Growth And Characterization Of Ternary Chalcogenide Thin Films For Efficient Solar Cells And Possible Industrial Applications

Project and Seminar Material for Physics

Project and Seminar Material for Physics


Abstract


Ternary thin films of Iron Copper Sulphide (FeCuS), Iron Zinc Sulphide (FeZnS), Lead Silver Sulphide (PbAgS), Copper Silver Sulphide (CuAgS) and Copper Zinc Sulphide (CuZnS) were grown using cheap and simple solution growth technique with EDTA, TEA and NH3 as complexing agents. The deposited films were characterized using PYE-UNICO-UV-2102 PC spectrophotometer, and optical microscopy. The results suggest that some of the films have crystal structures. From the spectral analysis of absorbance/transmittance, the optical and solid state properties were deduced. The other optical properties so obtained include the reflectance, absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient, optical conductivity and thickness, while the solid state properties are dielectric constant and band gap energy.

For all the five categories of thin films grown (i.e. FeCuS, FeZnS, PbAgS, CuAgS and CuZnS), absorbance was high in UV and low in VIS-NIR-regions, while the transmittance were low in UV-region and high in VIS-NIR-regions. The reflectances were high in UV-region and low in the VIS-NIR-regions. For FeCuS, FeZnS, PbAgS, CuAgS and CuZnS, the absorption coefficient ranged from 0.1×106 m-1 to 1.65×106 m-1, 0.2×106 m-1 to 2.3×106 m-1, 0.5×106 m-1 to 0.9×106 m-1, 0.5×106 m-1 to 1.28×106 m-1 and 0.24×106 m-1 to 1.6×106 m-1, respectively. The real part of the refractive index ranged from 1.2 to 2.3, 0.72 to 2.3, 0.1 to 2.3, 1.94 to 2.28 and 1.6 to 2.3, respectively.

The corresponding values of optical conductivity ranged from 0.03×1014 s-1 to 0.6×1014 s-1, 0.07×1014 s-1, 0.06×1014 s-1 to 0.6×1014 s-1, 0.24×1014 s-1 to 0.6×1014 s-1 and 0.12×1014 s-1 to 0.6×1014 s-1, respectively. The extinction coefficient, ranged from 0.005 to 0.038, 0.004 to 0.056, 0.010 to 0.140, 0.025 to 0.064 and 0.008 to 0.082, respectively. The direct band gap ranged from 2.4eV to2.8eV for FeCuS, 2.9eV for FeZnS, 1.5eV to 2.1eV for PbAgS, 2.3eV for CuAgS and 2.2eV to 2.4eV for CuZnS. The values of the indirect band gap were in the range 0.6eV to 1.0eV for FeCuS, 1.9eV for FeZnS, 0.3eV to 0.8eV for PbAgS, 1.1eV for CuAgS and 0.4eV to 0.9eV for CuZnS.

The real part of the dielectric constant ranged from 1.4 to 5.2, 0.7 to 5.2, 0.4 to 5.2, 3.8 to 5.2 and 2.2 to 5.2, respectively, while the corresponding imaginary part of the dielectric constant ranged from 0.008 to 0.136, 0.008 to 0.164, 0.010 to 0.390, 0.100 to 0.290 and 0.030 to 0.360, respectively. The range of band gaps, 1.5eV to 2.9eV makes the films suitable for solar cells fabrication; this is in agreement with the finding for the film FeCdS.


Table Of Contents


  • Title ii
  • Certification iii
  • Dedication iv
  • Acknowledgement .v
  • Table of Contents vi-xiii
  • List of Figures  xiv-xvi
  • List of Plates xvii
  • List of Slides xviii
  • List of Set Ups xvii
  • Abstract xviii-xix

Chapter One

  • 1.1.0 Introduction 1
  • 1.2.0 Benefits of Thin Films 2
  • 1.3.0 Aim and Objectives of the Study 3-4

Chapter Two

  • 2.1.0 Optical and Solid State Properties of Thin Film -5
  • 2.1.1 Transmittance 5-6
  • 2.1.2 Absorbance 6
  • 2.1.3 Reflectance 7
  • 2.1.4 Absorption Coefficient 7-8
  • 2.1.5 Optical Density 8-9
  • 2.2.0 Band gap and Absorption Edge 9-12
  • 2.2.1 Absorption Edge 12-13
  • 2.2.2 Optical Constants 13-14
  • 2.2.3 Dielectric Constant 14-15
  • 2.2.4 Optical Conductivity 15
  • 2.2.5 Extinction Coefficient Factor 15
  • 2.3.0 Dispersion 15-16
  • 2.4.0 Photoconductivity 16-17
  • 2.5.0 Luminescence 17-18
  • 2.6.0 Electrical Conductivity 18
  • 2.7.0 Thermal Conductivity 18-19
  • 2.8.0 Spectral Selective Surfaces Aspect of Solar Energy Application 19
  • 2.8.1 Spectral Selectivity 19-20
  • 2.8.2 Solar Spectral Selective Absorber Surfaces 20-21
  • 2.8.3 Semiconductor-Metal tandems 21
  • 2.8.4 Heat Mirrors 21-22
  • 2.8.5 Dark Mirrors 22
  • 2.8.6 Antireflection Coatings 22-23
  • 2.8.7 Spectral Splitting and Cold Mirror Coatings 23
  • 2.8.8 Radiative Cooling Materials 23
  • 2.8.9 Window Coatings 23-24
  • 2.9.0 Solar Control Coatings 24
  • 2.9.1 Low Thermal Transmittance 24
  • 2.9.2 Materials for Solar Control and Low Thermal Transmittance 24-25
  • 2.9.3 Window Coatings with Dynamic Properties 25-26

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Methods for Thin Film Growth 27
  • 3.1.1 Thermal Evaporation 27-29
  • 3.1.2 Epitaxial Growth 29-30
  • 3.1.2.1 Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) 30-32
  • 3.1.2.2 Liquid Phase Epitaxy  32
  • 3.1.3 Sputtering 32-34
  • 3.1.4 Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) 34-36
  • 3.1.5 Spray Pyrolysis  37
  • 3.1.6 Plasma Technique 37-38
  • 3.1.7 Sol-gel Thin Film Formation 38
  • 3.1.8 Precursor Sol 38-39
  • 3.1.8.1 Sol-gel Dip Coating 39
  • 3.1.8.2 Spin Coating 39-40
  • 3.1.8.3 Spin Deposition of Halide and Chalcogenide Films 40-41
  • 3.1.9 The Solution Growth Technique 41-44
  • 3.1.9.1 Thin Film Condensation Formation Mechanism 44-45
  • 3.1.9.2 Doping by Chemical Bath Deposition 45

Chapter Four

  • The Measurement Techniques of Thin Film Characteristics and Materials 46
  • 4.1.0 Measurement Techniques of Thin Film Characteristics 46
  • 4.1.1 Film Thickness 46
  • 4.1.1.1 Micro balance (gravimetric ) Technique 47
  • 4.1.1.2 Optical Technique 47-48
  • 4.1.2 Absorbance/Transmittance Measurement 48
  • 4.1.3 Method of Determining the Composition of Thin Films 48-49
  • 4.1.3.1 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic (AAS) Method 49
  • 4.1.3.2 X-ray Fluorescence 49-50
  • 4.1.3.3 Infrared Spectroscopy 50-51
  • 4.1.3.4 Qualitative and Quantitative Chemical Analysis (QCA) 52
  • 4.2.0 Structural Characterization 52-53
  • 4.2.1 Crystallographic Structure and Topography 53-54
  • 4.2.1 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) 53-54
  • 4.2.2 Surface Structure 54
  • 4.2.2.1 LEED Technique 54
  • 4.2.2.2 RHEED Technique 54-55
  • 4.2.2.3 Photo Electron Spectroscopy (PES) 55
  • 4.2.2.4 Optical Microscopy 55-56
  • 4.3.0 Methodology 57-58
  • 4.3.1 Iron Copper Sulphide 58-60
  • 4.3.2 Optical and Solid State Characterization 60
  • 4.3.3 Film Thickness Measurement 60-61
  • 4.4. Morphological Analysis 61

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Results and Observations 62
  • 5.1 Optical Properties of Iron Copper Sulphide (FeCuS) 62
  • 5.1.1 Absorbance (A)  62
  • 5.1.2 Transmittance (T) 62
  • 5.1.3 Reflectance (R )  62-63
  • 5.1.4 Absorption Coefficient ( α )  63
  • 5.1.5 Refractive Index (n)  63
  • 5.1.6 Optical Conductivity (σo )  64
  • 5.1.7 Extinction Coefficient ( k)  64
  • 5.2 Solid State Properties 64
  • 5.2.1 Band gap Energy (Eg)  64-65
  • 5.2.2 Dielectric Constant (real part) (ε r ) 65
  • 5.2.3 Dielectric Constant ( imaginary part ) (ε i ) 65
  • 5.3 Optical Properties of Iron Zinc Sulphide (FeZnS) 65
  • 5.3.1 Absorbance (A) 65
  • 5.3.2 Transmittance (T)  66
  • 5.3.3 Reflectance (R) .66
  • 5.3.4 Absorption Coefficient (α ) 66
  • 5.3.5 Refractive Index (n) 66-67
  • 5.3.6 Optical Conductivity (σo) 67
  • 5.3.7 Extinction Coefficient ( k) 67
  • 5.4 Solid State Properties 67
  • 5.4.1 Band gap Energy (Eg) 67
  • 5.4.2 Dielectric Constant (real ) (ε r) 68
  • 5.4.3 Dielectric Constant (imaginary part ) (ε i ) 68
  • 5.5 Optical Properties of Lead Silver Sulphide ( PbAgS) 68
  • 5.5.1 Absorbance (A) 68
  • 5.5.2 Transmittance ( T ) 69
  • 5.5.3 Reflectance ( R ) 69
  • 5.5.4 Absorption Coefficient (α ) 69
  • 5.5.5 Refractive Index ( n)  69-70
  • 5.5.6 Optical Conductivity (σo ) 70
  • 5.5.7 Extinction Coefficient ( k )  70
  • 5.6 Solid State Properties 71
  • 5.6.1 Band gap Energy ( Eg ) 71
  • 5.6.2 Dielectric Constant (real part ) (ε r )  71
  • 5.6.3 Dielectric Constant ( imaginary part ) (ε i ) 71-72
  • 5.7 Optical Properties of Copper Silver Sulphide (CuAgS) 72
  • 5.7.1 Absorbance (A)  72
  • 5.7.2 Transmittance ( T )  72
  • 5.7.3 Reflectance ( R )  72
  • 5.7.4 Absorption Coefficient (α )  73
  • 5.7.5 Refractive Index (n ) 73
  • 5.7.6 Optical Conductivity (σo )  73
  • 5.7.7 Extinction Coefficient ( k)  73
  • 5.8 Solid State Properties  73
  • 5.8.1 Band gap Enegry ( Eg ) 73-74
  • 5.8.2 Dielectric Constant (real part ) (ε r) 74
  • 5.8.3 Dielectric Constant (imaginary part ) (ε i ) 74
  • 5.9 Optical Properties of Copper Zinc Sulphide (CuZnS) 74
  • 5.9.1 Absorbance ( A )  74
  • 5.9.2 Transmittance ( T ) 75
  • 5.9.3 Reflectance ( R ) 75
  • 5.9.4 Absorption Coefficient (α )  75-76
  • 5.9.5 Refractive Index ( n)  76
  • 5.9.6 Optical Conductivity (σo) 76
  • 5.9.7 Extinction Coefficient ( k )  77
  • 5.10 Solid State Properties 77
  • 5.10.1 Band gap Energy (Eg) 77-78
  • 5.10.2 Dielectric Constant (real part ) (ε r )  78
  • 5.10.3 Dielectric Constant ( imaginary part ) (ε i ) 78

Chapter Six

  • 6.0 Analysis and Discussion 80
  • 6.1 The Spectral Analysis 80
  • 6.2 Other Optical Properties 80
  • 6.3 Solid State Properties 80-81

Chapter Seven

  • Conclusion and Recommendations  82
  • 7.0 Conclusion 82-84
  • 7.1 Recommendation 85
  • References 86-99
  • Appendix A. Figures 100-154
  • Appendix B Plates 155-157
  • Appendix C Slides 158-159
  • Appendix D Set Ups 160-161

List Of Figures


  • Figure 5.1 Graph of absorbance (A) versus wavelength for FeCuS thin film 100
  • Figure 5.2 Graph of transmittance (T) versus wavelength for FeCuS thin film 101
  • Figure 5.3 Graph of reflectance (R) versus wavelength for FeCuS thin film 102
  • Figure 5.4 Graph of absorption coefficient versus photon energy for FeCuS thin film 103
  • Figure 5.5 Graph of refractive index versus photon energy for FeCuS thin film 104
  • Figure 5.6 Graph of optical conductivity versus photon energy for FeCuS thin film 105
  • Figure 5.7 Graph of extinction coefficient versus photon energy for FeCuS thin film 106
  • Figure 5.8 Graph of α2 versus photon energy for FeCuS thin film 107
  • Figure 5.9 Graph of α1/2 versus photon energy for FeCuS thin film 108
  • Figure 5.10 Graph of dielectric constant (real part) versus photon energy for FeCuS thin film.109
  • Figure 5.11 Graph of dielectric constant (imaginary part) versus photon energy for FeCuS thin film 110
  • Figure 5.12 Graph of absorbance (A) versus wavelength for FeZnS thin film 111
  • Figure 5.13 Graph of transmittance (T) versus wavelength for FeZnS thin film 112
  • Figure 5.14 Graph of reflectance (R ) versus wavelength for FeZnS thin film 113
  • Figure 5.15 Graph of absorption coefficient versus photon energy for FeZnS thin film 114
  • Figure 5.16 Graph of refractive index versus photon energy for FeZnS thin film 115
  • Figure 5.17 Graph of optical conductivity versus photon energy for FeZnS thin film 116
  • Figure 5.18 Graph of extinction coefficient versus photon energy for FeZnS thin film 117
  • Figure 5.19 Graph of α2 versus photon energy for FeZnS thin film 118
  • Figure 5.20 Graph of α1/2 versus photon energy for FeZnS thin film 119
  • Figure 5.21 Graph of dielectric constant (real part) versus photon energy for FeZnS thin film.120
  • Figure 5.22 Graph of dielectric constant (imaginary part) versus photon energy for FeZnS thin film 121
  • Figure 5.23 Graph of absorbance (A) versus wavelength for PbAgS thin film 122
  • Figure 5.24 Graph of transmittance (T) versus wavelength for PbAgS thin film 123
  • Figure 5.25 Graph of reflectance (R ) versus wavelength for PbAgS thin film 124
  • Figure 5.26 Graph of absorption coefficient versus photon energy for PbAgS thin film 125
  • Figure 5.27 Graph of refractive index versus photon energy for PbAgS thin film 126
  • Figure 5.28 Graph of optical conductivity versus photon energy for PbAgS thin film 127
  • Figure 5.29 Graph of extinction coefficient versus photon energy for PbAgS thin film 128
  • Figure 5.30 Graph of α2 versus photon energy for PbAgS thin film 129
  • Figure 5.31 Graph of α1/2 versus photon energy for PbAgS thin film 130
  • Figure 5.32 Graph of dielectric constant (real part) versus photon energy for PbAgS thin film.131
  • Figure 5.33 Graph of dielectric constant (imaginary part) versus photon energy for PbAgS thin film 132
  • Figure 5.34 Graph of absorbance (A) versus wavelength for CuAgS thin film 133
  • Figure 5.35 Graph of transmittance (T) versus wavelength for CuAgS thin film 134
  • Figure 5.36 Graph of reflectance (R ) versus wavelength for CuAgS thin film 135
  • Figure 5.37 Graph of absorption coefficient versus photon energy for CuAgS thin film 136
  • Figure 5.38 Graph of refractive index versus photon energy for CuAgS thin film 137
  • Figure 5.39 Graph of optical conductivity versus photon energy for CuAgS thin film 138
  • Figure 5.40 Graph of extinction coefficient versus photon energy for CuAgS thin film 139
  • Figure 5.41 Graph of α2 versus photon energy for CuAgS thin film 140
  • Figure 5.42 Graph of α1/2 versus photon energy for CuAgS thin film 141
  • Figure 5.43 Graph of dielectric constant (real part) versus photon energy for CuAgS thin film 142
  • Figure 5.44 Graph of dielectric constant (imaginary part) versus photon energy for CuAgS thin film 143
  • Figure 5.45 Graph of absorbance (A) versus wavelength for CuZnS thin film 144
  • Figure 5.46 Graph of transmittance versus wavelength for CuZnS thin film 145
  • Figure 5.47 Graph of reflectance (R ) versus wavelength for CuZnS thin film 146
  • Figure 5.48 Graph of absorption coefficient versus photon energy for CuZnS thin film 147
  • Figure 5.49 Graph of refractive index versus photon energy for CuZnS thin film 148
  • Figure 5.50 Graph of optical conductivity versus photon energy for CuZnS thin film 149
  • Figure 5.51 Graph of extinction coefficient versus photon energy for CuZnS thin film 150
  • Figure 5.52 Graph of α2 versus photon energy for CuZnS thin film 151
  • Figure 5.53 Graph of α1/2 versus photon energy for CuZnS thin film 152
  • Figure 5.54 Graph of dielectric constant (real part) versus photon energy for CuZnS thin film.153
  • Figure 5.55 Graph of dielectric constant (imaginary part) versus photon energy for CuZnS thin film 154

List Of Plates


  • Plate 5.1 Photomicrograph of FeCuS 155
  • Plate 5.2 Photomicrograph of FeZnS 156
  • Plate 5.3 Photomicrograph of PbAgS 156
  • Plate 5.4 Photomicrograph of CuAgS 157
  • Plate 5.5 Photomicrograph of CuZnS 157

List Of Slides


  • Slide 5.1 Picture of FeCuS thin film 158
  • Slide 5.2 Picture of FeZnS thin film 158
  • Slide 5.3 Picture of PbAgS thin film 159
  • Slide 5.4 Picture of CuAgS thin film 159
  • Slide 5.5 Picture of CuZnS thin film 159

List Of Set Ups


  • Set Up 3.1 Experimental Set Up 160
  • Set up 4.1 Flow Chart for the Growth Process  161

Growth And Characterization Of Ternary Chalcogenide Thin Films For Efficient Solar Cells And Possible Industrial Applications


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