Growth And Development Of Mushin Local Government Area Of Lagos State (1976-2013)

Project and Seminar Material for History

Growth And Development Of Mushin Local Government Area Of Lagos State (1976-2013)


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract.
  • List of tables
  • Table of content

Chapter One:

Growth and Development of Mushin Local Government Administration

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Aims and Objectives of the Study
  • 1.3 Scope of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Methodology and Problems
  • 1.5 Literature Review
  • 1.6 Chapterization
  • Notes and References

Chapter Two:

Historical Background of Local Government Administration in Nigeria

  • 2.1 Pre-colonial Political Institution in Nigeria
  • 2.2 Historical Origin of Mushin Local Government
  • 2.3 Organizational Structure of Mushin Local Government
  • 2.4 Local Government and Traditional Institution in Mushin
  • Notes and References

Chapter Three:

Obligations and Duties of Local Government Council

  • 3.1 Socio-political Obligations
  • 3.2 Economic Obligations
  • 3.3 Educational Obligations
  • Notes and References

Chapter Four:

Problems and Prospect of Mushin Local Government Administration

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Prospects
  • 4.3 Conclusion
  • Notes and References
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Growth and Development of Mushin Local Government Administration

1.1 Introduction

The need to critically examine the Local Government Administration in Nigeria with specific reference to Mushin cannot be over-emphasized. In the first place, scholars have focused attention on general discussion of the structure of Local Government Administration without looking at the evolution of individual Local Government Administration. This examination would be discussed in phases: pre-colonial, colonial and post colonial phases.

Indeed, Local Government Administration in Nigeria has pre-colonial trait. In the first place, the traditional institution was in charge in various Emirates, kingdoms and states. The Emirs, Obas and Obi’s had retinue of chiefs with portfolios in the running of their Local Government Administration. The most striking responsibility of the pre-colonial rulers was the maintenance of law and order within their locality.1

The amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorates of Nigeria into one administration in 1914 by Lord Frederick Lugard perfected the system of Indirect Rule in Nigeria as it was in India. In other words, indirect rule was a form of local administration2 and the only unique thing about it was that it governed indirectly by making use of the existing traditional structure.

The military intervention during which we have many reforms and including the 1976 Local Government reforms. The 1984/1985 reform, the 1988 civil service reforms, as well as the 1989-1991 reform have far-reaching effects on the Local Government which will be discussed in subsequent chapters.

Under the 1989-1991 reform, the Federal Government brought the local government into special focus by introducing the presidential system to the Local Government. In 1991, the president in his Budget speech to the Nation granted both financial and administrative autonomy to the local government, and the doctrine of separation of powers came into play.3 This gave rise to:

  1. The office of the chairman and vice-chairman
  2. Secretary to the local government
  3. The executive and
  4. The legislative council was constituted by the legislative council comprised the chairman, vice-chairman and supervisors.

At the third tier level of government local government level which is the focus of this research, members of a council ward elected a councilor to represent them in the local government council. All elected councilors within a local government authority meet and take decisions on behalf of all the people who live in that area.

The political head of the local government is called chairman who is elected by the members of the local government. The chairman is the head of the executive arm which comprises himself. Vice-chairman and four supervisory councilors. The legislature on the other hand comprises of councilors and headed by the clerk of the house.4

There is no way we can talk about local government without knowing the real definition of the term and we must note that there is no consensus among scholars as to the exact meaning of local government. This has led to different definitions of the concept by different scholars, authors of the concept by different scholars, authors and intellectuals. Infact, several studies, researches, projects etc have been undertaken by scholars in various aspects of local government ranging from its finance, problems and prospects, structure, staffing, administration. Development and training, and to the study of the concept of local government itself with the view of giving if the appropriate meaning it deserve. Hence there is no universally acceptable definition of local government, but attempt would be made to harmonise various definitions by different authors and scholars alike.

According to Barber, local government means authority to determine and execute matters within a restricted areas inside and smaller than the whole state. The variant, local self government is important that it emphasizes the freedom of the local unit. To a greater or lesser, extent to decide and act on its own initiative and responsibility.5

This implies that local government involves the administering of services on a local level by local bodies and in attempting to construct an adequate definitions certain basic distinction must be drawn.

Hickey asserted that what local self government means is as follows:

The management of services and regulatory functions by locally elected councils and officials responsible to them under statutory and executive with enough financial and other independence to admit of a fair degree of local initiative.

From this above definition, it can be deduced that local government is established by law, composed a generality of the people, and subject to the control of National government.6

Adebayo conceptualizes local government “As government at local level exercised through representative council established by law to exercise specific functions within a defined area”. He explain that it is this functions that gives the council reasonable control over local affairs as well as staff and financial power.7 From the various definitions of local government, one can say local government means the third-tier of government established by law to carry out specific functions.

Hence, the 1976 local government reforms marked the beginning of the development of modern local government system in Nigeria. Local government can be regarded as the connecting rod between the people at the grassroot and central government.

Local government is built on the premise of administrative efficiency and political education at the grassroot level. As a result of the importance of local government, it is better placed than other levels of governments to accelerate the pace of socio-economic and political development of Nigerians. It was believed that local government was able to carry out these responsibilities more effectively than both the state and central or federal governments due to its closeness to the people and it ability to easily articulate their needs and demands so that appropriate solutions can be sought. Therefore, local government is in a better position to provide services which require intimate local knowledge and sensitivity.


1.2 Aims and Objectives of the Study

The objective of the research, it to examine the growth and development of Mushin Local Government administration. Indeed, many works have been written on local government, but none has specifically been concentrated on Mushin Local Government. This work will therefore be focusing on a neglected area. The case study will highlight the growth and development of Mushin Local Government administration.


1.3 Scope of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study an examination of cogent reasons for dividing Lagos into various local government areas would be done. These councils are Badagry, Epe, Ikeja, Ikorodu, Lagos, Agege, Ayerom-Ifelodun, Alimosho, Amuwo-Odofin, Apapa, Eti-Osa, Ibeju-Lekki, Ifako-Ijaiye, Kosofe, Lagos Island, Lagos Mamland, Mushin, Ojo, Oshodi-Isolo, Somolu, and Surulere local government councils. The year 1976 marked the evolution of Mushin Local Government and the year 2003 was the first tenue of democratic spirit.


1.4 Research Methodology and Problems

This research work shall draw heavily from secondary sources such as textbooks, journals, periodicals, articles and newspapers, magazines and from the primary sources such as personal interview to be carried out in the Local Government.


1.5 Literature Review

In writing this essay, materials were consulted in the libraries, like University of Ilorin Library, Kwara State Library. Materials were also consulted in Lagos state library and visits were also paid to the office of Mushin Local Government headquarters. Besides, interviews I were conducted with some officers of the local government. Among the valuable books consulted include MAMSER – Report of the Political Bureau.

MAMSER-ABUJA-1987. The book is of immense importance to this work especially the development local government. The book, among others, illuminates the local government performance. Some agree that effectiveness in the performance of local government derives primarily from excessive government control and interference unnecessarily in the councils affairs.

The book also points out the structure of local government, functions of local the government and the definition of local government.

Another book consulted is Olusegun Obasanjo and Akin Mabogunje’s Element of Democracy – ALF publication 1992. This book made mention of how the western people were being ruled by the ‘Obas’ before the military intervention of January, 1966.

And under the 1963 constitution the Federal Republic of Nigeria made provision for each region, a House of Chiefs as a second chamber of the upper House to the House of Assembly, which had the legislative power of the state, but the intervention of the military in 1976 marked the beginning of a new dimension of change with regard to traditional rulership in local government administration.

Also of immense value to this project is a hand book on Mushin Community titled “Mushin, centre of commerce”. The book talled about Mushin in general.

Another useful book consulted is Local Government in Nigeria: the changing scene by G.O. Orewa and J.B. Adewuni, the book deals with the rise of modern local government areas in 1950’s and the decline of these local governments in the 1960’s and 1970’s and the reform introduced on a national scale in 1976.

Another book consulted is “Who is Who in Mushin”. This book is a comprehensive detail of the notable traditional rulers. Companies and individuals in Mushin Local Government Area. The contribution of Alex Gboyega in his book titled Political values and local government in Nigeria. The book provided necessary information to the background of this work.


1.6 Chapterization

Chapter two of this essay discuss the historical background of local government administration in Nigeria. In this chapter also the pre-colonial political institution in Nigeria, historical origin of Muslim Local Government and Local Government and traditional institution in Mushin will be discuss.

Chapter three of this research work discuss the obligations and duties of local government council.

Chapter four of this research work discuss the problems and prospect of Mushin Local Government Administration and the conclusion of this research work.


Chapter Four


Problems and Prospects of Mushin Local Government Administration

4.1 Introduction

Despite the fact hat Local Governments are tools of development at the grassroot, yet they are facing certain problems ranging from the bad state of their roads, to inadequate funding. However many of these bad roads, for instance; Agege motor road, belongs to the Federal Government while Mushin-Itire road with a long stretch to Babalola, junction belongs to the stage government.1

Their main problem here is flooding, and the reasons for this is indiscriminate dumping of refuse which at the end of it get the drains blocked. Also being an industrial area, the water that flows from the factories into the drains are often acidic. This acidic water gets washed on to the roads and chemicals attacks the asphalt leaving behind pot holes. Although a lot of money has been pumped into road maintenance but the flood water makes mess of all the efforts.2

Apart from this, Mushin Local Government has problem with contractors who do shaddy jobs for the Local Government. It seems that anytime contracts are awarded, they try to bribe them with a portion of the money they should have used in doing a good job. The bribery appears to a common feature of contract award in order to facilitate payments.3

Taking care of refuse is another big problem of Mushin local government because most of the vehicles that are in use are not in good condition and acquiring new vehicles under the present economic circumstance is quite difficult so they keep on repairing and maintaining the old ones which consume substantial among of money because of their old age.4

Also, it is important to mention the fact that there are many hooligans called “Area boys” in Mushin community and many efforts have been made by the local government and the police in the area to put this to an end but all efforts have not yielded the desired result. The so-called area boys are almost everywhere in Mushin begging for money and doing all sort of criminal things including snatching of gold chain and wrist watches from people. Although there is security in Mushin but the law enforcement agents have not been able to deal effectively with them.5
It must be emphasized that during elections the Local Government enjoys special attention of security outfit. This is because of the activities of the area boys who have taken thugery, stealing, vandalisation etc as their profession. They often use election to cause more trouble and damage with far reaching negative consequences on the economy of the country (damage to life and properties).

Problems
  • Constitutional problems – residual and exclusive power.
  • Lack of fund
  • Fraud
  • Military factors
  • Poor performance
  • Political intrigues
  • Inadequate security outfit
  • Corruption etc are major problems facing local government administration in Nigeria.

4.2 Prospects

Notwithstanding, the problems highlighted above, the Local Government system as grassroot government has bright future in Nigeria.For instance each Local Government makes budget with emphasis on priority. This is why Mushin local government has been able to achieve some development particularly in the area of social and economic programme. With better funding the system has the potential to transform the rural areas to urban or semi-urban centres.

Besides, there is the urgent need for greater devolution to the Local Government as the third tier of government. This will make it to enjoy enhanced functions and autonomy. Indeed, the Local Government should be made independent of the state, because at times the state may oppress theLocal Government whenever malice is arising from party differences or sectional interest.

Again Local Governments should be given more power because they act as agent of socio-economic and political development of the grassroot. This emphasis becomes necessary in view of the fact that they serve as a training ground for local community “ware house”. Besides local government is the “connecting rod” between the people at grassroot and central government. That is to say local government serves as two-way channel of communication between the local community on one hand and the government (state and federal) on the other hand.

Therefore, its role as agent of socialization, cultural awareness, political training and economic transformation can not be over emphasized. Right from the creation of the local government all facets of life are developed with the provision of certain infrastructural facilities to meet the needs of the communities under the local government such infrastructural facilities include, health facilities, electricity, pipe bone waters, educational facilities building road networks and commercial undertaking.

Road:

The Mushin local government area is located in the heart beat of Lagos which made it possible for the traders to pass through the local government, particularity the traders who would easily travel to far places. Furthermore local routes are also rehabilitate and tarred to facilitate easy transportations. Also drainage systems were built to solve the problem of erosion.

Health:

In line with Federal Government directives Mushin local government engaged in health programme such as running of clinics and health centres which are actually base. This has helped to reduce mortality rate. The World Health Organization, through its agencies has also provided both financial and material resources for the local government.

Education:

Education is the best heritage that a government on behalf of the state and federal government is charged with primary schools, that the local government are paying the salaries of the teachers and equipping the schools. Also, the local government has a special school which takes care of the education of disable community libraries were equipped and provided with textbooks.

Electricity and Water Supply:

The electrification process started with the creation of the local government and now every nooks and crannies has got electricity. Modern street lights were built to serve security purpose. The building of electricity attracts the establishment of industries in the local government area such as saw mill industries and construction companies.
Also water project started with the creation of local government the local government main water pipeline was joined with the Daleko water supply. Public tap were built to serve the people. Also where the tap water could not reach, local government dug bore holes for those communities. Local government also helped in the yearly purification of water by adding chlorine solution to the local wells. This has prevented the out-break of water transmitting diseases.

Agriculture:

In the agricultural sector, the local government helps the farmer in procuring fertilizer chemicals and drugs, tractors are borrowed out to the farmers and viable seedlings are sold to farmers at cheaper price. Also local government has helped in standardization of cash crops. This has helped the increase of agricultural activities of the communities.

All these various development have helped to uplift the standard of living and aspiration of the people in the local government.


4.3 Conclusion

The study has examined in great detail the growth and development of Local GovernmentAdministration, its functions and mode of operation. The work found that notwithstanding the inadequate funding corruption, the long military rule with its attendant bastardisation of the economy the local government system is people oriented. It is the third tier of government and it has the prospect of actually transforming the rural areas.All hands must be an deck for the substance of the system in Nigerian.


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