception on the needs for guidance and Counselling services in primary schools.

Years of teaching experience of the primary school teachers do not affect their perception on the needs for guidance and Counselling services in primary schools.


Recommendations

Based on the finding of this study, the following recommendations were made:

The objectives of the federal, State and Local Government are to provide education that will develop a child physically, mentally, socially, economically and spiritually to achieve quality education. The government should back this up to providing found for the implementation of guidance and Counselling services in primary schools. The government should further boost the efforts in the training of more guidance counselor in our tertiary institutions and ensure their employment in our primary schools.

Prof. Akin Oyebode, a former vice counselor of the university of Ad0-Ekiti stated in the punch newspaper of Tuesday, July 23, 2002 page 7 that progress of any country depends on it educational development he said further that education is the key to socio-political and economic development of any nation, and advised that Nigeria should do all he could to roll back the frontiers of ignorance.

To provide quality education, the federal ministries of education as well as the states universal basic education board (SUBEB), Local Government primary education authority should ensure that each primary school in the state is provided with at least of qualified guidance counselor will well equipped office and attractive remuneration.
It is therefore recommended that each SPEB should embark on guidance and Counselling awareness campaign in their schools to initiate all of the teachers, parents and pupils of primary school of the importance of guidance and Counselling services.


Suggestion for Further Studies

Based on the finding of this study, the researcher suggests the following areas for future research studies.

Further studies could be conducted in other metropolis Kwara State.

Further studies could be conducted in other state of Nigeria.

The perception of teacher were sought for on the need for guidance and Counselling services in primary schools, the perception of parents could also be sought for on this same problem.


Needs For Guidance And Counselling Services In Primary Schools As Perceived By Primary School Teachers In Ilorin Metropolis


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Needs For Guidance And Counselling Services In Primary Schools As Perceived By Primary School Teachers In Ilorin Metropolis


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