The Growth Performance Of Broilers Fed On Hot Water Treated Sorghum Certification
A study was conducted to determine the growth performance of broilers fed on hot water treated sorghum. 50 days old broilers chicks were randomly assigned to five treatment in a completely randomized design. Each group was further sub divided in to two replicates of 5 bird per replicate, five experimental diet were formulated such that diet I(c) which was screed to the control which contain 100% maize, diet II (W1) which contain 25% of sorghum, diet III (W2) which contain 50% of sorghum, Diet IV (W3) which contain 75% for sorghum and diet V (W4) which contain 100% of sorghum. Respectively the response parameter evaluated for is the growth performance of broilers fed various treatment diets. The experiment which was lasted for 3 weeks shows result that bird fed 50% hot water treated white sorghum diet had significantly (P<0.05) high growth performance than birds fed the control diet. However, the result of this study suggest that inclusion of 100% hot water treated white sorghum in broilers starter diets is without adversely affecting the growth performance of broilers fed on hot water treated white sorghum.
All types of poultry birds require their diet to contain a large percentage of cereal grains to provide energy and protein in their ration
The primary cereals used in poultry production worldwide include maize, wheat, sorghum and rice. Sorghum grains is produced is small quantities compare to maize production in most part of the world and is used in lesser quantities as an animal feeds (Parthesarathy, 2005).
However, sorghum is still the second most used cereal grain for commercial growers of broilers, turkey and egg layers in region where both are grown in the united state.
Also the energy portion of poultry diet represent the largest single dietary ingredient maize which used to be the major source of energy in poultry deities now very expensive due to low production in the dry areas of the world and the intense competition between man and livestock (Parthesarathy, 2005 and Issa et al., 2007).
One important measure that can be taken to alleviate this situation is the use of alternative energy sources like sorghum and millet which are produced extensively in the semi-arid regions of the world (Issa et al., 2007). He reported that sorghum grain can play an important role in poultry feeds in most countries where it is available. (Traves et al., 2006)
Although sorghum is said to be of two types base in the color of the coat, sorghum as many species and varieties and this varieties according to (Ring et al., 1985) differ greatly in seed colour, ranging from white to dark brown depending on the presence of phenol compounds.
The term phenolic compound relates to family substance something referred to as tanning found mainly in the pericarp of sorghum grain, actually the phenolic family consist of many aromatic organic compound including antocynedins and flavones, these compound contributes to flavor and color of sorghum grains and it may cause bitterness, unpalatability and decrease of feeds value (Ring et al.,1985)
Tannins are soluble phenolic compound that have the ability to bind or precipitate protein from aqueous solution. They bind to the protein rich storage of sorghum and inhibit their digestibility (butter, 1989).
The anti-nutritional effects of tannins including reduce in feed intake, growth rate and protein utilization and also damage mucosal lining of the digestive tracts increasing protein or amino-acid in them may alleviate the deleterious effect of tannins (Mole et al., 1990).
Tannin may be removed or eliminated completely and several approaches for removal of tannin in sorghum have been proposed (Dido et al., 2002) the most common and practical ways are by decorticating and soaking for some hours and the socked grains will later be dried at 600c and grind to obtain the feeds without changing the nutritional value (Serna-saldiver et al.,1994)
- To determine the effect of hot water processing (soaking) on nutritional composition of white sorghum.
- To determine the effect of hot water treated sorghum on broiler feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio.
- To ascertain the inclusion level of hot water treated white sorghum on the performance of broiler chicks.
Maize which forms the major energy source for poultry in Nigeria is however becoming expensive as a result of the decline in its production due to changing climate as well as its food and industrial uses. This calls for research into alternative energy sources which are readily available and have little industrial uses. Sorghum grains could be very good feed stuff for broiled chickens if effort can be made to reduced or eliminate its anti-nutritional factor other wise know as tannin, this is supported by (Danicle et al., 2004) who stated that all the dietary maize portion of broiler diets can be replaced with sorghum with little or no tannin.
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
The result of this study indicates that low tannin sorghum or hot water treated sorghum can be fed successfully to broiler chicks without any adverse effect on their performance, growth rate, feed intake and body weight gain. It can also be concluded from this experiment that maize is not superior to hot water treated sorghum.
It is therefore recommended that hot water treated sorghum can be used to feed poultry birds (broilers) up to 100% inclusion level, as this will reduce the cost of production and to also reduce the completion rate on demand for maize
I will also like to recommend that farmers should subject sorghum grain to hot water treatment before feeding it to poultry birds.
Since sorghum can thrive better than all other crops during harsh weather condition and all other environmental condition
that does not favor the growth of other crops, I will like to recommend that farmers should cultivated large varieties of sorghum to as to reduce their cost of production and increase their income.
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