The Need For Guidance And Counseling Services To Secondary School Students In Buruku Local Government Area Of Benue State, Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Guidance and Counselling

The Need For Guidance And Counseling Services To Secondary School Students In Buruku Local Government Area Of Benue State, Nigeria


Abstract


The study examined The Need For Guidance And Counseling Services To Secondary School Students In Buruku Local Government Area Of Benue State, Nigeria. More specifically, the study examined the impact of guidance and counseling on students. The study adopted the survey research design and the purposive sampling technique to select selected public secondary school within Buruku local government area of Benue State to give a sample size of 120 students. A well-developed, validated and reliable questionnaire was administered to the respondents to investigate their opinions on how guidance and counseling services and programs affects their academic performance. The data generated from the survey was subjected to descriptive statistics and the squared technique was employed to test the three hypotheses that were formulated. The results showed that guidance and counseling services are significantly available on the public secondary schools students’ academic performance in Buruku local government area. Furthermore, the results unveiled that guidance and counseling programs has significantly impacted the public secondary schools students’ academic performance. Also, the results revealed that guidance and counseling programs has significantly impacted the public secondary schools students’ academic performance based on the participants’ age and gender. The study concludes that guidance and counseling services has significant effect on secondary school students’ academic performance in Buruku local government area. The study suggested that; Appointing full time counselors in each school should address control assaults and teething problems of students; Guidance programmes should be seriously embedded in the curriculum of secondary schools to enable student understand the length assaults can go on there fellow students; Regional or a nationwide study should be undertaken to give a much broader view of the subject understudy.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Education is regarded as the bedrock of any national development and the issue of technological application in teaching and learning is considered a priority for other resource areas to tap into. According to Adeyemi and Adu (2010), it is widely accepted that education is one of the leading instruments for promoting economic development as it encompasses some processes individuals go through to help them develop and utilize their potentials. Further, Okeke (2014) points out that, through education, individuals acquire knowledge, skills and attitude that are necessary for effective living. This is the reason why in all modern nations, investment in education of the youth is considered most vital.

Guidance plays a vital role in removing the educational, personal, social, mental, emotional and other similar problems of the students. Guidance as a term refers to a broad area of educational activities and services aimed at assisting individuals in making and carrying out adequate plans leading to achievement of desired life, Gibson, 2008. It is meant to equip the individual (student) with knowledge and techniques that will enable him or her to identify and find ways of anticipating and solving problems. Guidance also helps to facilitate development of effective study habits, motivation, identifying learning or subject related problems, helping students to see the relevance of school years in life and for future, developing skills, right attitude and interests to help making a choice in career. Guidance and counseling, thus, promotes holistic development of every student. This shows the need for every teacher to become a ‘guidance minded’ teacher in the course of carrying out his/her duties with aim of making impacts in the students’ lives. Counselling is the skilled and principled use of relationships that self-knowledge, emotional acceptance lead to personal growth. It is more concerned with addressing and resolving specific problems such as making decisions, coping with crises, working through feelings and inner conflicts or improving relationships with others. It is a process in which the helper expresses care and concern towards the person with a problem so as to facilitate that person’s personal growth and positive change through self-understanding.

Guidance and counselling is concerned with individuals’ behavioral processes. However, the two terms can be looked at differently. Many authors have defined counselling differently though they all agreed on some basic facts. Kiriswa (1988), renowned counsellor defines counselling as an enabling process designed to help an individual come to terms with his or her life as it is, and ultimately reach a greater maturity through learning to take responsibility and to make informed decisions for sell. Guidance and Counseling is a professional field which has a broad range of activities and services aimed at assisting individuals to understand themselves, others, school environment and attain abilities to adjust accordingly. As individuals develop through stages of life and educational attainment, they encounter problems, challenges and conflict situations. These individuals also need to develop value systems, make decisions, set goals and work towards them. All these cannot be achieved without self-understanding and decision-making skills, which are not innate, but need to be developed. The need to address these challenges and to promote educational success and healthy life therefore, call for exposure to guidance and counselling programs by individuals/students.

Guidance and counselling is therefore designed to help individuals/students in their different problems and concerns, so that they grow up well-adjusted individuals capable not only of living productive lives, but are also prepared to contribute their quota to the development of their society. Gibson, 2008 states that Guidance and counselling services prepare students to assume increasing responsibility for their decisions and grow in their ability to understand and accept the results of their choices. There are different aspects of guidance and counselling such as family guidance and counselling, marriage guidance and counselling and pastoral guidance and counselling among others. The researcher’s concern however, is on school guidance and counselling.

The primary mission of a school’s guidance and counselling program is to provide a broad spectrum of personnel services to the students. Denga (2011), referred to these services as “cluster of formalised educational services designed by the school to assist students to achieve self-knowledge or self- understanding which is necessary for them to attain the fullest self-development and self-realization of their potential”. These services include: student appraisal service, information service, counselling service, placement service, orientation service, referral service, follow-up, evaluation service, and research service. Appraisal service involves the use of tests and non-test instruments to collect, analyze and interpret data on students to understand themselves better. It also affords counsellors and significant others, the opportunity of having insight into the strengths and weaknesses of students. Information service is tailored towards equipping students with the necessary information in the areas of educational, vocational and personal social. These information are very important because they assist students to make wise decisions about life. Counselling service is a face to face interaction between the counsellor and the students, through which students are assisted towards overcoming obstacles to their academic, vocational, personal-social progress and other life needs. Placement service is concerned with assisting students to adjust to the next stage of development whether in school or on the job.

Orientation service is designed to familiarize fresh students with their environment. It is a process of initiating an individual to a work or learning situation and of instructing him about rules, regulations and responsibilities, as an introduction to a new situation. Referral service affords the school counsellor an opportunity to refer the cases which he cannot handle to specialists like clinical psychologist, medical practitioner and others. Follow-up, evaluation service are designed to ascertain the extent to which the guidance programme previously carried out by the school is meeting the objectives for which it was established and also to monitor the progress of students in their work places. Research service helps the school counsellor to discover relevant information that can improve students’ learning and understanding. The services should be an on-going process which professional counsellors should embrace and encourage. These services constitute the core of any guidance program and should be organised to facilitate the growth and development of all students from kindergarten through post high school experiences (Erford, 2010; Erford, 2011; Neukrug, 2011).

Recently, Guidance and Counseling has actually recorded ample achievements such as, helping in the academic growth & development, vocational & professional maturity, Facilitating individuals in the right education & profession, offering help to handle educational & professional situations, helping in the proper utilization of human resources and in adapting to the changing concept of education. Also, in preparing to adapt in changing professional situations & emerging challenges and in making proper career choice with minimize indiscipline. As suggested by the researcher findings, high-quality counseling services can have long-term effects on a child’s well-being with academic performance inclusive, and can prevent a student from turning to violence and drug or alcohol abuse behaviors. High-quality school counseling services can as well improve a student’s academic achievement. Existing Studies on the effects of school counseling have shown positive effects on student’s grades, reducing classroom disruptions, and enhancing teachers’ abilities to manage classroom behavior effectively. Similarly, High-quality school counseling services can help to address students’ mental health needs.” (U.S. Department of Education, 2002) Hence, School guidance programs are not just essential but crucial needs to be made available so as to assist students overcome numerous challenges they experience at home and at school. This would subsequently enable them to yield positive result in their academic achievement or performances. Guidance is a rudimentary ingredient that plays a crucial role in school system and insists on upholding the social and moral values of students, suppress, control and redirect behavior. Therefore, this study is to assess the need for guidance and counseling services to secondary school students in Buruku local government area of Benue state, Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Guidance and Counselling as a concept has existed since the beginning of human society. Guidance and counselling programmes in educational institutions are designed to provide professional relationships between counsellors and students and intended to guide, direct and assist students to solve their problems as well as develop their potentialities. Poor academic performances among secondary school students, gives concern, this has a negative influence on the various programmes. It is a great concern for stakeholders to see students still performing poorly in their academics despite the numerous ways in which they are guided either by their teachers or parents which seems to be caused by inability of the students to follow the laid down rules and regulations. Despite the fact that, guidance and counseling programs services are made available in schools, there is still great height of poor academic performance among students.

The challenge of education today is to offer school experiences that provide students with opportunities to develop the understandings, skills, and attitudes necessary to become lifelong learners, capable of identifying and solving problems and dealing with change. Students need to be able to communicate clearly, competently, and confidently from a broad knowledge base in order to make thoughtful and responsible decisions. Achieving these educational goals will provide students with the means to make connections between what they learn and how they live (Public School Programs 2000– 2001). In response to these challenges, how can the government shift guidance and counselling from a position-focused model that delivers services to specific populations to a comprehensive model that delivers services to all students in the school? Academic performance of public secondary school is declining overtime, especially in our contemporary where it seems as if that the government do not care about the performance of the students in public secondary schools.

However, most of time professional counselor tends not to be made available in public secondary school, in order to promote the academic performance of the students. This situation often has a negative reflection on students; character, social personal and moral values in public secondary school. Based on the nature of guidance and counseling services, it is visible that academic performance which of great important to national development could be greatly enhance; hence this study is out. Hence, there is need for one to examine the need for guidance and counseling services to secondary school students in Buruku local government area of Benue state, Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of this study are to assess the the need for guidance and counseling services to secondary school students in Buruku local government area of Benue state, Nigeria, while the specific objectives are to:

  1. Describe the available guidance and counseling services and the public secondary schools students’ academic performance in Buruku local government area.
  2. Examine how guidance and counseling programs is impacting the public secondary schools students’ behavioural development
  3. Determine how guidance and counseling programs is impacting the public secondary schools students’ academic performance based on the participants’ age and gender.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What are the available guidance and counseling services and the public secondary schools students’ academic performance in Buruku local government area?
  2. How can guidance and counseling programs impact the public secondary schools students’ behavioral development?
  3. How can guidance and counseling programs impact the public secondary schools students’ academic performance based on the participants’ age and gender.

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  1. H01: There is no significant relationship between studentss’ academic performance and guidance and counseling services in the public secondary schools in Buruku local government area.
  2. H02: There is no significant relationship between the guidance and counseling programs and the students’ behavioral development in the public secondary schools in Buruku local government area.
  3. H03: There is no significant relationship between the guidance and counseling service and the students’ academic performance in the public secondary schools in Buruku local government area based on age and gender.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will be of great important as it relates to young people in public secondary schools in Buruku local government area. Without doubt this is the expected future leader of great Nation (Nigeria) and any nation that fails to plan or have concern for the academic performance of the youth, has planned to failed; with a great fall. The study will further be of great benefit to many such as researcher and other academic stock holder; it will add new knowledge to existing academic knowledge in research field similarly academic stock hold such as administration and parent will get to know the essence of guidance and counseling as relate to academic performance of students. Finally, current public secondary will get to realize the important of academic performance in present future.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is limited to the public secondary school students in Buruku local government area, Benue State, Nigeria. Designed to assess the need for guidance and counseling on academic performance of public secondary schools in Buruku local government area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

A research of this nature requires adequate time to ensure thorough work, but the time allowed for this study was limited. Some respondents may not have provided accurate and sincere answers that represent the true situation required for some of the questions in the questionnaire. The researcher experienced a lot of problems during the process of this study which are as follows:

  1. Delay in administration of questionnaire due to public holidays.
  2. Typing and administration of extra copies of questionnaire because some respondents did not return their copies appealing to the principals of some of the schools used for the study due to interruption of lectures.

1.9 Operation Definition of Terms

Guidance:

Guidance refer to rudimentary ingredient that plays a crucial role in school system and insists on upholding the social and moral values of students. It is intended to suppress, control and redirect behavior.

Counseling:

Counseling refer to the service offered to the individual who is undergoing a problem and needs professional help to overcome it.

Academic Performance:

Academic performance can be referring to the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Cumulative GPA and completion of educational degrees such as High School and Bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.

Impact:

Refers to measure of tangible effect and intangible effect of thing influence upon.

Service:

Refers to act of help or assistance offer to an individual.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to examine The Need For Guidance And Counseling Services To Secondary School Students In Buruku Local Government Area Of Benue State, Nigeria, using selected secondary schools in Buruku as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting the available guidance and counseling services and the public secondary schools students’ academic performance in Buruku local government area, how guidance and counseling programs is impacting the public secondary schools students’ behavioral development, Determine how guidance and counseling programs is impacting the public secondary schools students’ academic performance based on the participants’ age and gender.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 120 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from teachers and student of the selected secondary school.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. There is a significant relationship between students’ academic performance and guidance and counseling services in the public secondary schools in Buruku local government area.
  2. There is a significant relationship between the guidance and counseling programs and the students’ behavioral development in the public secondary schools in Buruku local government area.
  3. There is a significant relationship between the guidance and counseling service and the students’ academic performance in the public secondary schools in Buruku local government area based on age and gender.
  4. By Assist student to harmonize their abilities.
  5. By helping student develop their full potential.
  6. By improving the personality of student.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. More guidance and counselling center should be set-up with more professional counsellors employed in the schools.
  2. Students should be motivated to share and discuss the choice of career with their
    counsellors and understand the relationship of subjects to a particular career.
  3. The guidance counsellor should be made to attend his/her professional conferences to learn new ideas of therapies with clients.
  4. Ministry of Education should enforce the establishment of counselling centers in both public and private secondary schools and implementation of counselling programmes.
  5. Government should support guidance and counselling practically by providing and making funds available for all the services in guidance and counselling.

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